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-Tho Rifht Hod LORP BROUGHAM. P.R.S^ Memb«r of the National IntUtoto of Pi 
Fiordaimaii-The RiKht Hon. BARL SPENCER. 
rrvoivrCT—JOHN WOOD, Em|. 

WUItan Alt«a. Eiq.. P.R. tad R.A.8 

Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.8. 

George Birkbodi, 11. 0. 

George Ilurroin, M.D. 

Peter SUffbrd Carer, Esq., A.M. 

John CoooUy. M.D. 

William Coulaon, Beq. 

R. D. Craig, Esq. 

J. P. UaTlt, Raq., F.R.9. 

H. T. Deia B«che. B«q., F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. l«ord Deomao. 

Samuel Duck worth, Saq. 

The Right Rev. the Bishop of Dnrham, D.D. 

Sir Henry Rllli. Prin. Lib. Brit. lint. 

T. P. Rllle. K«q.. A.M.. P.R.A.S. 

John Rlllolton, M.D.. P.R.8. 

Oeoriee Erana. Esq.. M.P. 

Thomaa Falconer. Eaq. 

L L. Goidimld, Esq., F.R. and RJl.8. 

Francii Henry Goldamld, Esq 

B. OomDerts, Esq., F.R. and R.A.8. 

J. T. Qravet, E»q. A.M., F.R A 

O. B. Greenough. Rnq., F.R. and L.S. 

Sir Edmand Head. BurU A.M. 

M. D. Hill, Em.. Q.C. 

Rowland Hill, Rtq., P.R.A.S. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhoate, Bart., Ml 

Thoi. Hodgkin. M.D. 

UaTld Jardine, Esq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker, Esq. 

Thomas Hewett Key, Esq.. A.M. 

Sir Charles Lemon. Bart. M.P. 

Oeorre C. Leiri8« Esq., A.M. 

Thomas Henry LUt«r. Pau. 

James Loch, Esq . M.P^ F.O.S. 

George Long. Esq.. A.M. 

H. Maiden, Esq. A.M. 

A. T. MalUn» Esq.. A.M. 

Mr. Sergeant Manning. 

R. I. Mureklson« Esq.. F.R.&. F.O.S. 

Tlie Right Hon. Lord Nugent. 

W. S. OHrieu, Esq., M.P. 

The Right Hun. Sir Henry Parnell, III . M.P. 

Richard Qnain. Esq. 

P. M. Roget. M.D. Sec. R.S.. P.R.A.S. 

R. W. Rotkman, Esq.. A.M. 

Sir MarUn Arelier Sliee, r.R.A . 

Sir George T. SUunton, Bart., M.P. 

John Taylor, Esq. P.R.S. 

A. T. Thomson, M.D. K.L.S. 

Thomas Vardon, Esq. 

Jas. Walker. Esq., F.R.S., Pr. Inst., Civ. En(. 

H. Waymouth, E«q. 

Thos. Webster. Esq., A.M. 

Right Hon. Lord Wrotlesley, A.M., F.II.A.S. 

J. A. Yates, Esq., M.P. 

AUo%, S/q/oriiAir^-^RaT. J. P. Jonta, 
^a#/«seA--ller. K. Williams. 

Rer. W. Johnson. 

— Miller, KkO. 
Bmrmtrtple. Bencraft, Esq. 

William Gribble. Esq. 
0«(^u/— M. D. Drummond. Esq. 
BfrailM^/iiim— Paul Moon James, Esq., Tr«a- 

BHttport^Jumf Williams, Esq. 
Hrls/a/^J.N.Sanders. Esq.. P.O.S. CAoirmtffi. 

J. Reynolds. Esq., 7*rtAi«rer. 

J. B. Esilln, Es<j., F.L.S., ^•ertttirp, 
Culemiin'^mmt* Yonng, Esq. 

C. H. Cameron. Esq. 
C/autirrf^e— Ren Pn>(esear Henslow, M.A.* 
F.L.S. IkG.S. 

RsT. I<eoBard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.8. 

Rev. JoJin Lodge, M.A. 

Rer. Prof. Sedgwick. M.A., F.R.8. ft G.8. 
CaafcHhiry— John Brent, Esq., Alderman. 

William Masters. Esq. 
CSsaton— Wm. Jaritlne, Esq.. Prtndtnt, 

Robert I nails, Esq., Treatwrtr, 

Rev. C. Bndgman, ) 

Rer. C. Ootslair, >5ecr#farl«i. 

J. R. Morrison, Eaq^ ' 
CurUtU—Thomm^ Barnes, M.D., F.R,8.B. 
Carnarvon— R. A. Poole, Esq. 

William Roberts, Esq. 
CAesler— Henry Potu, EHq% 
ChiehnUr^C. C. Dendy. Ksq. 
CbcAersMKfA— Rer. J. Whiuldge. 
C'viyk — John Crawford, Esq. 

Plato Petrldes 
CoM«i/r|r— C. Bray, Esq. 
|)*iiAif A— Thomas Erans. Esq. 
/^erijr—Joseph Strutt. Esq. 

fidar ^ "- " 

dward Strutt, Etq^ M.P. 


Davofiporf and 5foaeAoiMe— ^obn Cole, Esq. 

John Norman, Ksq. 

Lt.Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.9. 
OarAaai— The Very Rer. the Dean. 
Bdiitimrgh'^^W C. Bell, F.R.S.L. and B. 

J.S. Traill, M.D. 
^/mrta— Josiah Wedgwood, Esq. 
Bseter^S. Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Milford, Esq. {Comotr.') 
Otmmorgamthire^ Dr. Malkin, Cowbrldfe. 

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwn. 
(ila»got0 — E. Flulay, Esq. 

Alexander McGrlgor, Esq 

James Coiiper, Esq. 

A. J. D. D'Orsey, Esq. 
/laenuey— P. C. Lukis, E%q. 
Ha//— •* Bowdeo, Ksq. 
Ltedi—J. Marshall, Esq. 
Ltwm—J. W. Wooltgar, Eaq. 

Henry Browne. Esq. 
Lhitrpoot l.oe, Ai, — J. Mnllenenx, Esq, 

Rer. Wm. Shepherd, L.L.D. 
Ma'^'eiiAea^— R. Goolden, Esq., F.L.S. 
Jtfoid^fone— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
MfimekeiUr /,oe. Ja,^G, W. Wood, Esq^ 
M.P.. C'A. 

Sir Benjamin Hey wood, Bt, Trratvrer. 

Sir Georgo Philips, Bart., M.P. 

T. N. Wiastaaley, Esq.. tfen. 8te. 
Iftrthvr Tydei^— Sir J. J. GuMt. Barln M.P. 
J/<fi<rAitnAa«ip^OA— John G. Rail, F.sq. 
IfMsioa/A— Matthew Moggridgc. Esq. 
Ar«a/A— John Rowland, Esq. 
A'eaiwrii//«— Rer. W. Tomer. 

T. Sopwlth. E^q., F.O.S. 
t/0mmorl, ttUof Wight^k\t, CUrke, Esq.' 

T. Cooke, Jun.. Esq. 

R. O. Kirkpatrick, Esq. 
Ntwwart P9§nta—i. Millar. Esq. 
Setctowiu Mvntguwt&ryihir^—y^ , Pugh, Beq. 

NomrfeA— Richard Bacon, Esq. 

Wm. Forater, Esq. 
Ortett, Ejttex— Corbelt, M.D. 
Ovarii— Cli.Daubeny.MD.P.R.S.Prof.Chem. 

Rer. Baden Po%veIl, Sar. Pof. 

Rer. John Jordan, H.A. 
Pes/A, i/aaoary— Count Ssechenyl. 
P/ymeuM— H. Woollcombe,Esq.. P.A.9.,C;A. 

Wm. Snow Harris. Esq.. F.R.S. 

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S.,6*eere<Kry. 

e. Wightwick, Ksq. 

Dr. Traill. 
PraKefOM— Rt. Hon. Sir H. Brydgas, Bart. 

A. W. Daris, M.U. 
JUinm— Rer. H.P. Hamllton,M.A.,F.R.:t .Q.S. 

Rer. P. Kwart. M.A. 
AvMia—Rer. the Warden of 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
Ryde, I. offrightSlr Rd. Simeon. Ol. 
&i/if6vry— Rer. J. Barfltt. 
8ht0k«ld^i. H. Abraham. Esq. 
Sheptom Mallel—Q, P. Burroughs, Esq. 
,SArewfA«ry-R. A.SIaney, Esq.. M.P. 
StmUk PeiAerf on— John Nicholetts, Ksq. 
Stockport — H. Marsland, Esq., Treasurtr. 

Henry Coppock, Esq., Stcrttnrp. 
Sydney, N*» S.f¥aleM-yf, M. Manning, E«]. 
TttMstoeA— Rer. W. Erans. 

John Rundle, Esq.. M.P. 
gV aru Henry Sewell Stokes, Esq. 
Ttmbridg* IPWit— Yeats, M.ll. 
{^f/OMter—Robert Blurton. Ksq. 
Vbrginiiu U. S^ProliBssor Tucker. 
IForceffer— Chas. HaaUngs, M.U. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
HVeaAam— Thomas Edgwoith, Esq. 

Major Sir William Lloyd. 
ranaoiaA— C. E. Rumbold. Esti. 

Dawson Turner. Esq 
YorA— Rer. J. KenHck, M.A. 

John rblllipi. Esq., F,R.a., F.a.& 

TH0MAS.C0ATB8, Em{.» 8$tntMry, No. 50, LtiMola*t Inn FMdi. 

LskdoD : Printed bf Wiuiam Ctown nnd Sows, 9tsinford StNift 

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S 1 G 

BIGCTNIO CA'ROLO was born at Modena. about the 
year 1520. He was a pupil of Franoiseus Portus, who 
taught him Greek. He afterwards studied medicine and 
pjiilosophy at Bologna, and he also visited tho university of 
Puvia. In 1546 he was invited hack to Modena to fill the 
chair of Greek literature, which had become vacant by the 
de|>arture of Portus. In 1552 he accepted the chair of 
belles-lettres at Venice, where he became acquainted with 
Panvinio, who, like himself, was a diligent student of anti- 
quity. His reputation having become widely spread by 
various works on classical antiquity, lie had invitations both 
to j^fune and Padua, at which latter place he accepted the 
^^ir of eloquence in 1560. At Padua he a|ain met with 
Robortello, with whom he had already had a dispute on the 
names of the Romans, and the disputes between these two 
icholars, bein^ renewed, were carried to such a pitch that the 
lenae of Venice found it prudent to silence the combatants. 


Sigonio left Padua in the year 1563 for a place in 
the university of Bologna, where he received a handsome 
salary, and was made a citizen. His reputation attracted 
numerous students to Bologna. Roman antiquity was his 
special subject, and his inntruotion was characterised both 
by comprehensiveness and accuracy. He also occupied 
liim«clf with middle-age history, and with this object he 
visited the great libraries and collections of Italy. It was at 
the request of Pope Gregory XIII.. in 1578, that he com- 
menced the ecclesiastical history, of which his friend Pan- 
vinio had formed the plan. Sigonio having discovered some 
(tagroents of Cicero*s treatise * De ConsoUtione,* undertook 
(o restore the work, which he completed and published as a 
genuine work of Cicero. The fraud was detected and ex- 
posed by Riccoboni, one of his pupils ; but Sigonio, instead 
of confessing the fact, endeavoured to reply to the argu- 
ments of his opponent ; and so well has he succeeded in 
imitating the expression and manner of Cicero, that the work 
*DeConsolatione' long passed for genuine, notwithstandin$f 
the criticism of Riccoboni ; and Tiraboschi. who maintained 
this side of the question, was only convinced by seeing some 
unpublished letters of Sigonio, in which he acknowledges 
himself to be the author. Sigonio retired to the neighbour- 
hood of Modena, where he died in 1584. His numerous 
writings were collected by Argellati, Milan, 1732-1737, in 
6 vols, folio, to which is prefixed a Life by Muratori. All 
bis works on matters of antiquity are also contained in the 
'Thesaurus Antiquitatum Grsecarum et Romanarum* of 
Graevius and Gronovius. 

The following, which are among the principal works of 
Sigonio, will indicate the general character of his labours : 
* Kegum, Consulum, Diotatorum ac Censorum Romano- 
rum Fasti, una cum Actis Triumphorum k Romulo rege 
usque ad Tiberium C»sarem ; in fastos et acta triumphorum 
espiiontiones,' Modena. 1550, to\.: there is also a second 
edition of this work, Venice, 1556; ' De Antique Jure 
Civium Roraanorum Libri Duo ; de Antique Jureltaliae Libri 
Tcm; de Antique Jure Provinciarum Libri Tree,' Venice^ 
P C, No. 1359. 

S I K 

1560, fol. ; * De Republica Atheniensium Libri Quinque ; de 
Atheniensium et LacedromoniorumTemporibus Liber Unus,' 
Bologna. 156'4, 4to. ; 'De Judiciis Roraanorum Libri Tres,' 
Bologna, 1574. 4to.; • De Occidentali Imperio Libri xx., ab 
anno 281 ad 575,' Bologna, 1577, fol. ; * Historiae Ecclesias- 
ticae Libri xiv. ;* this work comes down to the year 311, but 
it was the intention of the author to continue it to 1580. 

Sigonio was one of the great scholars to whom we owe 
much of our knowledge of antiquity, and particularly of 
Roman history. His industry was unwearied, and his 
learning was sound and comprehensive. He wrote the Latin 
language with ease and correctness, and his style is simple 
ana perspicuous. Modem scholars have often been more 
indebted to Sigonio than they have been willing to allow, 
and the results of his labours have been used by one person 
after another, and sometimes without making any discri- 
mination between what is right and what is wrong. Her- 
neccius wan largely indebted to film, as will appear from 
examining his 'Syntagma.' If we consider what was done 
before his time, and what he accomplished towards the il- 
lustration of Roman antiauity, we shall find few scholars 
who have so well deservea a lasting reputation. It would 
require a minute investigation to ascertain how Air some of 
the more recent views of the Roman polity have been sug- 
gested by the writings of Sigonio. His remarks on the 
Agrarian laws, though far frote being marked by sufficient 
clearness and precision, are still worth reading. {De An- 
iiquo Jure ItaHae,) 

SIGUENZA, a large town of the province of Guada- 
laxara in Spain, situated on the declivity of a hill near 
the source of the river Hdnares, in 40" 58' N. lat. and 2' 
57' W. long. It is the see of a bishop, suffragan of Toledo, 
and has a university, which was founded in the year 1441. 
The town is badly built ; the streets are narrow and crooked, 
but clean. Of the numerous ecclesiastical buildings which 
this town contains, the cathedral is theonly one worthy of men- 
tion. It was built at the beginning of the fburteenth century, 
in the pure Gothic style; it contains one nave and three aisles, 
and measures 330 faet by 112. One of its chapels, that of 
Santa Catalina, is greatly admired for its large dimensions 
and the beautiful marble tombs which it contains. Siguenia 
is the antient Saguntia, mentioned by Pliny (iii. 4) as one of 
the six towns among the Arevaci in Htspania Tarraoonensis. 
Li\7 (xxxiv., 19) calls it Seguntia; and in the 'Itinerary' 
of Antoninus it is mentioned as Segontia. Insoriptions 
bearing the latter name have been found in the neighbour- 
hood. It was the seat of a contested battle between Pompey 
and Sertorius. In 1106 Alfotiso VI., king of Leon and 
Castile, wrested it fVom the Moors, who had occupied it 
since the beginning of the eighth century. An antient 
castle which commands the town is the only remain of 
Mohammedan architecture. The population, according to 
Mifiano {Diceionario Oeogrdfieo, <^.), was about 30,000 in 
1832. The only trade of the place consists in coarse flan- 
nels, blankets, and hats, which are exported to Toledo and 

S I L 


S I L 

SIKE or SIECKE. HENRY, an Oriental scholar of 
some repute, who lived in the latter half bf the seventeenth 
and the beginning of the eighteenth centuries. He was a 
native of Bremen, and a professor of Oriental languages at 
Utrecht, and afterwards at Cambridge. It appears that 
owing to some misdemeanor he was to be subjected to 
punishment ; and in order to escape from this disgrace, he 
put an end to his life b^ hanging himself in 1712. The only 
work of any note which he published is the ' Evangelium 
Infantiee Chnsti adscriptum Thomad/ 1697, 8vo., a very 
curious iipoctf phal gosppL It M reprinted in F«bcjeius*s 
* Codex Apocrypbttf Von Tjpstaaeiiti* ton, L, pf • ii}f-2i2, 
Sike also founded with L. Kuster, at Utrecht, the literary 

Esriodical called * Bibliotheca Novorum Librorum,' to which 
e contributed several papers. 

(Saxii OnomaHican Literctrhnn, v., 490, &c.) 

SIKHS. [HiNBf«rAN^> 933J 

SILBURY HILL XWiltshire.] 

SILCHESTER. [Hampshire.] 

SILENA'CEifi, a natural order of f)|an|8, Manging V> 
the syncarpous group of the Polvpetalous subclass of Exo- 
gens. This order is a part of the larger order Caryophyllese 
[CARYOPHTLLBiB] of Jussicu, and was originally separated 
by De CandoUe. It has since been adopted by Bartling 
and Lindley in their systeiqatic works. It differs from the 
remaining portion of the order Caryophyllese, which are now 
called Alsinacefp, in the posaeasioii of a tubular caJyx« apd 
petals with rlaws* 

31LE'NE, tl^e name of an eiLten^ive geniis of plants be 
lunging tu the natural pr^er CAP7ophylIaeefB. It is knpwn 
by ii» having a tubular naked, ^-tpothed calyx ( 6 bl^d 
ungutculate petals, wl^ich are usually crowned |n ^e throat 
with '0 bitid scales , 10 stamens ; 3 style# ; oapsMles 3-eell«d 
at the base, ending in 6 t^eih|it the apex. The species are 
m geueral herbaceous, many of them i|re annual, very few 
shrubby. Thetr steqas are leafy, pointed, branched, aod 
freuuently glutjnous t)e(QV ^i^k JpiDt- Th? Italyx iand 
ieatiitalks are also frgij^uentlv viscous. The leaves are oppo- 
site, simple, and eutiFe. Tbe pet«lf are mostly red and 
while, sometimes gieeniah or y^llewiab* 9<)i|)e of theqa 
give off a delicious perfuof^, aspee^aUy U night. The ex- 
tent of this gei|)^ is vim grea^ ^d cpqstant ^ditienp are 
being made t^ ijt by |b^ cellectiena of tx^irellers. Th<B 
greatest proportion ac« ipb»b|taiiis ffit the ^puih of Bi^rope 
4m4 North of Africa. Dpn, fn If i|)er*s Diotionary, eoujne- 
jrates 256 species of tfiin genus; of t|iosp we sh»ll give (» ^w 
lexaipples of the more common ^B4 interosMng forive. 

S acmtlis, stemless CatiCfhHy* or IfiauB Caim>iQB whole 
plant glabrous, cespiMwe; lft|vo« Ittic^n aiUaioa at ihvbase; 
peduncles spUtary, l-floweired; pe^ah cmuned, slightly 
notcbed. |t is a o^ive of Biiirppo* aud i& fuund tibunckiuly 
«n ihe Aim- It if fo|w4 (m 0^4 > all the Scot i is b moun- 
tains, and iilau on Snowdpn, i||i4 the btgl)«^t hills of De- 
vonshire. Chamtsso also gathered it on the ii^lautis of i\)fi 
western co(M»t of Hor^ AnMnp% T^t tlowerii arc of a 
beautifMl purple e^lowr* Mn i^ f^mi% one pf th^ gre»leat 
ornametitfi of PMr Alfififi 9$^' HvfPf^l ItLfMm vf ihis 
plant have heop ffwmMp V«rf Wg MMf jn H|o fcrw apd 
«xistepce of narts of tt9 Ikmmr* 

flowers numeronftPfMiioM; laalyi^ mUM, getteii; petals 
deeply cloven, fflaieely tnr Piwy»; Itmi^ ov»ManeepUte. 

This is a very cxHampp nliBt thrQUghoul Auiope, aAd is 
met with in aUnoe^ •vpfj iM wA Wiyaide In fifiptt W$m. 
Like most plants Ihal ^re widftr ind b^jply 4if osm). 
many varieties of it kwv$ hwi nforderf. Tbif plant h«9 
been reeomoionded «o he owU»v0|»d in tb9 gardfli on account 
of lis edible preperli^ iFttf ibaotf gatl|i»flid yoM^, when 
about two ioehes high, AHil hoiM. ue • #«od suhs^titfe for 
green peas or aspangt^, Tim ^f» thuB eaten by the na- 
tives of Zante, m4 in l^as the inbahitentt of Minaiqa ate 
'Said to ha«^e been §t^ fon tolne»oeMeioiMd by )i ewuvi 
«f locusts, by uaiog this {riMt m AhmI. 

S, noai/hra, sight- towering (hi^kfift paaides fcrked; 
petais bifid ; Q»ly( with long teeth, oUong in finuit, with ton 
connected ribe; iMvet laiteeohile, lower ones spttfauUto; 
»rhole i^nt clammy, piiheace»t. It is a natiyB of Sweden, 
Germany, and Groai Briiaki ; il fesemblei very mnoh the 
common rad and white icampton (Lffckmu dioioa). It is 
not a eommon pUm, an4 ia remarkable for opening its 
flowen al night onjiy, aad in wswqi wealhor, when ih&f ex- 
hale a powerful and delicious scent 

8, qmnqu^mkieruith five- wounded Catchfly . stems branch- 

ed ; leaves lanceolate, lower ones obtusej calyx very villous, 
with short teeth ; petals roundish, entire, with toothed a|h 
pondages. The petals of this plant are of a deep crimson 
with pale edges, giving them the appearance of having 
been sUined wifh blood in the centre ; hence their specific 
name. It is a native of Spain, France, and Italy, and has 
been found in tbe county of Kent in Great Britain. It is 
frequent in gardens, but loses by cultivation much of the 
colour of its flowers. 

S, mumkttila, Spanish or Fly-trap Catchfly : plant 
smoodiisb.elamiiiy; stem erect; brooches alternate, long ; 
lower leases l»nj?eolato, npper ones linear ; flowers panicled ; 
calyx davate, netted ; petals bifid. It is a native of Spain, 
with intensely red petals. It is exceedingly clammy, so 
that when flies alight on it they are caught ; and hence the 
name Catchfly, which is given to the whole genus, though 
few of ^ ap9oif« |^ofse«s the property. 

8. fi'uticoga, shrubby Catchfly: stem shrubby tx the 
base, much branched, tufted; flowering stems simple; 
leovof pbovaletr dMrk-green, permanent, ciliated, particularly 
towards the base; flowers crowded; calyx clavate; petals 
deeply eraarginate, obtuse, with 4-parted appendages. This 
plant is a native of Sicily and of the island of Cyprus, and 
grows among rocks. It is frequently cultivated in gardens, 
and makes a handsome omamefit. 

S. eompacia, close-flowered Catchfly plant glabrous, 
glauoanS) stem emct^ bronchi; leaves ovate- aordate« set 
sile ; flowen crowded ^oto dense corymha ; oelyx very lung; 
petals entire, obovate, crowned* It is a uajiv^a of Russia, 
and vary poarly reaembles ihe S. armeria, but iadii>tioguished 
by ite entire petals. It is oqe of the most beautiful of the 
gen^s, and deserves a place in every coUeciion of flowers. 

In the ooliiih'odon of ihe species of 3Ueoe no great art is 
required. The hardy kinds may be planted in the open 
border, and jthe nnallor species are well adapted fur ruck 
wori^. The seeds of the hardy annual kind» may be sown 
in the beginning of the spring, wheie tiiey are to remaiu 
The perennial kinds are best increased by dividing them at 
tbe roots in the spring. The greenhouse kinds thrivoiAieat 
in a rich light soij ; the puttings of shrubby species should 
be placed under 4 liand-glass. 

SIJLE'NUS (SfiXnt^Sir), a Greek deity. The traditions of 
his hif^i are various ke is said to he son of Pan, of a 
nymph, of the earth, and to have sprung from the blood of 
UnuuM. He was the instructor of BaoehMs. a lawgiver and 
prophet, someti^pas confounded with Bpcohus himself of 
the fao»ily of ^yra, whom he resembled very much in 
appeafonoe and hsJMts. He is represented as an old man, 
bald, with a heard, and depi eased novse. sometimes with 
a tail, at tiines holding the infant Bacchus in his arms, 
or with a wine-rskin on his shoulders. He has a conspi- 
ouous pUce m the Bacchic chorus, end oecors in various 
oombination with fauns and nymphs. Though endowed 
with anpematurf4 wisdom, he is of a comic disposition ; 
bis whole ehsjraeter is a mixture of jest and earnest; 
be is harmless, MMriWe, food of children, addioted Co 
wmoi eofnetimas be rides on his ass reeling and sup- 
ported by A aatyr; is aaid to have conducted Bacchus 
from T))ca^ to ^hrygia; and to have been ensnared hy 
Hidgs in a garden, arui compelled to exert hifl marveUoua 
power of speech. His disoourse was of the second worUl. 
of the land of Meropis, and of its strange men, beosts, and 
idants. of the origin of things and birth of the gods, and he 
sJiMHr^ tbe mi^rohle condition of this present li(e. In all 
liml ho utteced was an irony consistent with his motley dm- 
jriMter. The OM by whioh he is aoeompanied lias given rise 
to many ooi]jeetnrc«; the Bacchic myths and tliose of 
4pq1Io apeak of this animal as sacred to both deities. It 
may therefore he oonsidcred as the link unitiiig tlie tato 
Wprshifa* nod we find accordingly Apello called the son of 
SHonus. iPorphyry, Vii. Pythtuh, p. 10, ed. Rome, 1630.) 
AttMtpts have been made by Boohart and others to con- 
nect Silenus with the name Shiloh in Saipture, and his 
ass with th(St of Balaam. Other imaginary resemblanoes are 
noticed by CRouf or {SymbolikU founded on the theory that 
the ASS is the symbol of prophecy in the East. The myth 
of Silonus haa faeetn furthor thought by Creuzer to hafo 
ce&rance tooosoogony. He quotes Porphyry (Eoseb^ iV. 
^., iil^ p. 110, Gfldegne, 1687) in support of this opinion, 
and considam Silonus as ' tbe balf-embodierl soul of tne uni- 
?ecse, the etcuggie of the shapeless into shape, or, to speak 
fdiyaieaUy, the moist breath which, aocording to the Egyp- 
tian and old Ionian philosophies, nonnahea the stars.' 

Bl h 

81 L 

Tlll»tlwwyi^aitdgitmftirtllaifto m to r> t> ll lwe^ 
h&^tfdH SiMus and ]I«mIi«8^ and ilie vacttu* ttodM io 
iftHMthe i^ f^pHSatvMA on OBlMtet HodttiBMilt: Ib^a/g^i- 
nniMPt# Mi wbi«b ^ mm «r6 howe^r to«^ ftMmNNis mdkkk- 
iHmw to %« iMM MMred u^. 

TiM^^MiiMMiy ^ttwAbn SilMii «nd SM^ dofwuel am^ 
T«#y olciirtf ftiii^ o'tt^ AetMrdiifg to m U kn Ui imAfMM by 
GrettMr/ lft« Sftoiti tra tbe Mdbr of tlrivMroif Tbe» torm 
ir^t^ certoMy iRyt oeRnctomnve^ Ihat of 8«f)r» bm^ be tofi- 
tfld^rea ^9 tii^ gMML They -#er» icl>y ifwe ti B t Qd m thet 
fl«Me riktf&ti^ #iih bMordfl;^ tsttei mA BneM einre Uke 
iMJtets. Itf the ^toeMiion of P0oii»y 9h m i <A ^h MM iAikM^ 
Y. f 97) tK^ were dvesMd difleietttly frani om^ o^kor. «ttd 
tMStfevii bite oewetinesi mora lHRiniDfo|nb» SoeGrei^ 
:g^!p»'&^riibolrli/aiid6ri»bef'a ' Werlerbndfrder Mytholo^ie.' 
ft^ tepr^HMitBXkiM ai SileoiM; Umtftr * Oaliftfie Myibelo- 
gktoje^'^ftnd (be vaflo«i» works on 9011M; aoolptiMe, vciOi, iM 
othot lAotittttMnto^bf oltetioid antitfaity. 

8flLB8IA. TMb ootmtry^ wki^h io wfw dWided betwoeo 
FttMa ftAd AuAilritf, trao onoe mlialritod by ^tf Ly§ita»d 
itfoMli UlR), m tb#6iinlr mnlAry* wMe ^veed to yield to Ike 
fresMf'e 6f i Btoyonian tribe from PoUtndv by wlnel^ ovoM 
Stieoitt beealB($ «ubJ«ot to tkct douHlry/ Uadop tbo de^ 
tflSioii Of PoUM. tke Mi«ii hiiif^nage ted BMoaen, wkieh 
fitill remain iflr the OfiiterB futoef ttie |»revi«ee^ aad Ike 
Ohni^n f€Hg;l(n», in^re iotrodaeed^ To preefteto tbe kttoi 
* biefaof^^ im ftMftdad )D 900, al Se k iUp ftr , wkirii wee 
aftotwards tfafntoted to Breklan^ Tke ootnlry keifeNI m< 
eottfse of titne divided and sobdivided aviioiig tke 
datitt of Bo\e«kk«id Itl.. kiDft o^ Poland* nuMaorOi 
prinoipalitwt arosV. BtAtig weakened by tboio dtvi 
and by tbe dini^tHitm between tbe fAaoott il was awbd^od 
by tbe king of Behettia ift tbe Iburteeaik eentary* yndor 
tbe dominion of BokOMki Ifbe doetmea elf Hm% Liitker# 
IM Caltln gamed greufid, and ibeiff adkereato okfaiiied 
fbe ^tfal &ereide of tbete roMliioa. Whk tke Peftkh 
jiWinee^ Polish itaanners aad eaatem diia|ipeaBed; every-' 
tfihtg #«s pieced on tke aaflw Ibotkig m ai GeiaMffy^ 
fHbde, raarttufaetttres, en«« and leieoeee ieonabed* Tke 
^fti»pefity of the oenntry woidd ktfte beeb greater m 
former titoes, bad nOI the Pfoitoe t aato beah 90 ttwok op* 
pressed under the Ansirkm govenunaiit* Aoatnai ^hieh ob- 
tained possession of Sfleekir together witk Dn fc oMia^ m tke 
esrdy part of tbe sixteeotk eentiiry^ retoin e d ja ondialarked 
m the dMbof the empofov Obarlea VL in 194e» tm whack 
Ftederio II. Of PitMeia rettted a dorvMAl eiaUa to tbe 
western pHH of BfkBMk, w^iefc he iiawidialu^ iaaaded } aad 
tb« gr«vt«i^fAEift w«#e«ied to him iw IMS, aod eoairotod to 
Ithirhy tb^ treaties of Pifegdei^ id l?44»awdoifl»kar1fckaifr 
in 1 769. Austria relakired tke stiiaHer portioDi 

BUMfilA (m GeHMth /SMIsiMIr tbe PrwMM PraviBee 
of, is situst^d between 4Sl^^itfd#g^# N«l4tr and balwe ea 
t4*^g1^^a»dl9^>yB.l(Wg.IlitkeiiiiJedaatkw tt a rti i w et by 
BrandenrbttTg^ ^^trUtoMrrtliHaM^ Pitaan^ efevtk^eas^l^ 
PCT art d ; xfh the sotfUI-eM by Oraea^ aad €kdieto| e» 1^ 
fitstjtih by AtratifftA9il«iia j aadoh tk^SMith-WaitkyBokeaiiab 
lhc!twKngthecotrtrty<rfQ!ttttyaadtha Pi aMi M ii» i w l of tippet 
Ltnatia, its afek is ¥9,609 Stfttaiw iaitoe^ Thw ptowmm k 
21 if miles iif Tohgtb fiwto MVtfa'easI to a9irtll-<waa^ and ftalft 
70 to do miles iii breadth froM east to weat^ Tki titer Od6f, 
which bec dfti es natlgabto «ooft kftev «n(ena|p ^m Pfapsian 
bonridary, df^es the protiVtoe Hi Ha wMe leagtb ittto two 
trsarly equaf parts, whteb arovevydifrenRil fireai eaakelkeir. 
That Cft the left bank, wktok is oailed tke €(anitairaiiai is 
moantatnous, bttt has a ^tf ferttto sail, wkieli aiapif rewards 
tboliTbonr of tbe hnsbiEndmini aod tapp)ies«hBaat thewhob 
province. That on tke rigkt bank, eitted thw Poiiak sida^ ia 
vefy diffbrem \ H coltsiMs ckleflly ot a sawdto aad nol viery 
firuttful soil. There are hawi^^ atnae sandy traeto en tke 
German side, atfidsomefieli tfndpredaeCt^eapOtooB tke Peiisk 
side. Tbe country is bkfhMl on flia aoaife^eaiteni kvmhm, 
and declihes more^ (d^atda Wt^ iiar^f«wesieni ir o i rtieif wkare 
it is the lowest. 

Where the flPoiitiers of SIMia atid Bokeikiw maM» a 
mdcmtaih-chai^ rise*, wbidh ettteMda aeafthwarda to tke 
^otiroes of th« Breswa atid the Ostfawilaay where il jematbe 
Oarpathiahs, ditides the bMih of tfhe OdeS on Ike owe aide 
ftcm Chose of the felM'ftnd Danube as tke aiber, andfeaato 
the natural boatidary between 9ife8to and Bobemki and 
Moravia. This chain, called by tke gmand aaaaa el «ba Su- 
detic chain, is divided ifitd dtffintant part^ bearing difaront 
trames, as the I^^rgdbirge, the Riesefigebitger tka kiftieai aad 
wildest pftrt of the wkole ^aik, Hie S il iie»kapp e»wkitii it | 

4^0 leeiak9¥a^Uielefelolthe8ea,tbe61aU Mountains, &e. 
Ia the intenoi there aie sodiq ikn^ uiusdnkeotocl with tbe 
gxeal chain— tlie principal ef whibfa i* the 2obtengebft'ge, 
2318 feetal)0ve Um tevelof fte sea. Ote tie right side of fho 
6der# from 1^ part wiere ifacoui^ isto t^ nortbWald, the 
ki$k land disappears, andtfidee immenee ptains tegin Which 
ekaraeteriae ihiaDart of Etooae. The (Mer, Called by (be cora- 
taoi^ people the JUety t^ is, 'ihe viAn/ cornea from Iif bratia^ 

\ apd raoaivesall jttf nvera,. with the Oj^ption ofsoine on tha 
feonlierab Tke nrinoipat are the filsa* ttie Klodnitsi. (he 

I SloboEv afid the Basischi on U» right side; tbe Oppa, the 

I Neisse^ tke Oblaii^ and (hb l^afikaeh, on the left. There 
: aie few iakeSriLaaa those wkieli are so dalled are rather 
i k^ge pen^ Tkelargest are tte tCoscbnitc, ttoswi(z, and 

Schlawer lakes. The last is however four miles in length, 
but nowhere above ajMle in breadth. The climate varies 
very much in the dinereni parta of tHe province. The air 
on the whole is very mibi, exoet>t in tde mountamous tracts ; 
but in proportion as we appreacb ^e southern 6onlier, the 
tempevaiwre bapomee fower,and the winter longer and more 
severs^ wkic& w owing to the elevation of tbe country* to 
the wbtooaive forests, and partly to thei tofly Carpatbiaus 
aa4 uie winds thaC pome from &eiii« 

NtthM-al PrwiueUonM^Tba animals lir^— horses* horned 
cattle, sheej^ aoatSr swine, game» fish. hees# and domestic? 
poultry. Wolves are found on the 2ol>(engebirge, otters 
in tke ^okeB# and aometimea keepers ia the Oder. The 
vegetable prodfucto are — com, piitse, garden vegetables, 
jCroity ilax^ tobaeoo^ ^ps^ madder, Woact, teazle, and tiibber. 
Tbo mlnerala. are copner, ka^, cobalt, arsenic, iron, and 
sine. Tki» kst inetfu is found in Sitesia and in the ad^ 
joining riwublio of Cracow in tm mreater qiiantities (ban 
in aay o^her eeuntry in Stlrope. Utber mineral products 
are siiiekut» marble^ aktm« lime, and, atx>ve all, coal, of 
which from two mifiiona to two millions and a half bns 
are aiMoaaUy obtained, wBick ire worth fxom 100,000/. fa 
l^J^%L storling. 

^Jaoagk 8ilksia is on ihe whole one at the most fertile 
and best-euliivated proYincea of' the t^russiaa monarchy, 
and pfodaeeil maek corn« so thai in |^ years it can export 
Ik portion to. Bohemia, vet, as it is very ^osiely populated, il 
hasaot SMffioieat in untavourable years for its own con«um|;^ 
tioByaad ia obliged to import The cultivation of potar 
teea baa beeome much more general of lato years. 

Tke BMUoafsetares of Sdesia are ef the greatest importance, 
aod thai el kaao kaa ejuated from a very remote time. It is 
oarried en wick lit4le aid from maebtneiy. and cUiedy by 
tbe eoinicy-people^ tbougb this brancb of industry affbrdia 
tkeaa bisl aaoaaly iubaistance: it is bowever their chief 
oeavpation* Djstarici sava:— * A third part of all the looma 
at Yevk ^ the rouaif^ «ominion% via. 1^,799 out of 36,879, 
ia Hi S ri efifc Im Kaea Mnuatly manufactured in Silesia 
is eetisBatad at between cagbt and aine millions of dollara 
(1^3M0«£ te Mao,OOOAy XXncertaia^JM such estimatea 
are» Ike anaoti^ axpertad may h* assumed to be worth 
between three ana fi^ajcniiiiiona 01 clulars* Woollen cloths 
ar^ aaaqulkelttrad a some tofwna^ aad cottons at Reichen- 
ka^ Tkere afasugar-houses in several places} tanneries 
al BrjSshuft and SehweidoiUraad breweries and brandy-dis- 
tiUetiea ift reest al tae towns. With respect to spinning and 
weaviogf i^ra may ebserva that machinery is begmning to be 
intredaeed into some krger OMuaiufactories. The population of 
the p re fia ae, ifkiek al tka ena of 1 837 was stated at 2^6 79,4 73, 
had ino it ia nd ral tke end of 1840^ to 2,868,820. They are 
aseatly Gormaa^k.aad some fiftavomane of Polish origin. 
Abeat baif tke iakabitanto are t^roteatants, and tbe remain- 
der Reaiafl GatbeUai, keaidea about 18,00d Jews: all have 
Ike it9% exetoise of tbebr la&gioa. The mrovince & divided 
iato tke three governmmito oi Sreslaa, Oppeln, and Lieg 
aila^ and kaa twaaty towns with pho\e 5000 inhabitants, 
as aatod in Ike atatiatioal tab^ in the article Prussia. All 
tke moal taapovtoot ot tkese towns are described under 
Ikeitf respeoiivo heads. 

AuatMAai SiUWiiA is that part of the province which was 
letoiBod 1^ Auatria in tho treaty of Huberuburg in 1 763 
It is iwited. wiA ltfravia» with which ii forms one province. 

II i§ keanded a» the nerth-west, nostk^ and north-east by 
Pinisiafi Sileaia< en tbe east by Galicia« foo, the south by 
Hungary and Moravia* and on the south-west by Moravia. 
The area iaakoul 17^0 square mite^ with 430,000 inbabi- 
toafts^ Wbe are partly of German ana partly of Slavonian 
origia. Next to the kingdoma of lombardy aad Venice, it 
is ika reeildaaeallf peopM pan of the Aaatrian dominions. 

S I L 


S I L 

The country is mountainous, anti on tbo sontfa-east are the 
Carpathians (of which the Sigula is 4300 feet high), and on 
the north-west the Moravian-Silesian chain, a branch of the 
Sudetes. Near the Carpathians, and about the source of 
the Oppa and the Mohra, the climate is cold, and tlie 
mountams are partly covered with snow till the middle 
of June. The southern part of the circle of Tescfaen is not 
fhiitful, the soil being stony ; in other ports it is better. 
The principal rivers are the Oder, with Hs tributaries the 
Oelsaand the Oppa : the Vistula (in German, the Weiehsel) 
Hsffts on the north side of the Carpathians from three sources, 
tilled the Little, the White, and the Black Vistula; this 
last rises in the village of Weiehsel, at the foot of the 
Tankowberg, which tillage gives its name (Weiehsel) to the 
whole river. 

The inhabitants have a very good breed of horses, and of 
oxen, and especially a very improved breed of sheep. They are 
very skilful and industrious fiarmers. The manufactures, 
especially those of linen and woollen cloth, are very im- 
portant. The exports are linen, thread, woollen cloth, wire, 
paper, earthenware, cheese, flax, rosoglio, 8tc. The transit 
trade is very profitable: the chief articles are Hungarian 
and Austrian wines, Russia leather, tallow, linseed, and 
furs ; Galician rock-salt, Moldavian oxen, Vienna fkney- 
goods, &c. [NfORAViA ; Tbschen ; Troppau.] 


SILHET, or SYLHBT, is a district of Bengal, lying 
along its eastern border, on the east side of the Megna, as 
the lower course of the Brahmapootra is called. Up to the 
year ] 830 it consisted only of what must now be called 
Silhet Proper, or a country situated between 24" and 25* N. 
lat., and^9l" and 92" 30^ E. long., which, according to the 
most recent information, contained about 4500 square miles, 
and a population of 1,083,120, which gives 241 to the square 
mile. It is about 1 300 square miles less than Yorkshire, 
but more populous, as Yorkshire, in I83t, did not eontain 
more than 235 persons to the square mile. In 1830 the 
royal family of Kashar, a country east of Silhet, became 
extinct; and a few years later the raja or sovereign of 
Jyntea. a country north of Silhet, was obliged to gi\« up 
his territory to the British, and both countries were annexed 
to Silhet. These two countries taken together are at least 
three times as large as Silhet Proper, and the district at 
present contains about 18.000 square rhiles, or two^tltirds 
of the area of Ireland. Silhet, in this extent, lies between 
24* 10' and 28' 20* N. lat, and betweeti »0** and 94" R. 
long. On the west it borders on Bengal, on the distriet of 
Mymansing, and on tbo mountain-region of the Garrows; 
on the north on Asam; on the east on Muneepoor, and^on 
the soiith it is bounded by the unknown region called the 
Tiperah Mountains or Wilderness. It is'only towards Munee- 
poor that it has a natural boundary, which is formed by the 
course of the river Barak, where It runs from south to 
north, east of 93^ B. long., and by two of its eonflwnts,'th6 
Jeeree, which joins H ftrom the north, and the Tooyace, or 
Chikoo, which falls into rt (totA the oauth. 

Surface and Soil. — Silhet is naturally divided imo two 
regions. The northern part is a mountahi region, which 
extends along the southern boundary of Asam, and divides 
that large vale from the valley of the Barak, whieh riven as 
ftr as it drains Silhet, runs through a wide valley that con- 
stitutes the low and level portion of Silhet. The mountain 
region comprehends about two-thirds of the country, or 
12,000 square miles, and the plain about ene^thh'd. 

The Mountain Region, of which Silhet now comprehends 
nearly one-half, extends along the southern boiler of Aeam, 
and at its most eastern extremttv, near 97* B« long, and 
28* 40' N. lat., at the sources of the Lohit riter, or Bmb- 
roapootra, it & united to the high table^nd of Central 
Asia. Its western extremity comes close to the Brahma- 
pootm, where this Hver, after leaving Asam, forms its 
great bend to the south (90* E. long.). The western 
portion of this extensive mountain region i» oalled the 
Garrow Mountains, which are considered to extend east- 
ward to the river Patli, which, traversing the mountain 
region in a southern direction, joins the oodTroa near the 
town of Laour (91* 10' E. lat.). The mOst 'Western offset 
of the Garrow Mountains skirts the banks of the Brahma- 
pootra, beuveen the mouth of the river Lalu and the village 
of Mahendragandj. a distance of about twelve miles. Along 
the banks of the river the roouniains are merely rocks, from 
140 to 200 feet above the level of the- river,* fining wiih a 
f teep ascent. They are called the Osribati Rocks, from a 

Miall towii'*titMted lomewhat to iho aottth of the» southern 
termtaaCSoa. < But in proceeding fortber east» the mountain- 
mairi rises gtadoallv in elevation, and oecupies a greater 
breadth. In 90''*20' E. long, it has attained a genecal ele- 
vation of more than SDOO Ibet above tho sea-level* and 
oinMsp i ts a vridth of about 50 miles. Wo ace only acquainted 
with- the outor bolder of thia mountain-mastk wberoit con- 
sists of ridges broken by Dumerous waloroourso^ and is 
entirely covered with trees and dense undorwood. Some 
isolated peaks rite 2000 ieet above the general level of Ibe 
mass. Aocoiding to i»fetmationeoUected.iroiB the natives, 
the interior of this elevated region is nearly a level table- 
land, destitute of teeea, and oovensd only with grass ; and 
this is probable^ as it oorresponda to the oharaeteristic fea- 
tures of the mountain rmon fisrtber east Only the k>wer 
portion of the Garrow lleuntains is sulyeot to the British, 
and united to the three dtvisionfl of Beogal, Rangpoor, My- 
mansing, aud Silhet The interior» called Gooaser.or Ganes- 
wara, . is occupied by the (Narrows, a moua tain- tribe whi(^ 
has never been subjected by the pHncea of Bengal, as the 
country is only accessible by long and winding mountain- 
passes, which are so narrow as to be imprecticahle for 
horses or other beasts of buiden : they are properly only 
paths over rugged ornga, and along steep precipices, 
and through exti^mely narrov gorges. From these faat- 
neiioeo the Garrows make iacufsions into the ac^jacent 
ooentries, and benoe several tracts of some extent along the 
boundary of their country have been entirely abandoned. 
They cultivate rice, millet and cotton, and use as food 
several plants whieh grow wild in the forests, as differciit 
kinds of arum, oakdrnm, and dioscurias. They cultivate 
capsicum, onions, and garlic. They keep oows, goats, hogs, 
and eat cats, dogs, foxes, and snakes. Different kinds pf 
deer are aaid to be oommoa in Gonaser. 

Adjacent to Gonaser on the east, and only separated from 
it by the river Pactli, is the mountain region of the Kasiftf 
(Gossyas), which extends eastward to the river KopUi, an 
alfluent of the Deyung, whioh foils into the Brahmapootra. 
This mountain region runs above 100 miles east and west bo* 
tween 91° lO' and 93° £. long. ; and in proceeding eastward 
it gradually enlargea in breadth from 50 miles to about 70 
mtles. This portion of the moimtaiQ region is much better 
known thanGoaaser, being subject to the Briti^li, who Imve 
travorsed it at imo places in passing from Silhet to Asam, 
and who have eiecled en it several sanatory stations, among 
which that of Ghinra Punji is very much freouented. The 
western toad leads foem Ponduain Silhet, through Ghirra 
Punji, Moiplong, Lombrav, and JNungklao» to the banks of the 
river Keilaetatt afllueat of the Bratoapootra, and to the low 
land of Asam. The traveller* passing by a steep ascent over 
fottr ridges, mrrives'etCiim Punji, which is 6000 feet above 
thoBea^level. Here beginaa table-land, the surface of which 
is often teveU but generally exhibiu very gentle slopes, which 
contiMiestoNttngklao. The most eleyaiedpoinUaie at Moip- 
long (5942 foot) and Loflibray (6914 feet). At Nun^klao it 
is only 4606 foot Nofikof the last-mentioned pUu^ it sinks 
by4h«oe wide terraces with steep descents to the plain of 
Asam. The tablotlaad is entirely destitute of trees and 
teshes, especially in the souUiem parts. This sterility, as 
Fisher thinks, is closely connected with the character of ihe 
sandston^TOcks of which the mountain- mass is composed, 
and with the disturbance of the strata, but more espeoially 
thektler; for where the strata 4re horizontal tl)^ is. an 
aheence of vegetation, and where the strata are inclined, 
symptoms of fertility begin to show themselves. Thrbugh- 
out the ascent from the plaiiks of Silhet to Ghirra Pus^k 
the vegetation is only dense on the slopes: and where 
ledges or steppes oocur, it is oomparativelj Wren* -'The 
table-land itself is covered with a short turf, and there 
oconr only a few bushes, as raspberrie«; stunted fir-t^ees 
only occur in the gleiie whksh are formed by the river- 
coerses-^as, for inalanoe, in that of the Bogapani. To Qie 
north of this river the aspect of the country changes gra- 
dually ; and thesigh the elevation is greater, the vegetation 
increases, and oontinose to increase, until in the vicinity of 
Nongklao it becomes abundant though it does not exhibit 
that excess which prevails farther to the north, on the lower 
descent of the tttblo-lend towards Asam. This change is attri- 
buted .to the numerous largcgranite boulders which are scat- 
tered in groat abundance over the country. The disinteg»ii» 
tton of t^Bse beoldeni has largely contributed to the forma- 
tion of the soil, especially where it has been fovoured by the 
-conaguration of ^be svufiice. But in^\^m^^ti >ivhere 

S I I 

S I L 

there are fie ^eulders, and the tttata preSifre Hieir faori* 
aontal position, iregetatien is deficient. The climate at 
Chirra Punji is very temperate and pleasant, espeoiaUy be- 
ttreen November and March. Neither snow nor frost 
oecun; but in December and January hoar-frost is Tory 
common. The sky is generally clear, but violent shoviers 
flreqnently oeeur. The almost continual coolness of the air, 
and the absence of froet, has pointed out this place as a 
convalescent station. Near Moiplong however ffost occurs 
even in November, at the thermometer then descends to 8 1*. 
Nungklao has a more pleasant oiimate. Hie earlier pert 
of the summer is not much warmer at that place than in 
London, as the thermometer ranges between 6d* and 74^ 

Cultivation appears only en the southern declivity, and 
In the neighbournoed of Nungklao^ where new » grown in 
considerable quantity. On the sonthem declivity of the 
mountain-mass many fhiits are cultivated, as oranra, pUn- 
tains, anti the areca palm ; and much honey ana wax. is 
collected. On the northern decltvityt where fir-trees cover 
large tracts of land, European firuitr-trees grew, especially 
ap^es, pears, and plums, and aho strawberriee and rasp- 
berries. The eastern road traverses thaKaaia Mountainak he* 
tween 92^ and 92^ W E. long , ftam the town of Jynteapeor, 
the capital of the former kingdom of«.Jyntea, to Raha 
Choky ki Asem, situated where the Deyung unites with 
the river Kulung. The seutfaem edge ef the mouiHain 
region, which is only a fyw miles distant from Jywteapoor, 
seems to be (brmed by a ridge which is considerably elevated 
above the tnble-land (krther north, and which is traversed 
by the mountain- pass eC MotaguL North of this ridge 
lies a plsdn, abool 2090 Ibet above the sea-level, whose sur* 
fiice b undulating, and in some pacts hdly, but it is covered 
only with thick grass, wtthout bushes or trees, except that 
in a few places, and at> great distances from one another, 
sfnall groves of firs or other trees are met with. It cer- 
laittfy might be used as pasture-ground, especiaUy as the 
Mimateb very mild \ but tbefew tnfaabiunto say that they 

-flire pretemed ffirotan keeping eaule b^ theb neighbour^ who 
frefpiently make piibdatory incutsiona into their country. 
TMs riibte-land occupies a width of 60 miles along the road. 
The northern edge ts^ less distinelly marked, and the descent 
occupies khoMi twelve miles. The nature of the table^Umd* 
predndee agriculture; but in the- northern districts rice is 
rais^ in considerable quantity, pivticnlarly in Ihe smsll 
gletA, aitod on the sides ef the valleys, where irrigation is 
practi&ied, water beinr bronaht to the fields tlwoitgh narrsw 
danalsi «ttd cowveyed over hoUowa and up licightsier short 
distawees by means of trunks of tieesand hamboes. Rice 
anci yams «!«' woltmted, and a kind of coarse silk called 
inon^ iscolleeted en the trees^ 

That povtien of the mountain ligien which liea east of 
the KopiH and Deyung rivers, and extends eastward to the 
riv^ Dooyong and the boundarv of Muneepoor, comprehends 

/Upper Kaohar^andiaealled the Kaehar MountaiBa. It is 
likewise a tableland, the southern edge of which is marked 
by an elevated range^ which continues to mn east to 9d° 12' 
E. long., when it tmms north-east and continues in that^ dinco- 
tfon rill it approaches 94" E. long., where it again run* east 
and stretches into nn unknown country. Wfamre this range 
runs noHh-east it is called the Bura Ail Mountains, and at- 
tains a meenelevation of 6099 feet above the sea-level. It is 
covered with-lai^ treeeand light underwood. The southern 
declivity of the Bora Ail Mountains is very Utile known, 
but it seenu to be certain that this sid» of the range is 
intiroatelf connected with the three ridges which traverse 
the western portion of Muneepoor* and by rtutting norlQi and 
south unite the ttonntain region which we are now noticing 
wi< h the extensive monnuin-system of Tiperah. The ridges 
are called, from west to east, the Ketbimda, Kubitshing, and 
MuneefkK>r Mountains. Tbeae chains and their numerous 
short offseta^ render the western portion of Muneepoor a 
rapid succession of elevlNed ridges and deep and narrow 
valleys. The country whiih lies north of the Bura Ail Moun- 
tains, both near the range and to the distance of 19 or 12 
miles, is covered with the high oiGMts of the range, and has 
an entirely mountainoUB character. North of this compara- 
tively narrow mountain-tract the surface of the country is 
nilly. Most of the hills aee isolated, but in some places 
they form ridges. This hdly. tract oceopi^ a. width of about 
29 miles, and it is fbllowed by a plaits Both the hilly and 
level country are almost entirely covered with forests. The 
nevih^^ edge of the'tablcland is marked by a rsnge of low 
hBla««an4a>gentle deseent, the greater part of which seems 

to skirt the southern hanks of the Sumoona, an affluent el 
the Deyung, the country north of that river constitu^' 
ing a portion of the plain of Asom. It is much more thiekl/ 
inhabited than the table-land of the Kasia Mountains. A 
very large portion of it is fit for agriculture, and the smnU 
progress that both agriculture and population have made is 
mainly if not exclusively to be attributed to the unsettled 
state itt which the country has been for a long time, under 
the sway of petty sovereigns, who weie never abFe toi 
defend their subjeota agaiiist the incursions of the boUI 
tribes who inhabit the mountains, especially the Aogamecr 
Nagas. Some large tracts are quite uninhabited, though th» 
vigoeoua growth of the trees shows the excellent quality of 
the soil. But along the large rivers and in their neighbour- 
hood cultivated tracts and villages are numerous, and will 
increase, since the British have compelled the Angameo 
Nagas to keep quiet. The inhabitants cultivate rice, and 
in the valleys of the billy and mountainous part of the coun- 
try several kinds of coarser grain are grown ; there is also a 
very fiue-flavoured kind of purple vetch. About the vil- 
lages of the mere elevated region there are groves of peach^ 
trees in the- most luxuriant state, and the apple-tree grows* 
wild and produces a well-tasted fruit. The bay-leaf and » 
very small kind of orange arc also natives of these moui>- 
tains. Cloth is made of a nettle, which is procurable in 
great abundance. On the lower hills cotton and chillies 
are grown as articles of commerce^ and in these parts also 
much wax and honey is collected. The cultivation of the 
lower and level country resembles that of Asam, being simi- 
lar in climate and soil, but no part of it is subject to annual 

The /Yoifi*-* Along the southern base of the mountain 
region hitherto noticed there is a plain, or rather a vale, for 
along its southern side the mountain-system of Tiperah rises 
to a great heighL The length of this vale may be about 120 
milesw and the width in the western half about 50 miles on 
an average, but towards the east it narrows to 30 and even 
29 milest until it is shut up by the Keibunda range, which 
lies, near the boundary and within the territories of Munee- 
poor. As to the configttrati(»i of its surface and the capaci- 
ties of the soil, it may be divided into two portions. A lino 
drawn from Chattac on the Soorma, south-west of Pondua 
Oi** 49'E»long.X passing in a south by west direction west of 
Tejpur,tlkvougb Nubigum and thence to the hilU south-east 
of Turruf near the Tiperan Mountains, very nearly separates 
these (wo tracts. The oountiy west of this line is very low 
and level, and consti^tes properly a portion of the lower 
portion of the plain of Bengal. It is in npost parts marshy, 
and the .whole isaubject, like the jp[reater oart of Lower Ben- 
gal, to periodical inundations of long ouration, being ia 
genaral under water from^pril to the middle of November.. 
These innndauona are partly the efiCect of the heavy rains 
which fall during, the south-west monsoon, and partly of the 
immense volume of water which is brought down by the 
rivers during that season, espf^pally ^y those which drain 
the mountain -system- of Tiperali, the Menu, Khwa-hi, and 
CognatL This lower tfact is called Bhatta. The towns 
and villages, which in some ports, especially to the south, 
are numerous, are built on mounds of earth; huts, temples, 
mosques, and sheds for cattle are huddled together. 
When the inundations are at their height, there are from 
8 to 12 feet water on the lower grounds. As soon as they 
have sufiiciently subsided, or ia the beginning of No- 
vember, such lands as are hieh enough for the purpose are 
sown with rice and millet; me crop is cut in April. The 
lands yield only one crop. There appear occasionally a 
little sursoo and hemp, with some gourds and cucumbers 
about the huts. The marshes are however filled with cattle, 
from which profit is derived sufficient to make the occupa- 
tion of these desolate tracts desirable. Ghee and cheese are 
made from the milk of buffaloes and cows, and the upper 
country, which lies farther east, is furnished with young 
bullocks for the plough. During the inundations the cattle 
are confined to tne sheds and feed on green fodder bruugljt 
in boats from the jhils or marshy tracts. 

From this low country i few tracts of low and level land 
extend eastward of the line above indicated. They run up 
for several miles, more especially between the courses of the 
great rivers, where they form jhils of great depth, which 
are uncultivable. The remainder of the eastern division has 
a higher level, and rises gradually towards the mountains 
on both sides. This country is in general dry, though thero 
are some marshes of small extent. Tlie surface of this div*- 

u!yiiiz,t;u uy ^^i^-j v_^ x^^'pt lv^ 

»I L 

ilon prwenti great IMgiilitfitietf. It fi «fM6d by 46Hm 
ranges of lAayial ibnttatioti, whidii ^n tip ftiUP tidgea 
from one to three} htndred f^ higU, kdi QM iftOhff^ b)&- 
tveen risc^ getftljr ioWMM teoH si£». TM IMka of tM 
doorma and all tfae tiioiiEttM Hv^ aHi tfao ebrtiMBnStitf 
derated aboTe the ge««M leNrA ; tlitf ffiet^ irliidh \i& mmt 
the 8watnp7|)lflf6e8, and ir^ if«>t Mudlf 6MfM«d abdv^ th«t# 
level* are cnoider yfkt^ fyt iR)iM ^i^^Ki; Md yfaM (ml^ e'kte 
^p. Tb^ aiiB town iti Janttii^ iNifd tbo Atorl inftndatiM 
ddes Aot danA(|!«f ibd ^raM. TOe er6p»s itrv tnneh mor«^ 
abundant tbah f/t llrtr Bhaiti. Th6 ttoHf «ff«tat«l piarttf, 
ulrhich are hevdr inundate tod e^p#6Mlf the Atf^ c^ the 
ridges, yicHd (lio efops of grafn,* mich ai^ ^ehefally good. 
S6lti6 expeHtn^tits wlxieb hare b«en Made ^faohii^ that Wheat,' 
barter, oats, and jik)tatdea m^^ be ratsefd. All the grafna 
fbnnd in (fa^ nfains Of the Ganges are enleH^ted. In^go ia 
ilot coltivated, tfnt afr exceHeht dye vei^ sHttilar tor it ii 
obtained fi^oni a plant wbi<:fh gTows wrfd on the hilla. 
Popprr, atigar-oane, safflo#er, strsoo ahd other plonia yield- 
ing oil, and also h^mn and flat ite ^rowrr. Orange-tre)^ 
and the areca are eultkaf ed on th« deelivitiea of tbe Kasta 
Monntains, atld large qfaantit^ of th^ p^oee are antfoally 
sent to Oaleiitta and other plaeea inr ]Efengid. At«ca of ht-^ 
ferior quality is found all over Silhet, but it deterioMtea in 
nnality towards the Mst, and inKadhaf it wholly dfsapp^tra. 
AAiong other fmifa the jpffantaih is pijrticalarfy (Hit, thcr 
l^mon grows iHld in the ftasia Monntains^ and the apridot 
itd liofai in tfios6 Of Kaehar. It is f hdnght thai ther feSh 
plant wonld aticeeed lit sotfl« M Ihe aOnviai s^ila bt Kaehar 
or Tiperab. 

Tbe Tiperah Mountains, which lie to the sovtb of tha 
plam hitherto noticed, belong to Silhet oiily so Mr a^ a jior- 
tion of thetr Itf^er deofititi^a ia indudeAd Within th^ bounds 
ary of (he dlstric^t. We are tM aeqoainted with the interior 
of this extensive monntain-sysfenf; The ceAtml part8« be- 
tween 23*' and ^4* N. lat and 91* and §4^ B. lon^., probably 
attain a great elevation, whieh May h^ inferred At>m the 
^at tolmne of water brottght down hf the rivers whieh fell 
ftota the south into the Soortaa aM KnsMtra, aa tbe Diela- 
serf, the Songai, the Munu, t'heKb#a-hi, a(«d theOognati; 
and from their rapid coiirse. I)»a^ing the rains eoNsh of these 
rivers discharge on an ateN^ a volaAie^ «f about 2a,<Kr0 
ttihic feet per Second, tfaongh nonaof tbeni ardtaete than 50 
yards wide. It is certain tha< they bar* a long course, and 
descend flroni a vert elevated cmlirtry. The noTlhem por^ 
tion of this Monntain-t^glotf. towards Silhet^ is w^ll sis that 
Which towards the south enters the disniet of Gbittagolrg,- 
consists of ratiges Running sooth and nM»r(h, divided by wi& 
valleys. Sorile of thase ranges enter the hortharn plain, as 
the Banca Monntains, which e^ttend alotfg the western 
banks of tha Delaseri, and the 6okinan range in Kaehar, 
Which compels the river Botak to ehirtge its aoctthern course 
into anorinerh oti«. Itntttense thasi^ of lava 06cnt even on 
the northern ranges of the Tiperah Mouritahfs, and it is Sttp^ 
posed that this is the ttfrtninattOn of fha long leviea of vcA- 
canoes which stretch ftota the island of JavHi northward 
through Sumatra, fiarten Island, the island of Kar eon date, 
and those of Cheduba and Kamri on the coast of Arracttti, 
where tli6 traces of Volcanic agency are lost: they appear 
again in the Mountahrt of Tiperah. The sotrihem deetivi- 
ties of the Tiperah Mountains are noted fer imaatense 
forests of bamboo and large birds of elephants. The 
northern declivities are also Covered with f:>rettt9 of treoa 
and bamboos, from which the inhabitanta of the |d«in derive 
great profit, but they resort also to the^ hitft teoultivate 
cotton, which does not gro^ in the plain. The tjtrantity of 
cotton which is raised is barely snffldent fer dowfestic con- 
sumption. It is short in staple, bat tbedotha made from it 
combine warttth with lightness. 

Bivers.'-The largest of the rivera df dilhet it called in 
the upper part of its conrse Ifaral, and hi the lower part 
Soorma. The fiarak originates in the mourrtain regiort 
north of the plain of Muneepoor[Mtnfsai<K)ft], near fs" 30' 
N. lat. and 94* 20' K. lone., and traverses in a souffr* 
west and south by we^ direction the mountain region 
which connecta the Tiperah Mountains with the Bura Ail 
range. AfCer a course exceeding a hundred miles, it meets 
with the Bokman ridge of the Tiperah Mountains, which 
compels the river to change its southern nrto a northern 
course. Flotring in that direction 30 miles, it ttirns round 
the northern extremity of the Bokman ridge westward^ and 
thus enters the plain, where it Iwgins to be navigable, a few 
miles above Lukipoor. It runs westward with mimeteflft 



wittMiM *1%ami^ the utoer pUin in ob« etoniel for 4i 
miles, bc(t hwVrog passed the northern extremity of the 
Bamoai^tdgev it beirtnato £videat Banga. In these parts tbe 
nanaie of Sooma b^na to prevatt. The northern arm, or 
the Soordia, flows rionf the ionthent base oT the Kaata 
Meitntaina with rtertereoa wio dt H|f av aametimea approeeh^ 
ing the hille and tomathiiev reoefing f&ym Ibemy vmil H 
rM6he«r the to#n ef SeRamgui^ after a eotfraa of 9e taiieay 
when it terns aontfaward, and in that dtreet^ert trav^ravag 
the lo^er plain, ioifts theaaotheni «te aAef laiviiit ton 7e 
miles. Thesontflern arm ef theriwfr br a ti dih i g cff at Bang» 
bears ditrerent nonea, bet in Us upper OawrM it is generalFy 
known by ttiitt of Keaiara, and i« Ihe tarwar by that of INtrak 
or Brak. Ita direetton thrdegli the phmi if weal-seo«ii^w<^st 
for about loe miles, when it join* tbe Soorma, and the 
united river joMrs the Mc«na near Surnarampeor by a mere 
southern coarse of abourt 20 miles; These appear to be ihe 
prineip^l bfanebes of the riVer, bne both ef theA divide and 
sobdivide again to frequently, that the whole df the krvter 
phiiff is traversed by nunarMie waterconraev^ all ef whidi 
join,diher ainrly or nnitedf, the Megmf between the towe of 
Oaribari and tfiat ef 9unerampeor^ Which are more (ban >(fO 
nritea from enfe another. Nearly ail these water eonrilea are 
napH^ble for bodts, and greatly fwiitate the trafispert ef 
grain ftew the upper plain ef Silhet to otker distrietfl ef 
Bengal. It is ebserved that these rivera are sirbjeet te 
change their beds in the dfstncte whieh aqtoroaoh tbe Megna^ 
whieb iff the eaM^witb the SoorMw ksdf beldw Acmeri- 

Of the rivaas wbidl joift the Bra hma poDtra or Lohtt,^ we 
shall enly mentien the Deoyeng and the Deyungf. The 
flrat-mentk>ned river, whidt thlls intw the Brahaaapeotra 
west of 94^ E. long., prababiy riaea nertb east of the souiee 
of the Baraks bet Ita sonree haa not beeh asoertained. Its 
ceorse is nearly due north, and aboet 30 asilee from its 
mouth it ia Joined on the left by tbe river Dbunsiri, whioh 
rises in the Bnra A^ Moentaimi^ and skirts their northern 
dedivity ibr ioore tkma 9^ mitoa* The Dooyung, ae weH 
as the Dhwnsiri, ia nwvigable. Tbe Deyung rises in the 
Bum Alt Momitaina near 9^ B. long., and after having 
been joined by same sniatl rivert it beoemes navigable about 
20 mHea below its §imfoB at Aloogong (^a** 25' N. lat.), end 
oootinnaa to be navigable te ita meutb, with the eiiaeptien 
ofonepAateyWhareaMfe of rooks trevarsea the bed of the 
river. The Dayeng is Tnned ftem the left by tbe KepiH, 
and from the east by the Soemaona riVer* of which the latter 
is navigable abeut 30 silee above ita nsemh. It is not 
known hew htr tbe Kepili ie navigable, but this insfiortani 
point will aoen be a i e e tt aih a d ^ aa it is sw ppese d thai a gdod 
road, made b^ween the placea v^ere tbe Kepili and the 
Jatinga^ att aflhmt of die Bar«k« baoanie navigaiiie» n^W 
establish an easy eemniunieatwn betwaen Aaaaa and tbe 
(daily ef Mbat. 

C7teMila^-*Tbe dnnata ef tbe lower iMn doea net appear 
todiiftRr ki anyrespeet ftem that ef Benyptl [Bbnoal^ vMi, 
iv./ p#23a^ ,' but the upper plain heethe advantage of earlier 
nnnfl^ whieh bagto to Mt in February^ and beeeme mtn 
abendewt in tbe fbMvwhig moiithsk Owing pffci4»flMy te 
tbaae rains, tbe krwer plam ef Mbet ia oodar water earlier 
thai! that of Lower Bengal. 

I¥odudt9om.'^ln the ibresta cft theTipemb MauBtaine 
there are herds ef elephanta, many ef whiek are annnaHy 
sent fo Catentta, where bowever tbey are teekoned inferior 
in aiae and qfoabty to those braiight ftem Cbtttagong. 
Among the minani^ the ohumam, or lime, perhaps is still 
(he most iofpertanti as large ^inantities of it are taken from 
die ItnM-btbs wlttob skirt the Garrew and Kasia Mountaina 
at ^endua and ikrther west, whanea it is eoovayed by 
water to Gakulla and ether placea in Bengal. Many yeara 
ago eoal waa disoeverad in tbe Garrew and Kaaia Moun- 
tains^ btft it waa net tamed te aa^ pTalH awtil the introduc- 
tion of stean»<navigaiioii« It ia now knowa that eoal ia 
found on the tabNMandf ef the Kaaia Motrntcina at Gbirra* 
Punji and SeMWitor and at tbe base of these mountains neat 
Stlliet an^ Laawr. Bat none ef these aoaMepasits seem to 
be extensive. It ie hewever stated that these whfiah oecar 
in the C«riba«4 HUle and ak^g the aootherw bonndaries of 
Asam, betb whieib loaalitiea are within the GarreW Metnn 
tains^ are net biferkfr in aKtMVt to a«y in En gl a nd , ken-efti 
ia abun^hnt in tbe Kesiv Moaataisa north of Chirra^-Paoji, 
where it is worked, affi whence iron ksewt te Baagat 

/nAoMMn^.-^-Tbe briMbitema of Bilhet Proper are Be»* 
gaiii^aad hardly dMMfalsbabU tMm tkel noa nl tbe dia* 


S I L 

4ric|s farlher west. )lkit amon^ tliatti Caere are also mtmf 
famHies of Hindustani and Pernan origin, who are di&tin* 
l^uished by their features and the stronger make of the 

The Kacharis form the bulk ef the population m Kaeliar, 
but they are also found in Asam and Ttperah* They coii» 
•tiiute adifttiact people, differing in appearance, religion, and 
customs frem the other inhabitants. The antiept religion 
of JCachar is different from Brahmaoism. It aoknowledges 
a Supreme Being, or first principle, from which the world 
apd all that it contains is deciired. The manifest poweia of 
^lature are wgrsfaipped, or rather, certain spiriU who htve 
authority over (hem and influence the changes of the 
seasons. But ifi modem times Qrahmanism has i^sHied 
footing, and is spreading. The Kacharis have a distinct 
language, but •» it is unwritten, it has been superseded 
fo|r ail purposes of business by the Bengali for many cen- 
turies, 80 that at present the language is not known by 
many of the Kacharis themselves. The Kacharis are in* 
dustrious agriculturists. 

The Kasias, commonly called Cossyas, call theosselves 
Khyee, and inhabit the mountains, which luive obtained 
their name fh>m this nation. Tliey are an athletic race of 
mountaineers, fond of martial appeamnoe, and their repu^ 
tatiop as warriors is hardly extinct, for their extensive pre*- 
datory inroad^ ar§ still remembered in fiilhet and Asam. 
Jheir religion is limited to eertoin eupersiitious practices, 
and to reverencing and sacrificing to the presiding deitiee 
of villages, hilU, and similar localities, without the know- 
ledge of a univiarsal and all-pervadini; intelligence. Brah- 
man ism has made some progress among the Kapias, espa- 
eially those of Jyntea, but it has not led Co the entire aboli* 
lion of their national .superstitions, connected with which 
was the practice of humap sacrifice. The Khyee language 
is unwritten, and exhibits no affinity to any of the neigh* 
bearing languan;es, son^e of which, numerous and diver*- 
sited as they are, contain various indications of a common 
origin* ^o gre^t respect is paid by the Kasaas to hereditary 
efaiefs, though thejr rank is readily admitted, but their m- 
^uence depends mQre on their perwnal character and their 
power to direct the public assemlilies without which nothing 
IS determined either in tbe community collectively or in 
the several villages. It was reserved to (he British f^overa* 
ment to subdue the martial disposition of this people, and 
to c%)i9|i0l them to discontinue their predatory incursions 
into Silhet and Asam. Polyandry is said to exist among 
the Kasks, but if it i§ still in use, it is far from being 

The Nagas are another race of mountaineers, consisting 
of nuD^erous small tribes, which extend from the southern 
border of the vale of Asam, east of the Kopili river, to the 
eastern portion of the Tiperah Mountains. On the north- 
eaat they am^r to b# npighlw^rs of iljo K)i»mM9f Jb^y 
»»• leiiQViiUy tf»iagi t l(aJ ^^^h ilie %.n^}^ frpm w^om bpwr 
PFer they Wfer «6^ef|tij|)ly ip lan^uagj?, customs, ftp4 »lh 
fkeaiaaee. 33i9wh m si^i^ertil tall, yfeW m^de, ap«l pftep 
IMHverfp} mm, tM Ijf^b^pr th^^ No^Qt^ Ijaire ppt the nmiii^e 
/aanfigjiisatipii gf ih4]§e qf f he Kaku atid oth^jr Jiill-p^pp. 1$ 
•IHMfMra fr«m lUe f^^MW P*^' Uw)^' f^^P \-k^ ^^^y b'^lpng to 
the Moogelie ra^, fhe Nagas afe pot a migratory or waiir 
4er«pg ii0eplf,)i]K(? th^ bjll iMpb^r^ apd S4t]ps, v^ho eonr 
tiou#My obange tlv^r Ip^^lify* apd seldom keep their yil- 
Igges mfm thi^p thrive y^r^ m W spp^ whilst the N^gas 
lie^ajn Aiied. AU their -vill^gAH 9^ built op the t^ps of 
tb» moiM^taipe, a«4 ^^^M Vii^^ stoej^ades (^pd a ditck 
J^k» .the patioQS ti^ i^MU ^ peninsula beyond the 
GftPgeHi tivij M ^ Kin^ls of apppaU^ tig^p^ elephants, 
keig9» d(9gs, eats, ^ippkiays, an4 even ^rjtepts. Jt is eertaip 
tiif^ithe differi9]H ^^alect^ \;|Fhtcb %r^ spp^en by them .differ 

9§ mmk tW#eyetn^ViM iivipg npt &r irpn^ ppe a^^otl^r 
Dan hȴP HP iQi^epv(HiK^ ?>7tl}<^ ^fl iaterpr^^er<> jS^vprftl of 
tbeNT tritm 9f^ a^nisj^ »4dicted to plundering. Jn 1839 
seme ^oppe vpr^ sent by the $ri^isf^ e&^ip^ the Apgap)ee 
V»m» wl¥> ipl^tt ^M iQCHif^no^s^pptry ^orth of the 
Bpra Ail fapgp, UpA bud boMnu^ very prppbjl^^ppjjB V> tfee 
Kael^rie wbo ipl»%b^ V??^^ K^Hn 

Tiie KpIUs iplli^bit (lie Tiperah MoiipJ^ains. Ji few ff^milies 
of this race, which are found in Upper Kachar, have .b^n 
trsPaplanted to Ih^ eppntry ix^ modern Mi^e^- Thqugh 
«}iort pf stature, ^y s^ni tp be the piost powerful of all 
4hp 6BA|i^taip#(Brs ip th^ part of the world, and have long 
hwo aptorippefor tlieir ^ttaokapa tl^e peaceful inhabitants 
iflimMlh BP^ fs^ ^ JN^rpo^ ,of p(jjtB4eriPjg t|)i^9, but ^n 

SI h 

erder to kiU tKem and pMny off thmr headp. These headt 
are used in certaip peremonies whiph are performed at the 
funerals of their chiefs. In this pariieular. apd also in^ir 
features, which approad^ those of the Chinese and pt^ 
nations pf the ^longpl race, thi^ resemble l^iOa^rows, who 
also, like the Kukis, eat aU kipd« of apimals, Bpt both 
pations, as well as the Nagea, apd the Muge ip AiTapap* 
cppnpt be induced tP take milk, at an/thipg iPAdp of it. 
This airaflarity in onstpms, and alep ip Uieir physical cba^ 
raeter, leads tp tlie epnclueien that all these patiops belopg 
tP tlie same repe ef which the Chipeee eops^itPte a brappbf 
It is however remarkable that Ihe Gprrpws are ^parpt^ 
from those nations by the Kasia^ pnd Kaehari«, who 4iffe? 
ip the cpnlormatipn ef their bodice, and ap^opg whom all 
the customs lust enumeffatad are upknpWQ* U i$ nearly 
oertain that the Kukis are eannibals* 

Politieal IHvmons and Toumsj-rTh^t pprtiop pf Silbpt 
which forms a part of the Britieb ppsiessippff. eoptaips the 
district of 8ilhet, and the two eppptries of Jypipa a{i4 
Kachar, which have lately been annexed to it, 

1. fiilhpt comprehends the wholp pf the Ipwpr pnd e pprt 
pf the upper plain as far east as the BaPCfi MpHptpiPf or 
the Delaaeri river. It seems te poptpin Pippy 9m»U tpwny^ 
apd spme ef eonsiderable extent. Thp larger h prpb^blf 
Baniaehun^, situated in the low plaip betWPPP t}ie 8op;nv% 
and Brak rivM-s. U is the residenep of the raj» pf 8pi)j»r 
chung^ the greatest land prq>rietpr ip Silhet, and is p Iprgp 
place, containing a great population^ 7*he tofvp of A^pien 
rigunj, west of Baniaehung, on the bank^ of the 3pprpi9, m 
a place of considerable inland traffic, w^h P boat^-bpiidipg 
establishment for thpconstruetioppf native craft, The towp 
of Silhet is built OP the upper plaip, op tbe banks of the 
Soorma. and is the seat of the local gpvernp)pnt. I^our, 
fiirlher west, at the foot of the Garrows Mouptj^ins, carries 
on a considerable coipmerce wilb ibe 6»rrpw^ whp bring 
cotton, wax, and honey, which ihey ei^eh^nge fpr salt ana 
some cotton-cloth and brass ornamepts. J,<ipip is ^nt from 
this pjiace to CaUutta. Pondua, a §mall fortress, at the 
base of the Kasia Mountains norlh-norlb-wpst of Calcutta, 
is the market for the Kasias, who inhabit the western part of 
the raopntain region. They exchapge wax, honey, prapgesy 
areoa nuts, cassia, and ptlier products of their P9pntry» for 
CPttoa atufiSh sait, rice, apd pther prpvisipps, 

2. Jyntea lies north of the upper plain of Silhet, of which 
a small norlion also belongs to it, and it extends northward 
to the ooundary of Asam, where also a part of the low 
and flat country was subject to its raja, but ihe greater por- 
tion of this country was in the Kasia Mountains, and the 
l^asias constituted the principal population of the raja's ter- 
ritory. Eastward it extended to the Kopi)i, or the boun- 
dary of Kachar ; and on the west it was separated (rom the 
mountains inhabited by the Garrows by two sn^aller ooun- 
Uies» pallpd Jfoir;ii3i nnd Pullfti whose sovciL'i^nij however 
^eem to have been (U pendent in soqoe degree on the ra^a of 
Jyntea, aa they now are m\ the British. Jjnieapopr, the 
capitpl, i^ bpiU not far frpip the soiilhern deL-iivity of the 
KikfipMouptains in the plain* about 20 mUe^ to the north of 
tjip tpwp pf Sfjbet, Tbe convalescent sialion. of Chirra 
Punji |s ip the t£ n itoi iti4i of ihe raj^ of Eou-qtH] and that of 
Nupgklpp i)S ^ those of thf^ raja of Dulla, 

3. jCaph^r, or Kirumbha, ejieuds over the biger part of 
the upper plain* and rise wbeb of the tnfumtain region 
which is epst pf Ibe KopiU and west of th^^ Dooyatig. But 
witbin thpse boundaiids are tlie territories uf tbe Toolerani 
raja, pnd thp ccuntry inhabited by the Anganiee Naga 
tribe, wfiiph i^ qiutp infWpendent, wbtl^st ibe Tooleram raja 
is 4ep^ndent on tiie Brili^lu Tbe countiyis cXuefly inha- 
bited by Kacliaras among whom many Naga tnbt^s are di§r 
persed, and also a. number ofKuki^, Bengi^Ha, qh^I fugitives 
frpn^ Mupeepoor. Kacbpoor, tho capiial, U nn the plain 
betwpep i\\e bppks of tbe Barak river and the base of the 
Burp Ail range: it is a poor place. East of it, and south of 
the ppss pf Haflong, u the viliage of Oodarbund, which is 
OipctL rpsorted tc by the Naga tribes, who exetiange cotton, 
>VQry^>r;^x, and cblUiea, for salt, dried Osb, conch shelly, 
hi^aas, and brass ornapi tints* But the chief part of the 
cotton ppllected in ibe^e parts is brouglit in boats to Ijaba 
Chocky ip Asam. 

History. — Silnet Proper j^eeii^s always to have beep sub- 
ject to the sovereign of Ben^^l, and it passed \Fith thaf pro 
vippe up(]er ihe dominip^ of the British : but it does not 
pppear that ^nv pprtfon of (he mountain region, or evei| 
jtf9wpr Jtpcl^ar, ppj» ^ver b|B)pnged to any sovereigp of Hin 

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4u8tan. Some centuries agn however the greater part of 
these countries was included in the empire of Kamroop, 
which also extended over the greater part of Asam. This 
^irpire fell to pieces, and then the kingdoms of Muneepoor, 
Kachar, and Jyntea were formed. Continual disputes in 
<he reigning families rendered them weak, but the dif- 
ficulties of entering their country with an army secured 
them against foreign invasion. The English* after taking 
possession of Bengal, did not pay attention to these coun- 
tries, considering this frontier sufficiently defended by the 
weakness of their neighbours. In 1774 they punished tbe 
Kasias of Jyntea for their predatory incursions by taking 
possession of that country, but restored it to the raja on 
payment of a fine. The Burmese, taking advantage of dis- 
putes in the royal fkmily of Muneepoor, possessed them- 
selves of that country, and at last (1820) declared it to be a 
oart of their empire, and they soon after sent an army from 
Birma, and another from Asam, to the conquest of Kachar. 
Vpon this the sovereign of that country and the raja of 
Jyntea placed themselves under tbe protection of the 
British. During the war with the Burmese, the possession 
'of these countries was obstinately disputed, but by the peace 
of Yandaboo (1826) they were given up to the British, who 
^restored them to their legitimate sovereigns. In 1830 tbe raja 
^f Kachar, Govind Chandra, died, without leaving any issue, 
and the East India Company took possession of Kachar. A 
iSsw years afterwards the raja of Jyntea was deprived of his 
•country on account of his crimes and his cruelty, and since 
Ihat time both countries have been united to Silbet. 

(Walter's Journey acro$s the Pundoa HilU^ in Asiatic 
Sttteearchee, vol. xvii. ; Pemberton*s Report on the Eaetem 
Freuiier of British India; MacClelland, On the Dif- 
ferenee qf Level in Indian Coal-flelde, in Journal qf the 
Jkiatie Society qf Bengal, 1838 ; Grange's Narrative qf an 
Expedition into the Naga Territory qf Assam, in Jownal 
of Aeimt, Society of Bengal, 1839; Fisher's Memoir of 
Sylhet, Kachar, and the adjacent Districts, in Journal of 
the Asiatic Soc. qf Bengal, \S40;Vfi\MOQ'% History of the 
Burmese fVar,) 

SILHOUETTE, a name frequently applied to the black 
praile portraits commonly known simply as profiles or 
shadee. The latter name indicates tbe origin of this simple 
class of pictorial representations, they having been probably 

suggested by the shadow thrown upon a wall. Beckmann, 
in his paper on * Plant Impressions * (Hist, qf Inventions, 
English edit, of 1814, vol iv., p. 621), obser\'es, in reference 
to such productions and profile portraits, ' If it be true that 
the extreme boundaries of all things approach or touch each 
other, one might almost believe that the arts of drawing and 
engraving on copper must have attained nearly to the 
highest degree of perfection.' ' At present,' he continues, 
* while we have among us a Tischbein, a Haid, and other 
great artists, whose portraits of the persons whom they 
honour with their pencil or graver are such striking like- 
nesses that they appear to live, we return again to tbe 
commencement of the art of drawing, tbe paltry outline of 
a shadow, like the love-sick daughter of Dibutades, and 
think we ornament our apartments and books with these 
dark and dismal profiles, and that we can discover by them 
the talents and disposition of the persons they are supposed 
to represent.* The name silhouette has been said to be 
derived from Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of 
finance in 1759. It appears that several parsimonious 
fashions introduced dunng his administration, in order, by 
severe economy, to remedv tbe evils of a war that had just 
terminated, were called, after this minister, d la Silhouette; 
and that the name has continued to be applied to one of 
them, — the use of profiles in shade. 

Silhouettes are executed in various ways. One of the 
simplest is that of tracing the outlines of a shadow thrown 
on a sheet of paper, and then reducing them to tbe required 
size, either by the eye or by means of a pantograph. (Pan- 
tograph, vol. xvii., p. 19 2. J Another mode is tracing the 
outline upon a i^lass supported in a suitable position, and 
either coated with a solution of gum-arabic in water, in order 
to enable a lead pencil to mark upon it, or covered with a 
sheet of very thin tracing-paper. The camera-obscura and 
cameralucida are also occasionally used for the purpose. 
A more certain mode of obtaining an accurate outlme is by 
the use of the machine invented for the purpose by Mr. 
Schmalcalder, and patented by him in 180Q. The prin- 
ciple of this machine is very simple, and may be readily 
understood by the aid of the annexed d agram. a 6 is an 
inflexible rod, usually about nine or ten feet long, supported 
by a ball-and-socket joint at c, in such a manner as to leave 
the ends free to move in any direction. At the end a, a 

Iracer, which is tapered off to a fine point, is attached to 
ihe rod, so as to form a continuation of it ; while at the 
opposite end, b, a steel point is similarly fixed. The person 
whose profile is required is seated, in the position indicated 
in the cut, in a chair having a rest for the back of the head, 
in order that he may sit perfectly still, while the operator 
gently passes the side of the tracer, a, over his features. By 
4he intervention of the universal joint at c, a perfectly similar 
motion is communicated to the steel point at b, although, 
•owing to the pivot being placed nearer to it than to the other 
«nd of the rod, it moves in a path smaller than that of the 
tracer a. The pivot c being stationary, the steel point at b 
moves in the arc of a circle of which it (the pivot) is the 
centre, as indicated by the dotted line in the diagram ; and 
therefore, in order to keep the paper always in contact with 
it, it is fixed on a swinging Ixmrd, pivoted at d, and con- 
stantly pressed against the steel point by means of a weight 
or spring, with a sufiScient degree of force to make it act 
cflSciently. The steel point does not come into immediate 
contact with the white paper, but with a piece of blacked 
paper placed over it, the pressure of the pNoiut transferring 
a sufficient quantity of the colour to form a distinct line. 
This part of the operation resembles that of a manifold- 
writer ; and, as in that instrument, several copies may be 
produced simultaneously, bv using a number of pieces of 
whiteand blacked paper, laid alternately upon the swinging 
board. The size of tne reduced outline drawn on the paper 
mav be regulated by varying the relative proportions of ac 
and cb; this and several other adjustments being effected 
by apparatus which it is unnecessary here to detail. By 
means of a cprd eee, held in the hand of the operator, the 

swinging board d may be drawn back from the steel point 
when it is required to move the rod without making a mark 
upon the paper. As it is desirable to have the tracer a of 
small diameter, it is usually formed of steel, and carefully 
tempered, to avoid the risk of breakage. Greater accuracy 
may be attained by substituting for the tracer a thin wire, 
tiglitly stretched in a bow, and adjusted so as to coincide 
perfectly with the axis of the rod. Some friction may be 
avoided by using a double-swivel joint, instead of the ball- 
and-socket, at e ; but whatever kind of pivot be adopted, 
great care should be taken to have it perfectly accurate, as 
any defect in it will produce a distorted drawing. When 
the outline of a profile is obtained by any of the means just 
described, it requires to be carefully filled in with colour by 
hand. In some ci^^es, in the use of Schmalcalder's machine, 
a kind of knife is substituted for the steel point at *, and 
the profile is thus cut out of a piece of thin black paper 
placed on the swinging board. This machine may also be 
used for making rSluced copies of drawings or prinu, by 
attaching a suitable tracmg-point at a, and fixing the origi- 
nal drawing on a second swinging board in contact with it; 
the operator guiding the tracing-point over all the outlines 
that he wishes to copy. Some profilists display considerable 
talent in cutting silhouettes by hand, with a pair of scissors, 
out of pieces of black paper, without the assistance of an 
outline. «. ^ # 

Although silhouettes have no claim to the character of 
works of art, they frequently convey a very good idea w tlie 
person represented ; and they may be made even elegant in 
appearance. Some of tbe best profilists greatly improv* 
the ^pearance of their silhouettes by adding the principal 

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markings of the bair and dmper)', vbich, if judiciously 
done, has a very good effect. Oftbe great extent ta whicU 
this kind of portrait bag been patronised, some idea may be 
formed from the fact that Mr. Sohmalcalder has made and 
fiold nearly a hundred of his machines. 

SILVCIUM, or SI'LICON, the base of the well-known 
earth SiUca or Flint By some chemists it is regarded as a 
metal, and lience the termination of its name in urn , while 
others consider it as non-metallic, but more allied to boron» 
and these adopt the term Silieon, 

Sir H. Davy, by acting upon Silica with potassium, ar- 
rived at the oonclusion that it wes an oxide, containing a 
peculiar inttammable base, to which he gave the name of 
Silicium ; the accuracy of this determination has since been 
demonstrated by Berzelius. 

In Davy's experiments the silica yielded its oxygen 
directly to the potassium. The process of Berzelius was 
different : he prepared it more ad\'antageously by passing 
iluosilicic acid into a solution of potash, evaporating the 
solution to dryness, and heating the residue nearly to red- 
ness; this being then heated with about an e^ual weight of 
potassium in a green glass tube, the potassium combines 
with the oxygen of the silica ; the resulting mass is of a 
brown colour, and is to be washed at first with cold water, and 
afterwards with hot ; then heated to redness ; and, lastly, 
digested in dilute hydrofluoric acid, to separate any adhering 
silica:' the silicon then remains nearly pure. 

The properties of silicon are, that it has a rlark-brown 
colour, no lustre, and is a non-conductor of electricity : it is 
this latter circumstance which has induced many chemists 
to question or denv the propriety of classing it with the 
metals. It i& insoluble in water, and incombustible in air 
or in oxygen gas; it neither fuses nor undergoes any other 
change when heated in the ilame of the blow-pipe. Neither 
the nitric, hydrochloric, sulphuric, nor hydrofluoric acid 
oxidizes or dissolves it ; but a mixture of nitric and hydro- 
fluoric acid dissolves it readily, even cold. When ignited 
with chlorate of potash, silicon is not acted upon ; but if 
deflagrated with nitrate of potash, the silicon combines with 
the oxygen of the decomposed acid, and is converted into 
silica, or silicic acid ; and this uniting with the potash of 
the decomposed nitrate, silicate of potash is formed. 

Oxygen and Silicon form only one compound, namely, 
ailica, or silicic acid. It may be obtained artificially, but 
very inconveniently, in the mode just mentioned, of defla- 
grating silicon with nitrate of potash. Silica exists very 
largely in nature ; it is indeed probably the most abundant 
of all substances whatever. Many of (he forms under 
which it occurs are described elsewhere. [Quartz.] Rock 
crystal is silica, nearly or quite pure, and flints or white 
sand are but slightly intermixed with other bodies. It is 
artificially obtained in a pure form by fusing crystal, sand, 
or flints, with about four times their weight of carbonate 
of soda or carbonate of potash ; the resulting fused mass is 
either silicate of soda or silicate of potash ; the latter is a 
deliquescent substance, and when it has become fluid by 
exposure to the air, has been long known by the name of 
liquor of flints ; when either of these silicates is treated with 
hydrochloric acid diluted with water, it combines with the 
alkali, and with any impurity which the sand or flint might 
contain, such as lime, alumina, or oxide of iron, and pre- 
cipitates the silica as a hydrate in the state of a colourless 
gelatinous mass. It possesses the following properties : — 

When recently precipitated, and while it retains the state 
of moist hydrate, it is to a certain extent soluble in water, 
and still moro so in acids, and also in solution of potash or 
soda. When it has been dried, it is an opaque white powder, 
inodorous, insipid, and gritty, and then with more difficulty 
soluble in the alkahne solutions, and scarcely at all so in any 
other acid than the hydrofluoric. It is infusible by the heat 
of ordinary furnaces, but by the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe it 
is more readily fused than lime or magnesia. Its specific 
gravity is about 2*7. 

It consists of 

1 Equivalent of Oxygen . . 8 
1 Equivalent of Silicon . . 8 

Equivalent . . 16 

Although this substance is tasteless, and does not change 
vegetable blue colours red, and is insoluble in water, except 
under the peculiar circumstances mentioned, it is neverthe- 
less by many chemists considered as and classed with acids, 
under the name of Silicic acid; and the various compounds 
P. C, No. 1360. 

I whicit it mak6s With alkalis and earths, to form glais, are 
considered as salts. Thus with potash it forms silicate of 
potash ; with soda, silicate of soda ; and with oxide of lead, 
silicate of lead; and these are all constituents of glass. 
China and porcelain, on the other hand, may be regarded 
as silicates of alumina and magnesia, and mortar is probably 
a silicate of lime. ^ 

It must be evident fW>m what has been stated, that silica 
is a substance of the utmost importance in many respects ; 
it enters largely into the constitution of minerals, rocks, and 
fossils, and is employed in the manufacture of glass, porce- 
lain, pottery, bricks, tiles, and mortar. 

The compounds which silicon forms with other elements 
are comparatively unimportant* we shall mention only u 
few of them, and those but briefly. 

Chlorine and Silicon may be made to combine by heating 
the silicon in chlorine gas, or by passing the gas over silicon 
hea*ted to redness in a porcelain tube ; or, according to Oersted, 
by passing chlorine gas over a red-hot mixture of finely 
powdered silica and charcoal. 

Chloride of Silicon is composed of 

1 Equivalent of Chlorine . . 36 
1 Equivalent of Silicon . . 8 

Equivalent . . 44 

It is a volatile liquid which emits acid fumes ; when ex- 
posed to moist air. or mixed with water, both are decom- 
posed, and the results are hydrochloric acid and silica. 

FliuHne and Silicon. [Fluosilicic Acid.J 

Metale with Silicon. — Some of the metals may be com- 
bined with silicon : these compounds, which are not impor- 
tant, are termed Silidureu. Some varieties of cast-iron 
contain nearly 8 per cent of the siliciuret of that metal. 

SILI'CULA (in Botany), a kind of fruit. In its structure 
it resembles the Siliqua [Siliqua], and differs in nothmg 
but its figure, which is rounded and much shorter, and in 
the number of its seeds. It is never more than four times 
as long as broad, and often much shorter. Examples of it 
may be seen in the whitlow-grass (Draba), in the shop- 
herd's-purse iCapsella), and in the horse-radish. 

Sl'LIQU A (in Botany), a kind of fruit It is characterised 
by having one or two cells, with many seeds, dehiscing by 
two valves, which separate from a central portion called the 
renlum. It is linear in form and is always superior to the 
calyx and corolla. The seeds are attached to two placentse, 
which adhere to the replum, and are opposite to the lobes 
of the stigma. This position of the seeds, being abnormal, 
can only be explained in two ways : either this fruit is in 
reality composed of four cai*pels, two of which have, during 
the growth of the pistil. l)ecome abortive; or the stigmas 
must be looked upon as the fusion of two halves, one from 
each side. The dissepiment of the fruit in this case is 
most probably a spurious one formed by lbe projecting 
placentsD. It is sometimes found incomplete, from the 
edges of the placentaa not meeting; it is then said to be fe- 
nestrcUe, This kind of seed-vessel is possessed by a large 
number of plants belonging to the order Cruciferee, and ex- 
amples may be seen in the stock or wall-flower iCheiran' 
thus), in the ladies' smock (Cardamine), and in the cabbage, 
turnip, and mustard. The Linniean class Tetradynamia 
is divided into two orders, according to the form of its fruit : 
those plants of the class having a silique are comprised 
under the order Siliquosa; those having a silicic [Sili- 
cula], under the order Siliculosa. 

SI'LIQUA (Megerle), a genus belonging to the Leeth 
minana. Sebum., and consisting of those species of SoTen^ 
Auct.. which are furnished with an internal tih-^Solen m- 
diatus for example. [Pyloridians.] 

SIUQUA'RIA. [Vkrmetus] 

SlLl'STRIA, a sandjak (district) of Bulgaria, in Euro- 
pean Turkey, situated between 42^ 12' and 45** 22' N. lat., 
and 26** 11' and ^O"* 3' E. long., is one of the most fertile 
parts of Turkey. This sandjak is bounded on the north 
by the Danube and Sireth, which separate it from Mol- 
davia and Bessarabia ; on the east by the Black Sea ; on 
the south by the sandjaks of Kirk-kilissia and Tchirmen ; 
and it has on the west Rustchuk and Lower Wallachia. It 
is crossed in the south by the Balkan, which forms Cape 
Emineh, at the termination of the mountain-range * and 
by a ramification of less height in a northern direction 
which terminates on the Black Sea in Cape Calaghriah. 
From these heights descend the numerous riven which 
fertilise the province: the Pravadi, the Buyuk-Campt« 

Voi. XXIL-C 

S I L 


S I L 

Chik, the Nadir, and the Aidos flow into the Black 
Sea, into which the Danube empties itself on the northern 
extremity of the province, after receiving the Dristra, the 
Taban, and the Karasu. It is chiefly an agricultural 

SILISTRIA, or Drysira, the antient name of which is 
Dorostero or Durosterum, in 44* 7' N. lat 9JQd 27' 12' E. 
lon^., 155 miles north-north-east of Constantinople, is the 
capital of the sandiak which bears the same name. The 
town is large, and defended by a citadel, which is kept in 
good order, and surrounded by double walls and ditches. 
The city itself is surrounded by ditches from twelve to fif- 
teen feet deep, and defended by strong palisades. The fort 
is sitii^kted on the extreme west of the town, which, upon the 
whole, is ill built ; the streets are narrow and crooked, the 
houses low and dull ; even the five mosques and the two 
public baths partake of the general ugliness. There is how- 
ever at the eastern extremity ofthe town a custom-house ifi a 
better style of architecture. The large magazines which sur- 
round it contain chiefiy corn and fiour. As it is a fortress 
built on the northern frontier, in the neighbourhood of the 
Danube, and is principally of a military character, the com- 
merce has never been flourishing; and although many mer- 
chants have lately settled in Silistria, it is not likely that 
any greater commercial activity will be the consequence. 
The population amounts to 20,000, the greater part of whom 
are Greeks. 

The environs of the town are rather pleasant, and the 
numerous vineyards which border the Danube give them a 
cheering aspect. There are also ruins, which are said to 
have formed part of the wall raised by the Greek emperors 
against the incursions of the barbarians. 

Silistria has frequently been the theatre of sharp actions 
between the Ruissians and the Turks. It was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the Russians in 1773, and was again attacked by 
them in 1 779, on which latter occasion they suffered a con- 
siderable loss. In 1828 General Rosh was obliged to retreat 
after besieging the town for some months ; but it fell into 
the hands of the ^.ussians in 1829, when Generals Diebitch 
and Krassowski took it by assault on the 30ih of June. 

SI'LIUS IT A'UCUS, CAIUS. The place of this poet's 
birth is unknown. It has sometimes been stated that the 
name is derived from Italica (near Seville) in Spain, and 
that this was the birth-place of himself or of his ancestors. 
But to this conjecture we must oppose the silence of Martial, 
who frequently mentions Silius without speaking of his 
Spanish origin. The name also ought in that case, accord- 
ing to analogy, to be Italicensis. Silius was of an illustrious 
Elebeian family. He studied oratory, in which Cicero was 
is pattern ; and lie also aspirerl to make himself a poet on 
the model of Virgil. He is said to have possessed himself 
of a country-house that had belonged to Cicero, and of one 
that had belonged to Virgil. (Martial, Efftg., xi. 48.) In 
tlie year a.d. 68, in the last year of the reign of Nero, he 
was consul with M. Valerius Trachalus Turpilianus; and 
some time after he was governor of the province of Asia, 
which he is said to have administered in a creditable man- 
ner. He was a friend of Vitellius, and appears to be the 
Silius Italicus who is mentioned by Tacitus {HisL, iii. 65). 
There was, says Pliny {Ep-f iii. 7), a rumour that he had 
acted the part of an accuser or informer under the reign of 
Nero ; but while he enjoyed the friendship of Vitellius, he 
conducted himself with prudence. He finally retired to his 
estate in Campania, where he devoted himself to poetry and 
philosophy. Silius was fond of olijects of art, and he en- 
riched his residence with statues, paintings, and books. 
When bis old age became troubled with infirmities, he has- 
tened his death by starvation, in which he followed the 
fashion of those limes, when suicide was not uncommon. 
SiHus was a Stoic. The time of his death is fixed at a.d. 
100, when he is said to have completed his seventy-fifth 
year. He was married, and had two children. He enjoyed, 
says Pliny, unmingled happiness to the day of his death, 
with the exception of the loss of his younger child. 

The only extant work of Silius Italicus is an epic poem 
on the second Punic war, in seventeen books, entitled 
' Punica*' This poem, which may be called an historical 
epic, comprises the chief events of the war from the com- 
mencement of the siege of Saguntum (i. 266), to the deCeat 
of Hannibal in Africa and the triumph of Scipio Africanus. 
[Soipio.] The materials of Silius seem to be chiefly taken 
from Polybius and Livy, and tlie poem has consequently a 
kind of historical value. As a work of art, it has been va- 
riously estimated, but the judgment of the younger Pliny 

(Ep., iii. 7) seems to us to be correct: * Silius wrote with 
more industry than geniua.' His poem is in iaot a \&ry 
laboured composition, and the labour is apparent. Nume- 
rous episodes interrupt the continuity of the narrative. 
Silius falls short of his model, Virgil, in simplicity and 
clearness ; and he endeavours to make up for force and pre- 
cision by rhetorical ornament and long-drawn deseription. 
Instead of making a picture by a few striking touches, he 
fills it with detail till the whole is trivial. His invention is 

foor. There are few passages which excite our sympathies, 
n short, the poem is a rhetorical history in verse. All his 
contemporaries however did not judge so unfavourably of 
him. Martial on several occasions speaks very highly oi 
him, and compares him with Virgil (Ep,, iv. 14 ; vi. 64; vii. 
63; 'perpetui nunquam moritura volumina Sili;* viii. 66; 
ix. 86; xi. 49, 51): he also celebrates his eminence as an 
orator. According to Martial, in an epigram written af^er 
Silius had enjoyed the consulate, he did not attempt to imi- 
tate Virgil till he had acquired distinction as an advocate. 
Martial mentions the court of the Centumviri as one of 
the places in which he practised: PUn^ the younger also 
practised in this court. [Plimy.] 

The poems of Silius seem to have been forgotten after his 
death, if we may judge from the silence of subsequent 
writers as to them. Sidonius Apollinaris is the only writer 
who mentions them. Poggio ia said to have discovered a 
MS. of Silius in the library of the convent of St. Gallon, in 
Switserland, which was printed at Rome, 1471, folio. An- 
other MS. was afterwards found at Cologne by Ludwig Chrrio, 
from which the text of Silius was improved. It was to supply 
the loss of the ' Punica* that Petrarca, as it is said, wrote his 
'Africa.' It has been conjectured that Petrarca had a copy 
of Silius, which he made use of, and carefully suppressed. 
Such conduct would be quite inconsistent with the character 
of Petrarca, and one would suppose that a comparison of the 
two poems would soon determine whether there is any foun- 
dation for such a statement. 

There are numerous editions of Silius. The editio prin- 
ceps is that of Rome already mentioned. There is an edi- 
tion by Drakenborch, Utrecht, 1717, and Mitau, 1 775 ; by 
Ernesti, Leipzig, 1791-2; and by Ruperti, with a prefiice 
by Heyne, Gottingen, 1795-98. 

There is an Bnglish translation by Thomas Ross, London, 
1661, 1672, folio; and a French translation by Le Febvre 
de Villebrune, Paris, 1781, 3 vols. 12rao. 

SILIVRI, a seaport of Romania, in European Turkey, 
in 4r 4' N. laL and 28' 13' E. long., thirty-two miles west 
of Constantinople, is built in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the declivity of a small hill faoing the Sea of Marmara. 
It forms a beautiful objeet when seen from the sea, and 
commands a fine prospect of the Sea of Marmara. The top 
of the hill is crowned by the ruins of a fort, which was 
built under the Greek empire. The population is 1500 
Greeks and 200 Jews. The part of the town below the fort 
is solely occupied by Turks, who are about 4500. The Turks 
have several mosques, and a market-place, which is much 
admired. The harbour admits only small vessels, and is 
generally filled with fishing-boats, which furnish the inha- 
bitants with a plentiful supply of food. The environs of 
the town are covered with vineyards and corn-fields. The 
antient name is Selybria, often written Selymbria. (Steph. 
Byzant., S^Xv/i/Spia ; Strabo, p. 319, Casaub., Sf}Xv/3pta.) It 
was a colony of the Megarians. 

SILK. The manner in which raw silk is produced has 
already been described [Bombycida], and its value when 
wrought and manufactured has also been noticed. [Riband.] 
China was undopbtedly the country in which men first 
availed themselves of the labours of the silk-worm. Serica 
(the country of the Seres) was a name by which the Mace- 
donian Greeks designated the country which produced the 
silk that came overland from the north of China. The au- 
thor of the * Periplus of the Erythnean Sea' speaks of silk 
in Malabar as an article imported from countries farther to 
the east ; fVom which it may be inferred that the culture of 
the silk-worm and the manufacture of silk had not been in- 
troduced even into India four hundred years after silk was 
known in Europe. In speaking of the country of the 
Thinro, the same author observes that both the raw mate- 
rial and manufactured article were obtained there. The 
' Median robes,' spoken of by the Greek writers of the period 
of the Persian empire, and extolled for their lustrous beauty 
and brilliancy, were no doubt silken vestments, as Proco- 
pius, long afterwards, when silk had been introduced into 
Europe, states that * the robes which were formerly called 

S I L 


S I L 

Meditti by the Greeks are now oalled silketi.' Anstotle is 
Ae first Greek author who mentions the silk- worm {Nat, 
Htity V. 19) ; and he states that silk was first spun in the 
island ofCos, but the raw material was still an oriental pro- 
duct ; and Pliny (xi. 22), in commenting on thiis passage, 
states that the silk came from Assyria, and was worked up 
by the Greek women : it may be remarked that Assyria was, 
like Media, frequently Used in an indefinite^sensebvantient 
writers. The probability is that silk was used in Western 
Asia before it was known to the Greeks; and that it was in 
use among the Greeks tong befbre they knew whence the 
substance came or how it was produced. Thus Virgil {Gtorg., 
ii. 121) supposes that the Seres carded the silk from leaves ; 
and Dionysius Periegetes also supposed it to be a vegetable 
product : thus he says,^- 

* Kor flocks not lierds the distant Sens (end i 
But from the flow'n that in the desert bloom 
TiacturM with every varying hue. they cull 
The glossy down, and card it for the loom.* 

Pausanias gives more precise information respecting the 
substatice from which the Seres formed Iheit cloths. 'They 
have,' he says, 'a spinning insect, which is kept in build- 
ings, and produces a fine-spun thread, which is Wrapped 
about its feet* (vi. 26). It was not until the sixth century 
that the obscurity which enveloped this subject was cleared 
up. At this time silk was an article of general use among 
the Romans, and was manufactured for them by the inha- 
bitants of Tyre andBerytus in Phoenicia. The Persians mo- 
nopo\\sed the supply of the raw material, and guarded their 
trade with so much jealousy, both bv land and sea, that 
travellers from or to China were not allowed to traverse the 
Persian dominions; and in the time of Justinian, in conse- 
quence of some interference with the trade, they had en- 
tirely stopped the importation of silk. The trade in silk 
was in this unsatisfactory state, when two Nestorian monks 
of Persia, who had travelled to China, acquainted Justinian 
with the mode of producing silk, and undertook to return 
and hring back with them some of the eggs of the silk- 
worm. They were perfectly succressful in their expedition, 
and a quantity of eggs, secured in a hollow cane, were 
brought in safety to Constantinople, hatched by the heat of 
a dunghill, and fed with mulberry-leaves. The monks also 
taught the subjects of Justinian the art of manufacturing 

The breeding of silk-worms in Europe was for six centu- 
ries confined to the Greeks of the Lower Empire. In the 
twelfth century the art was transferred to Sicily ; in the 
thirteenth century the rearing of silk- worms and the manu- 
facture of silk Were introduced into Italy, from whence it 
Was successively introduced into Spain and France, and in 
the fifteenth century the manufacture was established in 

James I. was extremely solicitous to promote the breed- 
ing and rearing of silk-worms in England ; and in 1608 is- 
Bued circular letters, which were addressed to persons of 
influence throughout the country, recommending the sub- 
ject to them, and arrangements were made fbr the distribu- 
tion of the mulberry in the different counties. Most of the 
old mulberry-trees found in the neighbourhood of antient 
mansions at the present day were planted at the above 
period. The experiment was not successful, in conse- 
quence of our climate being unsuited to the silk-worm. 
James also encouraged the introduction of the silk-worm 
into the English settlements in America. About a century 
afterwards (1718) a company was incorporated, which ob- 
tained a lease for one hundred and twenty-two years of 
Chelsea park, where mulberry-trees were extensively planted, 
and large buildings erected for managing the business of 
breeding silk-worms. This scheme also failed. An attempt 
was next tnade to introduce the silk-worm in the settlements 
of Georgia and Carolina ; the importation o( raw silk from 
these colonies was permitted free of duty, and its production 
was further encouras;ed by direct bounties ; but the quality of 
the silk proved indifferent, and after the trade had languislied 
for some time, the hope of deriving any large supply from 
this quarter was abandoned. About the year 1789 nurse- 
ries of mulberry-trees were planted in several states of the 
Atnerican Union ; but though the climate is not unfavour- 
able to the rearing of silk-worms. Which are found in their 
natural state in the forests, the high rate of Wages is an 
obstacle to this sort of employment, which is belter adapted 
to the social condition of China, Italy, the South of France, 

and Malta, where the wages of labour have nearly reacned 
their minimum. The subiect however has again recently 
attracted attention in the American Union ; and in 1831 a 
small quantity of raw silk was exported. The productiun of 
raw silk is fast extending in British India, ana the quality 
has been for some years gradually improving. There is 
every prospect of the English market bein^ in time almost 
exclusively supplied with silk from our Indian possessions ; 
as labour is not only cheaper than in any part of Europe, 
but three 'crops' of silk may be taken in the year, while 
from countries west of India, including Turkey, only one 
can be obtained. In Graham's 'India,' it is said that in the 
Deccan the mulberry-trees may be deprived of iheir leaves 
six times a year, and that six crops of worms may be ob- 
tained with ease in the same perioa. The Chinese metliod of 
rearing silk-worms, and their mode of treating the mulberry- 
tree (described in Davis's China^ n. 280), were introduced at 
St. Helena, under the auspices of the East India Company, 
but on the expiration of their charter the establishment 
was given up. Some of the silk produced in France is be- 
lieved to be better than that of any country in the world. 
The average price is twenty firanos perlb.^ and the quantity 
produced exceeds three million lbs. The Italian silk is 
also highly esteemed : the Quantity produced is estimated at 
from six to seven million los. In Hussia Peter the Great 
formed mulberry plantations, and the rearing of silk-worms 
was strongly encouraged by the Empress Catharine, and 
at present those who engage in this business obtain many 
important privileges. In Savaria and other parts of Ger- 
many, with the exception of Saxony, the silk-worm is suc- 
cessfully reared as a commercial object ; also in Sweden, 
where the silk is said to possess some valuable pro- 
perties not found in that produced in a warmer latitude. 
The last attempt to introduce the silk- worm in the United 
Kingdom on a large scale was made in 1835, by a company 
which commeiicedits operations by planting 80 acres in the 
county of Cork with 4U00 mulberry- trees ; but the design 
has been abandoned as far as relates to the United King- 
dom, and the company has transferred its operations to 

There are several works devoted to details of the manage- 
ment of silk-worms, one of the best of which is that of 
Count Dandolo, an Italian nobleman : it has been translated 
into French. There are also works on the same subject 
in our own language. 

It is said that sixteen yards of gros-de- Naples of ordinary 
quality, or fourteen yards of a superior aescription, aro 
manufactured out of 1 lb. of reeled silk, to produce which 
twelve lbs. of cocoons are required. The average weight of 
a cocoon is from three grains to three grains and a quarter; 
its average length when reeled odf, aoout three hundred 
yards. Taking the silk consumed in the United Kingdom 
in a single year at 5,000,000 lbs. the following are the sta- 
tistics of production :*— 

Raw silk 5,000,000 lbs. 

12 lbs. of coOoons to 1 lb. of raw silk . 60,000,000 lbs. 
30,000 Worms to 1 lb. of cocoons, 18,000,000,000 worms. 

I oa. of eggs to 100 lbs. of cocoons . 600,000 ( ^^'^} 

1 6 lbs. of leaves to 1 lb. of ooooons 96,000,000 ( ^^.^^ 
100 lbs. of leaves from each tree . 9,600,000 trees. 

Silk is obtained from the spider, not the cobweb, but the 
silky thread which the female spins round her eggs has been 
woven ; the silken fibres of the pinna form a strong and 
beautiful fabric [Mytilid*] ; and some species of moihs 
form cocoons which may he spun as a matter of experiment 
and curiosity, hut not with a view to commercial profit. 

The quantities of raw, waste, and thrown silk taken for 

consumption in the United Kingdom in the following 

periods was as under : — 

Annual aterage. 

1765 to 1767 (inclusive) . . . 715,000 

1785 to 1787 „ . . . 881,000 

1801 to 1812 „ . • . 1,110,000 

1814 to 1822 „ . • . 1,940,902 

1824 to 1835 „ . . .•4,164,444 

1836 to 1840 „ , . ^^ 4.999,791 

The countries from which we importea raw, waste, and 
thrown silk, in 1839, were as follows :— 


S I L 


S I L 

Waife. Knubf, 

Raw Silk. 


Thrown Silk. 




India . *. ' . 



, , 

China . . . 



, , 

Turkey, Syria, 

and Egypt • 


, , 

• • 

Italy . . . 




France . . 




Other countries 





3,746,248 1,042,490 225,268 

The duty on raw silk is \d. per lb. ; on waste, knubs, and 
husks, U. per cwt. ; and on thrown silk the following duties 
are imposed:— 5t. 2d, per lb. on organzine and crape, and 
3s on tram and singles,. dyed; 3s. lid, on organzine and 
crapes, 2s. on tram, and \s. 6d, on singles, not dyed. It is 
objected to this duty on foreign-thrown silk that it raises 
unnecessarily the price of all silk thrown at home. A draw- 
back is allowed on the exportation of foreign-thrown silk : 
no British-thrown silk is exported. The first silk-throwin$; 
mill erected in England was at Derby, in 1718. [Dbrbt.] 

Reeling from the cocoons is only performed in countries 
where the silk is produced. Silk reaches the weaver in 
three different states, in which it is called singles, tram, and 
organzine [RisAifD], the preparation of which is the busi- 
ness of the throwster. In plain silk-weaving the process is 
much the same as in weaving woollen or linen ; but the 
weaver is assisted by a machine for the even distribution of 
the warp, which frequently consists of eight thousand 
separate threads in a breadth of twenty inches. The Jac- 
quard loom, invented by a weaver of Lyon, has been the 
means of facilitating and cheapening the production of fancy 
or figured silks to an extraordinary extent. Patterns which 
required the greatest degree of skill and the most painful 
labour are produced by this machine by weavers of ordinary 
skill, and with but little more labour than that required in 
weaving plain silks. The Jacquard loom has been im- 

S roved by Mr. Hughes and Mr. Jennings, but at Lyon it 
as undergone no alteration. The power-loom has been 
only partially employed in the silk manufacture ; and ex- 
cepting for the commonest goods, it does not possess any 
great advantage over the hand-loom, as the delicacy of the 
material to be worked, and the attention which must be 
given to the process of the weft, frequently render it neces- 
sary to stop the machine. 

Brocade and damask, the most sumptuous articles of silk 
manufacture a century ago, are now comparatively unknown. 
Persian, sarsnet, gros-de-Naples, ducapes, satin, and levan- 
tines, are the names given to plain silks, which vary from 
one another only in texture, quality, or softness. Satin 
derives its lustre from the great proportion of the threads 
of the warp being left visible, and the piece being afterwards 
passed over heated cylinders. Other varieties of silk goods 
are produced by mechanical arrangements in the loom, such 
as using difl'erent shuttles with threads of various substances, 
&c. The pile which constitutes the peculiarity of velvet is 
produced by the insertion of short pieces of silk thread, 
which cover the surface so entirely as to conceal the inter- 
lacings of the warp and woof. The process of weaving 
velvet is slow, and it is paid for at five times the rate of plain 
silks. There are several sorts of goods in which silk is em- 
ployed with woollen materials, as poplins and bombazines. 
The Chinese, says Mr. Davis (p. 286), make a species of 
washing silk, called at Canton ' ponge,' which becomes more 
soft as it is longer used. Their crapes have never yet been 
perfectly imitated ; and they particularly excel in the pro- 
duction of damasks and flowered satins. 

The silk manufacture, after its introduction into England 
in the fifteenth century, remained for a long period one of 
the least important branches of the national industry. 
After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, about 
50,000 refugees fled to England, a large proportion of whom 
settled in Spitalfields, and carried on the silk manufacture. 
At this period foreign silks were freely admitted ; and 
from 1685 to 1692, silks to the value of from 600,000/. to 
700.000/. were annually imported. In 1692 the refugees 
obtained an exclusive patent for certain articles ; and in 
1697 parliament prohibited the importation of French and 
other silk goods ; and in 1701 the silk i;oods of India and 
China were included in the prohibition. Some inconsiderable 
relaxation was made in this policy in 1713, but in 1765 the 
system of prohibition was again fully adopted, and continued 
'D operation until 1824. During this period the state of the 

manufacture was anything but satisfactory; the mannfae* 
turers complainine of the smuggling of foreign silks, par* 
liament vainly endeavouring to exclude them, with constant 
disputes about wages on the part of the weavers. In 1773 
they obtained an act, called the Spitalfields Act, which 
entitled the Middlesex weavers to demand fixed wages, to 
lie settled by the magistrates. To this act ma\ be attributed 
the establishment of the silk manufacture in various parts 
of the country ; and having done great mischief, it was 
repealed in 1824. The changes introduced in 1824 (some 
of which only came into operation July 5th, 1826), with a 
view of stimulating the silk manufacture, have been most 
successful, as the table of the consumption of silk, be- 
fore and after the duties were reduced, sufficiently proves. 
Now that silk has become cheaper, and consequently a 
commoner article of dress, it is less dependent on the caprice 
of fashion than when it was an expensive luxury. The 
declared value of silk goods exportea since 1820 is shown 
in the following table : — 

AoDiwl arerafse. 
1820 to 1823 (inclusive) . . . 369,835 
1824 to 1827 „ . . . 286,119 

1828 10 1831 „ . . . 405,961 

1832 to 1835 „ . . . 693,961 

1836 to 1840 „ . . . 771,479 

The declnred value of silk manufactures exported in 1839 
was 868.1 18/. : of which the United States of America took 
410,093/.; British North America. 136.750/.; Australian 
settlements, 46,724/.; France. 44.628/.; British West 
Indies, 38,467/.; Chili. 44.733/.; Brazil. 23.117/.; other 
states of Central and Southern America, 49,060/. ; Grermany, 
17,135/.; East Indies and Ceylon, 14.713/.; Holland, 
14,306/.; Belgium, 10,316/.; all other parts, 18,136/. 

The value of the sdk manufactures of Great Britain is 
estimated at between 6,000,000/. and 7,000,000/. One-lialf 
of the silk factories are in Cheshire, next to which stand 
Lancashire, Somerset, Derbyshire, and Stafibrdshire. There 
are one or more factories in above one-half of the counties 
of England; one or two factories have been established in 
Irelana, and a few more in Scotland. They employ alto- 
gether in these footories above 30,000 persons, of whom 
two- thirds are females. 

The duty on silk manufactared goods imported from 
European countries is equivalent to 30 per cent, ad va- 
lorem. In 1839 this duty produced 227.438/., and the 
value of the goods was therefore about 700,000/., nine-tenths 
of which were from France. The exportation of silk goods 
fVom France to England was 3,589,594 lbs. from 1827 to 
1838; but the quantity entered at the English custom- 
house was only 1,875,708 lbs., and there were therefore 
1,713,886 lbs. introduced by smuggling, or 46 per cent of the 
total quantity entered at the French custom-house for ex- 
portation to England. The duty on the legally imported 
goods averaged 20s. Ad, per lb. ; but if the illegal imports 
could have been charged also, a duty of 10«. lie/, would 
have produced the same revenue. (Table by G. R. Porter, 
Esq., of the Board of Trade, in the Report of Commiltee on 
Import Duties) 

The silk manufactures of India are subject to an ad va- 
lorem duty of 20 per cent., which, in 1839, produced 
19,867/. The imports consisted in that year of 503,182 
pieces of bandannoes, romals, and silk handkerchiefs, of 
which only 112,280 paid duty for consumption in this 
country ; and of other articles the greater part were re-ex- 

( Treatise on the Silk Manufacture^ in Lardner*s ' Cycle- 
psedia ;* Ure's Philosophy qf Mantffactures ; Manual for 
the Culture of Silk, prepared by order of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, Boston, 1832 ; Essays on American Silk, with 
Directions for raising Silk-worms, Philadelphia, 1830; 
Second Report on Commercial Relations between Great 
Britain and France (Silk), 1835.) 


SILLIMANITE, a crystallized silicate of alumina. It 
occurs in rhombic prisms imbedded in quartz. Cleavage 
parallel to the long diagonal. Colour dark brownish-grey or 
clove-brown. Fracture uneven, splintery. Specific gravity 
3*41. Lustre vitreous, nearly adamantine on the race of 
cleavage. Nearly opaque. Hardness 8 * to 8 * 5. Brittle 
and easily reduced to powder. 

It is met with at Saybrook, Connecticut, North America. 
It was at one time considered to be a variety of anthoph) l- 
lito, but it is much harder than this mineral, and contain! 

S I I. 


S I L 

more alumiua and less silica and oxide of iron. It more 
nearly resembles sienite both in form and composition. 
It yielded by the analysis of Bowen — 

Silica . . . .42*67 

Alumina . . .54*11 

Oxide of Iron . .2*00 

Water .... 0-51— 99*29 
SFLPHIUM (<riX0toy). Antient authors mention this 
plant and its juice. In the article on Lasbr, it has been 
stated that two kinds are described of this substance, which 
is also called juice of siljphium. One kind, from Cyrcne, 
vras probably yielded by Thapsia Silphium [Laser], and 
the other was most likely assafoDtida, which has been em- 
ployed medicinally by Asiatics from very early times, though 
It has been known by this name in comparative modern 

Silphium was however remarkable for other properties, 
and hence has attracted tlie attention of modem travellers 
who have recently visited the countries where the silphium 
is described as growing by the antients. The army of 
Alexander, in crossing the mountain-range which Arrian 
calls Caucasus (iii. 28, 10), and which is the same range that 
He afterwards mentions under the name of Paropamtsus (v. 
5, 3), met with the Silphium. Arrian says, on the authority 
of Aristobulus, ' In this part of the Caucasus nothing grows 
except pines and Silphium, but the country was populous, 
and fed many sheep and cattle, for the sheep are very fond 
of the silphium. If a sheep should perceive the silphium 
from a distance, it runs to it, and feeds on the flower, and 
digs up the root and eats that also. For this reason in Cy- 
rene they drive the sheep as far as possible from the spots 
where the silphium grows, and some even fence in such 
places to prevent the sheep from entering them, if they 
should approach ; for the silphium is worth a good deal to 
the Cyrenceans.* Burnes, in crossing the Hindu Koosh» and 
seeing both the men and cattle eating the young parts of 
the assafcBtida plant, supposed that it must be the silphium 
of Arrian. But as this author describes the country where 
the silphium grows as abounding in cattle, Dr. Royle had 
concluded that the Prangos of Mr. Moorcroft was the siN 
pbtum alluded to, and which is much fed on by sheep and 
cattle in the present day in Tibet. Mr. Vigne, when tra- 
velling in these regions, came to the same conclusion. It is 
probable therefore that both plants, being umbelliferous, 
and employed for the same purposes in nearly the same 
regions, may have contributed to form the accounts which 
are so brief in antient authors. [Laser; Prangos.] 


SILURIAN SYSTEM. One considerable group of the 
fossihferons ^nrimary strata, occurring in remarkable perfec* 
tion in Wales, especially in the eastern and some of the 
southern districts, and in some of the adjoining English 
counties, is thus named by Mr. Murchison in a very splendid 
work, the firuit of his long investigation of this part of the 
series of Bittish strata. Under this title we propose to ar- 
range some general views of the present state of our know- 
ledge regarding the history of the lower Paloeozoic strata. 
[Gkolooy ; Primary Strata ; Paljeozoic Rocks ; Sali- 


When Mr. Murchison commenced his researches in 
Shropshire and Wales (1831), the principal knowledge we 
po$sc»Bsed of the succession of the older stratified rocks of 
Britain, then commonly called grauwack^ and transition 
formations, wos based on the still incompletely published 
labours of SedopKrick in Wales and the district of the Eng- 
lish lakes ; and so little was known of their fossil contents, 
that it is believed the first definite notice of this kind was 
contained in Mr. Phillips*s description of a group of slate- 
rocks in the vicinity of Kirby Lonsdale. {Geol. 'IVam., 
1827.) Now, in consequence principally of the develop- 
ment given to this subject by the appearance of the Silurian 
researches of Mr. Murchison, and other works to which it 
has led, we are able to trace in one consecutive history 
nearly the whole series of mineral depositions and organic 
combinations of which the ocean was antiently the theatre, 
from the period of the mica schists to the termination of 
the carboniferous sera* 

In this survey, the Silurian strata form averycoBspicuous 
and interesting portion^ and in the district from which the 
type was originally drawn thej^ appear within distinct and 
definite limits which seem to insulate them from the older 
and new rocks, and to justify their claim to the rank of a 
peculiar system ; but in other districts phenomena appear 

which show that the order of physical changes and organio 
combinations which characterise the Silurian System, was 
in operation both before and after the period included in 
the ages of the four Silurian groups of * Llandeilo,* *Cara- 
doc,' • Wenlock,' and • Ludlow ;' while in other districts 
these characteristic assemblages do not all clearly appear ; 
and thus we are naturally conducted to a more comprehensive 
view of the whole of the antient (Pala)ozoic) formations. 

Whatever be the true theory of the origin of the Grant" 
toid Strata of gneiss and mica schist (with their many and 
various ouartzose, chloritic, and calcareous accompaniments)* 
it is at least certain, a^a general rule, that rocks of (his 
general type are prevalent among the very deepest and 
oldest deposits from water which retain proof of their watery 
aggregation, and that they are in this position devoid of the 
traces of antient life. 

Equally certain is the character of the great series of 
Neptunian rocks which lies upon the mica schist ; it is a 
vast and various mass of strata (principally argillaceous* 
locally arenaceous or conglomeritie, rarely yielding lime* 
stone), in which, though unequally, and in degrees varying 
with locality, slaty el^toage tends to be devel(^ed. Organic 
life has left traces in this series of inuddy sediments both 
of vegetable and animal origin ; in the lower and older parts 
very sparingly, in the upper parts abundantly. If, with 
Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison, we take the series 
of these rocks as they appear in Wales and Cumberland, 
namely — 

Silurian, or upper group ; 

Cambrian, or middle group ; 

Cumbrian, or tower group ; 

we shall find in the mineral characters of these groups^ 
in the countries named, some diagnostic marks of import- 
ance, but they vanish or becx)me equivocal in other regions. 
In like manner the organic contents seem, in the countries 
named, to be definitely arranged in zones, so as to mark 
successive periods there : no organic remains are known in 
the Cumbrian rocks ; they are rare, and confined to a few 
layers, in the Cambrian deposits ; and are very plentiful 
and general in the Silurian group. The districts in which 
these peculiarities occur are probably more wide and scat- 
tered farther asunder than those in which the original 
tvpe3 of mineral structure prevail; but yet it is evident 
that they are limited in respect of geographical area, and 
variable in regard to the distinctness and completeness of 
the terms, even in districts not far removed fh)m the centre 
of investigation. Let any one who may desire proof of this 
compare the argillaceous seriesof Ayrshire, Westmoreland, 
Pembrokeshire, Tyrone, or Waterford, in which Silurian 
fossils occur, with the full and varied series of Shropshire, 
the Berwyn, and Snowdon. 

Under these circumstances of difficulty in regard to the 
right general view of the antient fossiliferous strata, we 
must consider the series of Silurian rocks and fossils not as 
the type of this enormous sequence of mineral and organic 
phenomena, but as one, and perhaps the richest of all the 
local physical combinations of that antient period, and em- 
ploy it as a general term of comparison for reducing to 
order and place many detached and difficult districts in 
which the strata have local, peculiar, and perhaps excep- 
tional aspects. 

Mr. Murchison arranges the Silurian strata in groups, as 
follows ; in a descending order : — 

Formations. Dirisionf . ia feet 

( Upper Ludlow rocks ) 
TT«««- I Ludlow rocks . < Aymestry limestone > 1 500 
sEanJ I Lower Ludlow rocks/ 

. Wenlock rocks 

{Wenlock limestone "1 
Wenlock shale . J 


Lower ( Caradoc rocks . . . • ^ very 
Silurians ( Llandeilo rocks .... /variable 

We shall present a very brief analysis of some of their 

Upper Ludlow Rochs. 

Mineral Character.— Greyish, argillaceous, or calcareous 
sandstones, very slightly micaceous, decomposing to ashen 
or rusty-brown colour. 

Structure. — Mostly laminated, parallel to the stmtifica- 
tion, with joints considerably symmetrical, nearly rectangu- 
lar to the plane of the beds, as near Ludlow. 

Aspect of the Country.— A region rising from beneath 

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I be old red-sandstone, often to a considerable and rather 
^ntinuous escarpment, as near Usk and Ludlow. 

Organic Contents.— Polypiaria, 2 ; Crinoidea rare ; Con- 
chifera Plai^irayona rather plentiful, 10; Conchifera Meso- 
myona, 1 ; Conchifera Bracbiopoda, 1 5 ; Gasteropoda, 6 ; 
Cephalopoda Monothalamacea, 3 ; Cephalopoda Polythala- 
macea, 6; Crustacea, 5; Annelida?, 1; Fishes, 7; Doubt- 
♦"ul, 3 (in all about 58 species). 

Localities. — Ludlow ; vicinitjr of Usk. 
Aymesiry Limestone* 

Mineral Character.—Subcrystal^ine, argillaceous lime- 
stone, bluish-grey, or mottled, as near Aymestry. 

Structure. — Irregularly laminated, or nodular ; with 
cross joints nearly rectangulated to tbe plane of stratiEca- 

Aspect of the Country. — Often a slightly jjrominenl ter- 
race on the woody steep escarpment of a hill, capped with 
Upper Ludlow rocks, as near Ludlow. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 12 ; Crinoidea rare ; Pla- 
gimyona,6; Mesomyona, 2; Brachiopoda, 12; Gastero- 
poda, 9 ; Monothalamacea, 1 ; Polythalamacea, 4 ; Crusta- 
cea, 3 (in all about 49 species). 

Localities.— Aymostry ; Sedgeley near Dudley, &c. 
Lower Ludlow Rocks, 

Mineral Character. — Argillaceous (called *Mudstone'>, 
light-grey, dark-grey, or black, but weathering to ashen 
hues, as in the Wigmore Valley. 

Structure. — Partially tlaggy, in places the lamination is 
uneven and nodular. In the lower parts, nodules of black 
limestone in lines of stratification. 

Aspect of the Oaun try .—Toward the base of tho steep 
escarpment of a hill, which may contain the Whole Ludlow 
formation, as in the Wigmore Valley. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 9 ; Crinoidea rare; Pla- 
gimyona, S; Mesomyona, 2; Brachiopoda, 19; Gastero- 
poda, 7; Monothalamacea?; Polythalamacea, 27; Crus- 
tacea, 3 ; Annelida, 1 ; Fishes, 1 ; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 
79 species). 

Localities. — Ludlow; Usk. 

Wenlock Limestone. 

Mineral Character. — Grey, bluish, or pinkish crystalline 
and subcrystalline limestone, arranged in strata of concre- 
tionary aspect, separated by much argillaceous matter. 

Structure. — As above stated, concretionary in detail, but 
stratified on a large scale with considerable persistence of 
the parts. The concretionary structure most remarkable at 
top and bottom. 

Aspect of the Country. — Usually a prominent or terrace- 
like escarpment, where the beds dip moderately ; risin;; to 
insulated hills, where contortions prevail, as near Ludlow, 
Wenlock, Malvern Hills. 

Organic Contents.— Polypiaria, 53; Crinoidea, 14; Pla- 
ginivona?; Mesomyona, 1; Brachiopoda, 28 ; Gasteropoda, 
8; Monothalamacea, 2 ; Polythalamacea, 9 ; Crustacea, 14; 
Annelida, 1 ; Doubtful, 2 (ih all about 132 species). 

Localities. — Dudley; Wenlock; near Usk. 
Wenlock Shale, 

Mineral Character. — Dull argillaceous shale,.with concre- 
tions of impure argillaceous limestone, much analogous to 
the argillaceous Ludlow rocks* 

Structure. — Laminated, with spheroidal calcareous con- 
cretions, especially toward the base. 

Aspect of the CJountry.- Owing to the wasting of the 
middle beds, this shaly mass is often the line of a valley. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria. 18; Crinoidea rare ; Pla- 
gimyona, I ; Mesomyona?; Brachiopoda, 33 ; Gasteropoda, 
4 ; Monothalamacea ? ; Polythalamacea, 5 ; Crustacea, 2 ; 
Annelida?; Doubtful, 2 (in all about G5 species). There 
are marine plants in this deposit, and we have ssen them 
of a vermilion colour. 

Locality.— Wigmore Valley. 

Caradoc Sandstone, 

Mineral Character. — Sandstones of various colours, more 
or less micaceous, sometimes quartzose or condomentic, 
with thin courses of impure limestone, especially in the 
upper part. (Where altered by igneous action, this sand- 
stone becomes a sort of quartz rock.) 

Structure. — Usually laminated. Where altered by heat, 
the stratification is nearly or quite lost. 

Aspect of the Country. — Very characteristic where the 
strata are indurated by vicinity of trap-rocks : the quartz- 
ose masses then assuming very picturesque forms. 

Organic Contents.— Polypiaria, 12; Crinoidea rare; Pla- 

gimyona, 1 ; Mesomyona, 3 ; Brachiopoda, 53 ; Gastero- 
poda, 7 : Monothalamacea, 3 ; Polythalamacea, 6 ; Crus- 
tacea, 8 ; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 95 species). 

Mineral Veins. — Green copper-ore (Malachite) ; thin 
strings of galena ; and in the vicinity of trap true mineral 
veins occur. 

Localities. — Caer Caradoc; May Hill; near Llandeilo. 
Llandeilo Flags, 

Mineral Character. — Hard dark-coloured flags, some- 
times slightly micaceous, frequently calcareous. 

Structure. — Thinly laminated, parallel to the stratifica- 
tion, with some internal oblique cleavage. 

Aspect of the Country. — Not characteristic, the stratifi- 
cation being commonly very highly inclined and the masses 
very thick. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 4 ; Crinoidea rare ; Pla- 
gimvona, 1; Mesomyona?; Brachiopoda, 26 ; Gasteropoda, 
3 ; Monothalamacea, 1 ; Polythalamacea, i ; Crustacea, 1 1 
(in all about 47 species). 

Mineral Veins. — Occur in the vicinity of trap, as in the 
Shelve and Corndon district. 

Localities. — Near Built; Llandeilo; Pembrokeshire. 

Pyrogenous rocks are associated with the Silurian strata 
in many situations — as the Caradoc Hills, where compact 
felspar predominates — the Wrekin and Lilleshall Hill, cha- 
racterised by sienitic rocks — Corndon, full of greenstone. 
Alterations of stratified rocks by the contact of igneous 
rocks are common in the Caradoc, Siiperstones, &c. The 
trap rucks near Welshpool aie in places columnar; the 
Breiddyn Hills are mostly greenstone, and yield elongated 
dykes in a north-east direction, which traverse the new red- 
sandstone. Mineral veins (yielding lead-ore) are plentiful 
in Lower Silurian rocks, in the Shelve district, adjacent to 
the trap rocks of Corndon, and the altered sandstones of the 
Siiperstones. * In a plan of Mr. More's of Linley Hall, the 
chief proprietor of this district, upwards of 24 are laid down 
in the district of Shelve alone, excluding the tracts around 
the Bog and Penally : so that, comprehending the principal 
portion of the mining-ground, we may say that it contains 
upwards of 30 metalliferous veins which have been profita- 
bly worked.* (Murchison. Sil, Syst., p. 282.) 

Volcanic grits, composed of materials derived from igneous 
action, and subsequently arranged in water, aie mentioned 
by M. Murchison rather frequently. In the Shelve district 
they are traversed by lead veins; in the Caradoc Hills, ihey 
abound, and were noticed as * allied to greenstone' in the 
Wrekin by Mr. A. Aikin. They contain organic remains in 
several places, as near the Corndon Hills. 

On reviewing tbe series of strata comprised in the Silu- 
rian System, in the vicinity of Ludlow, Usk, Llandeilo, or 
Denbighshire, we see them to form in reality one closely 
associated sequence of oceanic deposits — apparently accu- 
mulated with little local disturbance and very slight admix- 
ture of organic exuvia) from the land. Volcanic eruptions 
appear to have rather varied than greatly disturbed this 
system of operations, though it is evident they contributed 
no small part of the granular materials of the principally 
sedimentary strata. The formation of limestone is local: — 
where coral prevailed, we find the Aymestry and Weulock 
limestones, and even the calcareous parts of the Landeilo 
rocks, to be in a great degree filled witn coral. The Brachio- 
pod shell * Pentamerus' fills some whole beds of limestone 
(near Aymestry), and where it is deRcient the limestone 
also fails, as in the district of Usk. In their course fruni 
Shropshire, northward to Denbighshire, Mr. Bowman (/.V- 
ports of the British Association for 1840-41) has found the 
general type of the Silurian rocks to vary, and the line of 
distinction between it and the slaty strata below to be ex- 
tremely obscure ; and similar observations are recorded by 
M. Murchison in the account which he gives of these iuck» 
in Caermarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. 

Mineral character alone will scarcely suflSce, anywhere, 
for any but an arbitrary (and therefore unsatisfaciory) 
boundary-line between the Silurian and Cambrian deposits. 
It is extremely probable, perhaps we may say it is already 
proved, that no distinction of higher value can be found on 
comparing the organic remains of these groups. In Snowdon 
(supposed to be very low in the Cambrian series of rocks) 
are shells and corals, which are perhaps the same, but cer 
tainly are congeneric with and very similar to ' Silurian ' 
fossils ; and there is really as great (if not greater) difference 
between the Llandeilo and Wenlock rooks, in regard to 
fossils, than between the Silurian and Cambrian strata. 

S I L 


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If we turn to other districts where Silurian fossils occur 
plentifully (North America, Ireland, Norway), the result 
appears the same. There is apparently only one great series 
of organic combinations distinguishable among the fossili- 
ferous strata anterior to the old red-sandstone sera, and it 
was with a perception of this important truth that Mr. Mur- 
chison once proposed for (he Silunan strata the title of Pro- 
tozoic. If instead of this we employ Palseozoio (as suggested 
by Sedgwick), and adopt the general view advocated in this 
work [PALiEoaoic ; Saliferous System], we shall rank all 
the fossiliferous strata of the Cumbrian, Cambrian, and Silu 
rian groups as Lower Palceozoic Strata, 

The lower arbitrary boundary of the Silurian strata being 
thus softened or erased, we may regard its upper surfoce as 
only locally more definite. Certainly in all the region 
arouud Wales the separation of the Silurian and old red 
deposits is somewhat sudden ; the colour changes from grey 
to red; the dull mudstones become micaceous sandstones; 
the richly fossiliferous Upper Ludlow loses its character in 
unprolific red marls and grits. What few fossils do occur 
in these overlaid strata (except near the very bottom) are 
of Quite other types of organization. But these are local 
trums, depending mainly on the introduction of new sedi- 
ments poisonous to marine invertebral life ; and as these 
sediments are very local, we may find in other countries 
groups of strata newer than the Silurian, older than the 
Carboniferous, with fossils intennediate in character and 
combination to both. 

This expectation is in course of fulfilment, but it is not 
yet fully satisfied. In Devonshire, the Rhine Valley, the 
Eifel, we find numerous assemblages of such Middle Palceo- 
zoic fos$i)Si but they do not by any means fill the whole in- 
terval between the Silurian and Carboniferous types ; nor 
have we seen in collections tvova. North America, Australia, 
the Hartz, Brittany, or Russia, all that is ^esired to fill the 
void. Ever alive to this most interesting inquiry, the author 
of the * Silurian System' is perhaps at this moment adding 
valuable facts concerning it, the Iruit of his continued 
researches in Russia; and we believe that by further exami- 
nation of the lower strata of the Rhine Valley, and the 
Harz, some additional data may be gathered. 

At present the most important of the discoveries which 
(however incompletely) represent a Middle Bxleeozoic 
Bmod, have been in Devonshire and Cornwall, in the 
Fichtelgebirge, and in the Eifel and Rhine Valley. The 
principal of these, at least in regard to the analogies which it 
offers to the strata of earlier and more recent date, is the 
district of Devon and Cornwall; from which ten years ago 
only a small number of fossil species was known, but which 
has now yielded to numerous inquirers fully 300 distinct and 
recognisable forms. Of these, accordinir to Mr. Lonsdale, 
who gives {GeoL Trans. 1840) a table of the species which 
he examined, and to Mr. Murchison and Professor Sedg- 
wick, who enumerate 1 28 species, a few of these species are 
found in the Silurian and a few in the Carboniferous rocks. 
Professor Phillips, in his recent work {Palceozoic Fossils of 
Devon and Cornwall)^ discusses the relations of 275 species, 
and arrives at the conclusion that both by numerical valuations 
of the general combinations of groups of invertebrata, and 
bv specific analogies, the conclusion of the intermediate age 
of the Devon and Cornwall strata is confirmed. As the 
differences of the Devonian and Silurian fossils are very 
much greater than those between the Silurian and Cambrian 
fossils, it appears probable that the boundary assumed by 
Mr. Murchison for the upper termination of the Silurian 
ij-roup may remain with but slight alteration. One change 
contemplated by the author himself we should be •glad to 
see adopted : — tiiere are some fossiliferous bands placed by 
Mr. Murchison near the base of the old red system, which 
would better go to the Silurian ranks, since, in respect of 
the shells which they contain and their mineral composition, 
they are scarcely distinguishable from Silurian strata. 

C)n considering the distribution of organic remains in 
the successive stages of the Silurian rocks, it is evident 
that the greatest variety of species occurs in the lower part 
of the upper and towards the upper part of the lower Silu- 
rian rocks. In other words, the conditions favourable to 
organic life in the sea were in the earliest period consider- 
able ; they arrived at a maximum in the middle part of the 
period, in the Caradoc sandstone, the Wenlock shale and 
the Wenlock limestone, and still continued considerable till 
the Silurian depositions ceased, and were replaced by old 
red-sandstone nearly devoid of organic remains. Polypiaria, 

Crinoideay apd Crustacea are most numerous m the princi- 
pal calcareous rock, Wenlock limestone ; Brachiopoda rtre 
most plentiful in Caradoc sandstone ; Cephalopoda, in the 
Wenlock shale ; fishes, in the upper Ludlow rock. 

Mr. Murchison gives the following general recapitulation 
of organic remains in these strata ' — 



Pisces , . • , 



Crustacea . , » 






Mollusca (Heteropoda*) . 



(Cephalopoda) . 



(Gasteropoda' . 



Conohifera (Brachiopoda) . 



(Monorayaria) . 

















SILU'RIDiB. a family of ^bei of the order Malaeop- 
terygii, placed by Cuvier, in his * Rdgne Animal,* between 
the Esocidcp, or Pike tribe, and the Salmonid^P, or family 
of the Salmons ; but in the * Histolre Natufelle des Pois- 
sons,' the present group commences the Malacopterygii, 
The family SiluridcB constitutes a very extensive section of 
fishes, the species of which are for the most part confined to 
i\k» fresh waters of warm climates. No group perhaps pre- 
sents greater diversity of form than the Silunana» and tneir 
habits are equally interesting. Their most obvioua external 
characters are, the want of true scales; the skin is generally 
naked, but in parts protected by large bony plates; the 
foremost ray of the dorsal and pectoral fins almost alwayt 
eonststs of a strong bony ray, often serrated either ip front 
or behind, or on both sides. These fishes moreover fre- 
quently are furnished with a small adipose fin on the hinder 
part of the back, as in the Salmonidlcs. The mouth is al- 
most always provided with barbules. 

The genus Silurus^ as now restricted, is distinguished by 
the dorsal fin being very small, without any distinct spine, 
and situated on the fore part of the back ; the anal fin U of 
great length, extending alons the whole belly of the fish, 
and sometimes joining the tail-fin ; the raaxillaries and in- 
termaxillaries are furnished with small thick-set curved 
teeth, and there is a band of similar teeth on the vomer. 

The species of this genus are confined to the old world ; 
the only known European species is the Silurus glam$ 
(Linn.), a fish of very large sixe, which is found in the lakes 
of Switzerland, in the Danube, the Elbe, and all the rivers 
of Hungary. In Prussia and Sweden it is also found. 

The Silums glanis is introduced in several works on the 
fishes of this country. It has however, says Mr. Yarrell» 
been suspected that the so-called Silurus, supposed to have 
been found formerly in some of the Scottish riyers, might 
have been the burbot 

Cuvier states that this fish is souetimes upwards of six 
feet in length, and is said to weigli three hundred pounds 
(French). The body is elongated, and has the hioder part 
compressed, but towards the head its width gradually in- 
creases, and the head itself is depressed and large; its 
colour is dark- green above, of a pale-green below the lateral 
line, and yellowish on the belly, and the whole body ia^ 
covered with dark spots ; six barbules surround the Biirath, 
and two of these, which have their origin (one on e^ch side) 
just above the angle of the mouth, are very long* 

Mr. Yarrell observes, ' The Silurus is represented as slug- 
gish in its habits, and a slow swimmer, taking its prey by 
lying in wait for it, in a manner somewhat similar to the 
Angler, Lophius; hiding itself in holes or soft mud, and 
apparently depending upon the accidental approach of fishet 
or other animals, of which its long and numerous barbules 
may be at the same time the source of attraction to the 
victims, and the means of warning to the devourer. Froim 
its formidable sise, it can have but few enemies in the firesh 
water; and from them, its dark colour, in addition to its 
habit of secreting itself either in holes or soft mud, would 
be a sufficient security. In spring, the male and female 
may be seen together, about the middle of the day, near the 
banks or edges of the water, but scon return to their usual 
retreats. The ova, when deposited, are green; and the 

• TImm, ifl the praeadinc pwagnplM, wo h*y» oalUd MonothiilMMOiiLx^ 

S I L 


S I L 

young^^i'e excluded between the sixteenth and nineteenth 

^The flesh of the Silurus is white, fat, and agreeable to 
^ny per:ions as food, particulaily the part of the fish near the 
tail; but on account of its being luscious, soft, and difficult 
to digest, it is not recommended to those who have weak 
stomachs. In the northerly countries of Europe the tlesh 
is preserved by drying, and the fat is used as lard.* 

it appears by some statements in the ' Histoire Naturelle 
des Poissons,' that the present fish is so voracious, that it 
has been known, in several instances, to devour children; 
and in one instance the body of a woman was found in one 
of these fislies. 

Several examples of the restricted genus Silurus are 
found in Asia. 

Cuvier separates from the typical Siluri, as a genus, the 
Siiurus mysius of Linneeus, and some others, on account of 
the compressed form of the body, and the dorsal fin having 
a strong bony spine in front, which is denticulated on the 
hinder margin. The body is deepest near the middle, but 
tapers somewhat suddenly towards the extremities. The 
head is small and depressed, and the eyes are placed lo\y 

The species upon which Cuvier founds this genus— to 
ifvhich he applies the name Schilbe — are found in the Nile, 
but thera are others described iu this author's great work 
on fishes, one of which is found at Senegal and another in 

Genus Cetcpsis.—Th.x^ genus is founded by Agassiz on 
certain species found in Brazil, which in their affinities ap- 
proach the genus Silurus, but are distinguished by the ex- 
tremely small size of their eyes.* 

Genus BagruSt Cuvier. — ^The species of this genus are 
dbtinguished from those of the genus Silurus, as restricted, 
by their possessing an adipose fin on the hinder part of the 
back. The body is naked — that is, unprovided with bony 
plates — and the mouth is provided with barbules, the num- 
ber of which, varying iu different species, lias been selected 
for the minor divisions of the group. Numerous species 
are ibund in the Indian and African rivers. 

Genus PimeloduSt Lac^p. — Differs from Bagrus in having 
no teeth on the vomer ; the palatines however are often pro- 
vided with teeth. The species vary much in the number of 
their barbules, and iu the form of the head, which is often 
protected by a bony plate, and a large bony plate is situated 
oetween that on the head and the dorsal spine; similar 
bony plates on the head however are observable in many of 
the species of the preceding genus. The species of Pimth 
lodm are very numerous, and are found both in the Old and 
New World. Numerous species are described from North 
America, others are found in South America, and the rirers 
of India also furnish numerous examples. 

Genus Phruotocephalus, Agassiz.~This genus contains 
but one species, an inhabitant of the Brazils ; its generic 
distinction consists in its possessing some incomplete osseous 
rays enchased in the upper margin of the adipose fin. The 
head is depressed and covered by a deeply sculptured bony 
plate; a second bony plate, of a transverse oval form, is 
situated' in fi-ontof the first dorsal fin. The branchioste- 
gous rays are nine in number, and the mouth is provided 
TV'ith six barbules. 

^ den us HcUystoma, Agassis, is composed of several South 
American species of SiltaridtB which have the muzzle de- 
preyed, and are remarkable for the great number of thefr 
branch iostegous rays, which amount in ^ome to fifteen in 
number. Some of the species attain a large size, there 
being specimens in the Paris Museum as much as five fSeet 
in length, and they have been seen of still greater bulk. 

Genus GaleichAys, Cuv. and Val. — ^This genus is nearly 
allied to BagruSt but distinguished by the head being roun^ 
and unprotected by any distinct bony plate : the branchios- 
tegous rays are six in number. Some possess six barbules, 
and others have four. One speoies is found at the Cape 
of Good Hope, a second is said to be found both in North 
America and at Rio Janeiro ; several species occur in 
Brazil, and the Ganges also furnishes a species of the pre- 
sent genus. 

Genus Silundia, Cuv. and Val.— This genus is founded 
upon a fish from the Ganges, which has the head small and 
smobth, a very small adipose fin, and a long anal fin. It 
Las but two barbules, and they are very smalt ; the bran- 

• S«e the pari on lehthyology of th« 'Voyage of MM. Spix aud Mai^ 

ch iostegous rayA are twelve injnumber ; the teeth are longer 
and less abundant than usual in the Silurida. The only 
species known iSilundia GangeHcOt Cuv. and Val.; Pime- 
lodus Silundia of Hamilton) is said to be vei'y common at 
the mouth of the Ganges, and to bo much esteemed for 

Genus AriuSt Cuv. and Val.— Contains many speoies of 
Sdurido, allied to the Bagri, but distinguished by their 
palatine teeth forming two distinct and widely separated 
masses. In some species the teeth are minute and dense, 
like the pile on velvet, or like the teeth of a carding-maohine, 
and in others the palate is furnished with teeth in the 
rounded form of paving-stones, instead of having them 
pointed. Species of this genus are found in the tmpieal 
portions of both continents, and also in North America. 

Genus Auchenipterus, Cuv. and Val.— May be distin- 
guished from other genera which possesa the adipose fin by 
the small size of the head, the very minute size of the teeth, 
and there being five branchiostegous rays. It evinces ati 
affinity with Pimelodus in having no palatine teeth, and in 
the number and form of the maxillary barbules. The first 
dorsal is situated very forward, a circumstance which sug- 
gested the generic name. The bony shield which covers 
the upper surface of the head is, in the fishes of this gentis, 
united by a suture with the dilated bony nuchal plates. All 
the known species are from the tropical portions of South 

Grenus Trachelyofpterus. — ^The genus is founded by 
MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes, upon a small Silurian from 
Cayenne, in which there is no adipose fin ; the teeth are 
fine, like the pile of velvet, and the palate is destitute of 
teeth ; the barbules are six in number. The head is some- 
what short, and protected by a stout bony shield, which is 
united almost immediately with the dorsal on account of 
the shortness of the interparietal plate, and almost rudimen- 
tary state of the chevron, placed generally in front of the 
spiny rays of the dorsal fin ; the pectoral fins are inserted 
as it were under the throat 

Genus Hypopkthalmus (Spix), Cuv. and Val. — This genus 
is composed of but few species, and these are tt6m the tropi- 
cal portions of South America. The principal characters 
are: — Mouth destitute of teeth; eyen placed very low down 
near the angle of the mouth ; branchiostegous rays fourteen 
in number ; body furnished with an adipose ^ti. 

Genus Ageneiosus {Lwi€p6Ae), Cuv. and Val.--Thr8 genus 
is thus characterised in the * Rdgne Animal:*— Characters the 
same as in Pimelodus, excepting that there are no barbules 
properly so called. In some, the maxillary bone, instead of 
being prolonged into a fleshy and flexible barbule, assumes 
the form of a projecting denticulated. horn. In others this 
bone does not project, but is concealed under the skin ; the 
dorsal and pectoral spines are but little apparent. All the 
species are from South America. 

Genus Synodontis^ Cuv.-^This genus is composed of 
Silurians found in the Nile and Senegal, which have ah 
adipose fin, the muzzle narrow, and terminated by an 
ethmoid which supports two small intermaxillary bones 
armed with bristle-like teeth; the lower jaw composed of 
two short and slender rami, bearing in front a mass of teeth 
which are in the fbrm of very slendeir laminae and closely 
packed — each of these teeth is attached to the jaw by a 
flexible and very slender stalk. The stout bony plate which 
covers the head is joined to the nuchal plate, and this extends 
to the first spine of the dorsal fin, whicn is of very large size, 
and in this respect resembles the first spine of the pectoral 
fins. Xlie inferior barbules, and sometimes the maxillary 
barbules, ha\-e small lateral branches. 

Genus Doras, Lacfipdde.-- The species of this genus are 
distinguished by the lateral line being armed with bony 
platesi which are carinated, and terminate in a spine. They 
have a second adipose dorsal fin, and the foremost spine of 
the pectoral and anterior dorsal fins is very large and deeply 
serrated. Osseous plates cover the upper surface of the 
head and extend to the dorsal fin, and the humoral bone is 
produced backwards and pointed. 

These may be regarded, say the authors of the ' Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons,* as the most powerfully armed of 
all the Siluridea t thus the Spanish colonists in South 
America have given to them the name Matdtrcaimari (or 
Crocodile- killer), because it often happens that when they 
are swallowed by these large reptiles, the oesophagus anH 
pharynx of those animals are so lacerated by tne sj)ines of 
the Silurus as to cause death. Strabo also (p. 624, Casaub. 

S I L 


S I L 

attributet mmilar power to certain fisBes of the Nile, which 
he called ehoerus (xoipoc), and which are supposed by some 
naturalists to belong to the modern genus Synodontis. 

TIm genus Z>ora# is divided info two sections on account 
of tbe strueture of the mouth. In some it is situated at the 
end of a depressed muzzle, and is provided with two broad 
bands of delicate teeth, both in the upper and lower jaws. 
In others the opening of the mouth is situated on the under 
side of a conical muzzle, and the opening is of a circular 
ibrm — here the teeth are either wanting or are hardly 
visible; the maxillary barbules are sometimes furnished 
with small lateral branches. To the first of these sections 
belongs tbe Silurui cosiaius of Linnrous, a species found in 
the rivers of Guiana. 

A species of Doras, described by Dr. Hancock, in the 
fourth volume of ihe ZooiogicalJourtMl^ p. 241, under tbe 
name of Z>. eoitaita, is a native of Demerara, where it is 
called tbe ¥lat'headHas9ar: it possesses the singular property, 
•ays Or. Hancock, of darting the water, and travelling 
over land. 'In these terrestrial excursions large droves of 
the species are freauently met with during very dry seasons, 
for it is only at sucu perio<ls that they are compelled to this 
dangerous march, which exposes them as a prey to many 
and such various enemies. When the water is leaving the 
pool in which they commonly reside, the Yarrows (a species 
of Esox, Linn.), as well as the second species of Hassar, to 
which I shall presently refer, bury themselves in the mud, 
while all tbe other fishes perish for want of their natural 
element, or are picked up by rapacious birds, &o. TYie fat- 
head HassarSi on tbe contrary, simultaneously quit the 
place, aiul march over land in search of water, travelling for 
a whole night* as is asserted by the Indians, in search of 
their object I have ascertained by trial that they will live 
many hours out of water, even when exposed to the sun's 
rays. Their motion over land is described to be somewhat 
like that of the two-footed lizard. They project themselves 
forwards on their bony arms by the elastic spring of the tail 
exerted sideways. Their progress is nearly as fast as a man 
will leisurely walk. The strons scuta or bands which en- 
velope their body must greatly facilitate their march, in the 
manner of the plates under the belly in serpents, which are 
raised and depressed by a voluntair power, in some mea- 
sure performing the office of feet. It is said that the other 
species, the roundhead (Callichthys liltoraiis, Hancock), 
has not been known to attempt such excursions, although 
it is capable of living a long time out of its element ; but, as 
I before observed, it buries itself in the mud in tbe manner 
of the YarrowSt when the water is drying up. 

* The Indians say these fishes, carry water within them 
for a supply on their journey. There appears to be some 
truth in this statement; for I have observed that the bodies 
of the Hassars do not get dry, like those of other fishes, when 
taken out of the water ; and if the moisture be absorbed, or 
they are wiped dry with a cloth, they have such a power of se- 
cretion that they become instantly moist again. Indeed it 
is scarcely possible to dry the surface while the fish is 

Both the species of Hassar here mentioned, it appears, 
make nests in which they lay their eggs in a flattened cluster, 
and cover them over most carefiilly. This care does not end 
here. They remain by the side of the nest till the spawn is 
hatched, with as much solicitude as a hen guards her eggs ; 
both the male and female Hassar^ fo^ they are monogamous, 
steadily watchine the spawn, and courageously attacking 
any assailant. Hence the negroes frequently take them -by 
putting their hands into the water close to the n^st ; on 
agitating which, the male /fa#«ar springs furiously at them» 
and is thus captured. 

* Tlie round-head forties its nest of grass ; iheJkU'head, of 
leaves ; both at certain seasons burrow in tbe bank ; they 
lay their eggs only in wet weather. I have been surprised 
to observe the sudden appearance of numerous nests in a 
rooming after rain occurs, the spot being indicated by a 
bunch of froth, which appears on the surface of the water 
over the nest ; below this are the eggs, placed on a bunch of 
fallen leaves or grass, if it be the littoral species, which they 
cut and collect together. Bv what means this is -effected 
seems rather mysterious, as the species are destitute of cut- 
ting teeth. It may possibly bo by the u;:e of their serrated 
anus, which form the first ray of the pectoral fins.' 

Genus Callichlhys, Linn.— The species of this genus 
have the body almost entirely covered by largo bony plates, 
these forming four longitudinal ranges, two on each side; 
P.O.. No. 1361, 

the head is also protected bv bony plates ; the mouth is hsi 
slightly cleft, and provided with four lon^ barbules ; the 
second dorsal has a bony spine in front ; the foremost ray 
of the pectoral fins is strong, but that of the anterior dorsal 
is comparatively feeble and short. The species of Callichthys 
appear to be confined to the tropical portions of South 
America. [Callichthys.] • 

Genus ^r^M.Cuv. and Val.-The principal characters of 
this genus are — teeth bifid at the extremity, and with tbe 
points curved inwards; palate destitute of teeth; opening of 
the mouth large ; maxillary barbules two in number; an*- 
terior dorsal fin small, and with the front ray feeble ; adiposd 
fin long; the other fins with the outer rays prolonged intt) 
a filament. 

The species which forms the type of this genus (Argei 
sadalo, Cuv. and Val.) is a small fish about eight inches Irk 
length, which was brought by Mr. Pentland from Uppel^ 
Peru, being found in the neighbourhood of the mission of 
Santa Anna, at a height of from 4500 to 4800 French 
metres above the level of the sea. The specimen was given 
to M. Valenciennes, who prized it much, since it threw a 
light on the affinitiesof a fish described by Humboldt, under 
the name Pimelodus Cyclopum, relating to which that 
author has given such an interesting account. The Pime* 
lodus Cydlopum, which M. Valenciennes thinks most pro- 
bably belongs to the present genus, is about four inches in 
length, and is found in lakes at the height of 3500 metres 
above the level of the sea. Bui the most remarkable cir- 
cumstance relating to these fishes is that they arc fre- 
quently ejected in the eruptions from the volcanoes of the 
kingdom of Quito, and in such quantities that the fetid 
odour arising from their putrefaction was perceived at a 
great distance, and tbe putrid fevers which prevailed in 
those districts were attributed to the miasmata they pro- 
duce. These fishes sometimes issued from the crater of the 
volcano, and sometimes from lateral clefts, but constantly at 
an elevation of firom 5000 to 5200 metres above the level of 
the sea. In a few hours millions are seen to descend from 
Cotopaxi, with great masses of cold and fresh water. 

The genus Brontes, Cuv. and Vftl, is founded upon a fish 
possessing all the characters of the preceding genus (and 
which, it appears, like the Pimelodus, is thrown out from 
the volcanoes of Cotopaxi), but which differs in having no 
adipose fin. 

Genus Astroblepus, Cuv. and Val., consists of but one 
species (the Asiroblepus Grixalvii of Humboldt). This 
fish possesses all the characters of the genus Brontes, hav- 
ing-, like it. tbe head depressed, the eyes directed upwards, 
a single dorsal fin, the external rays of the fins prolonged 
into a filament, and four branchiostegous rays, but it pos- 
sesses no ventral fins. This fish is found at Rio de Palace, 
near Papayana, where it it -known by the name pescado 
negro; it attains about fifteen inches in length. 

Genus Heterobranchus, Geoff. — Here the head is fur- 
nished with a rough bony shield, which is fiat and broader 
than in the other Silurians, on account of the lateral laminae 
furnished by the frontals and parietals, which rover the 
orbital and temporal banos. The operculum is still smaller 
than in the preceding fishes, and what chiefly distinguishes 
these fiahes from others of the family is, that, besides the 
ordinary brancbise, they have an apparatus ramifying like 
the branches of a tree adhering to the upper branch of tbe 
third and fourth branchial rays; the branchiostegous rays 
vary ft'om eight or nine to fourteen or fifteen in number. 
The pectoral spine is strong and denticulated, but there is 
no bony spine to the dorsal fin. The body is elongated and 
naked, and the dorsal and anal fins are greatly extended 1:^^ 
tbe longitudinal direction. The barbules are eight in nam-^. 
her. Tne species inhabit the rivers of Africa, and some 
of those of Asia. 

In some species the long dorsal fin is supported through- 
out by rays; these constitute the subgenus Ciarias, Val.; 
and in others there is a dorsal fin supported by rays, and a 
second behind this, which is adipose. To them the term 
Heterobranchus is restricted in the Histoire Naturelle des 

Genus Saccobranchus, Cuv. and Val. — ^This genus is 
founded upon the Silurus Singio of Hamilton's * Fishes of the 
Ganges,* which possesses some interesting peculiarities in its 
internal orxanization, pointed out bv Mr. Wyllie, in the * Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society, for May, 1840. 

Genus Ptotosus, LacSpSde, is distinguished by the elon- 
gated form of the bodv and the possession of two dorsal fins^ 

Vol. XXU.-D 

S I L 


S I h 


the hindermost being supported by ray^ as veil as ^be otber* 
The head is protected by a bonv plate, the lips are fleshy 
and pendent, the jaws are furnished with strong and conical 
teeth, and the voiner with rounded teeth. The species in- 
habit India. 

Genus Atpredo, Linn. — The fishjBS of this genus, says 
Cuvier, present very singular characters, particularly in the 
flattening of the head and in the dilatation of the anterior 
portion of the trunk, which chiefly arises trom that of the 
bones of the shoulder; in the proportionate length of the 
tail ; in the small size of tl^eir eyes, which are placed in the 
upper surface of the head. The intermaxillaries are situated 
under the ethmoid, directed backwards, and are only fur- 
nished with teeth in their hinder margin. But the most 
striking character consists in there being no power of motion 
in the operculum, a character which distinguishes the pre- 
sent genus from all other osseous fishes. The branchial 
opening consists of a simple slit in the skin under the ex- 
ternal edge of the head, and the branchiostegous membrane 
is provided with five rays ; the dorsal fin ie of moderate size ; 
the anal is long ; the tail moderate, and the adipose fin is 
wanting: the whole of the body is smooth and without l>ony 
plates. The species are found in the tropical parts of South 

Genus Chaca, Cuv. and Val., which is the next jn succes- 
sion in the Hisioire des Poissons, is founded upon the Pla- 
tystacus Chaca of Buchanan Hamilton. It inhabits the 
rivers of India. 

The genus Sisor is also founded upon a single species 
described (under th^ name Sisor rhabdophorus) by the 
author just mentioned, in his Fishes qf the Ganges* 

Genus Loricaria. — Linnssus gave this name to a group 
of SiluridcD distinguished by the head and body being co- 
vered throughout by large angular bony plates ; they differ 
moreover from certain other Siluri which have the body 
protected by plates (such as CalHohthys and Doras), in having 
the opening of the mouth on the under side of the muzzle, 
in this respect approaching the gepus Synodontis, The 
intermaxillaries are small and suspended beneath the 
muzzle, and the mandibles are transverse and not united ; 
they are furnished with long and slender teeth, and these 
are flexible and terminate in a hook. The mouth is en- 
circled by a large, circular, membranous veil; the pha- 
ryngeal bones are furnished with numerous teeth rounded 
like paving-stones. The true opercula are fixed as in 
Aspredo^ but two small external plates, which are movable, 
appear to take their place. The branchiostegous rays are 
four in number. The first ray of the dorsal, pectoral, aad 
anal fins is in the form of a strong spine. 

This genus \& subdivided into two subgenera* In the 
one {Hypostomus, Lac^n.), there are two dorsal fins ; the 
hinder one is small and provided with but one ray. The 
labial veil is covered with papillae, and provided with a small 
barbule on each side. The belly is not protected by plates. 
The species are found in the rivers of South America. In 
the second subgenus, to which Lac6pdde restricts the term 
LoricariOt there is but one dorsal fin ; the labial veil is fur- 
nished with several barbules, and sometimes beset with 
viilosities; the belly is protected by plates. The species of 
this section are also found in South America. 

SILVA y FIGUERO'A. GARCIA DB, was born of 
illustrious parents at Badajoz, in 1574. At tiie age of 
fifteen his father sent him to court, where he entered the 
household of Philip II. as page. He then joined the 
ly in Flanders, where he greatly distinguished 
obtained the command of a company. Having 
sequentlXghown some talent for diplomacy, he was de- 
patched by Fbilip III. on an embassy to Shah Abb^ king 
or Persia, who was willing to conclude a treaty of commerce 
with Spain. Suva embarked for Groa, where he arrived in 
1614; but the governor of that place, who was a Portu- 
guese, fearing lest Silva's mission should lead to an inquiry 
into the administration of the Spanish possessions in India, 
threw every impediment in his way, and refused to provide 
bun with a vessel and money to prosecute his journey, as he 
was ordered to do. Impatient at the delay, Silva embarked 
on board a native vessel and sailed for Ormuz, which port 
he entered on the 12th of October, 1617. Thence be sailed 
to Bandel (Bender Abassi) in the dominions of the Shah, 
when he was well received. He reached Ispah&n on the 
18th of April, 1618, by the then usual route of Lar and 
ShiHiz. After a short residence in the latter place, Silva 
started for Kazwin, or Qi^biq, where Shah Abbis waa 

then holding bi9 court, who received bim with every mark 
of distinction, but would not hear his message until oe had 
hin^self returned to Ispah&n, where he directed Silva to 
wait till his arrival Accordingly, after a stay of two 
months at Kazwin» the Spanish envoy returned to Ispa- 
han, where Shah Abb^s arrived shortly after, in July, 
1619. He granted Silva an audience; but though he ma- 
nifested a wish to conclude a commercial treaty, and to be 
upon friendly terms with Spain, the Shah refused to sub- 
scribe to two conditions stipulated by the ambassador of 
Philip III., namely, that he should restore some fortresses 
belonging to Ormuz, which be bad lately seized ; and that 
he should exclude all other European nations from traduig 
with his dominions. The negotiations for the trea^ being 
thus suspended, Silva left Ispahlin on the 25th of August* 
1619, and returned by the same route to Goa, whc^e be 
landed in November, 1620. From Goa he sailed to Spain, 
where he died in 1628. 

During his residence in Persia Silva wrote an itbefary of 
his travels, with an account of such events as came within 
his observation ; and a sketch of the manners and customs 
of the inhabitants of that empire. This work was never 
printed in the original Spanish, though a French translation 
appeared in 1667, under the title of ' L'Ambassade de Don 
Garcias de Silva Figueroa en Perse, contenant la Politique 
de ce Grand Empire, les Moeurs du Roi Shah Abbas, et une 
relation exacte de tons lesLieux de la Perse etdeslndes b& 
oet Ambassadeur a 4t6 Tespaoe de huit anne^s qu'il y a de- 
meur^,' parM. Wicqfort, Paris, 1667, 4to. It is one of the 
best accounts of Persia that we possess, and is much com- 
mended by (Dhardin. During his residence in Goa Silva 
also made an abridgment of Spanish history, whipb appeared 
at Lisbon soon after his death: 'Breviarium Qistorisa 
Hispanicee,' Lisbon, 1628, 4to. A Latin letter ofiiis, dated 
Ispahan, 1619, and addressed to the Marquis of Bedmar,iD 
which he gave a short account of his travels, was also pub- 
lished at Antwerp : * Garcise Silva Figueroa, Philippi HI. 
Hispaniarum Indiarumque Aegis, ad Persarum Regem Le- 
gati, de Rebus Persarum Epistola,' Antw., 1620, 8vo. 

SILVER, a metal which has been well known and highly 
valued from the remotest period— circumstances which are 
readily explained by the facts of its oocurring frequently 
native, and possessiug great lustre and fitness fiir immediate 
use without being subjected to any metallurgic process. 

Ores qf Silver. 

Nathe Silver. — ^This occurs crystallized, arborescent, or 
dendritic, capillary, reticulated, graniilar, and massive. The 
primary form of the crystal is a cube. It has no cleavage 
Fracture hackly* Oolour white, but externnUy oft^n 
blackish, owing probably to the presence of a little sulpnur. 
Hardness 2*6 to 3. Lustre metallic. Cobur pure white, 
except when tarnished. Streak shining. Opaque. Specific 
gravity 10* 47. Malleable^ but commonly Idss so than pure 
silver, probably owing to an admixture of other metals. 
SoluMe in nitric acid, and the solution colourless when 
pure, but blue if copper be present; and if antimony, a 
white substance, and if gold, a black one remains undis- 
solved. Fuses into mailable globules bf'fore the blowpipe. 

Native silver is met with in most parts of the worm . iii 
the British Isles, German jr, Hunj^ry, in the nortji of 
Europe, but especially, and in largest quanUty, in Bfexico 
and South Amerioa. Silver occurs in tnixture or com- 
bination with other metals, as already hinted at. The first 
compound of this nature we shall describe is 

Aniiffionial Sih&r. Stibiuret qf 8ilver,^Thvi occurs in 
crystals, in grains, and massive. 

Primary form of the crystal a right rhombic pHsm. 
Cleavage parallel to the terminal plane and short diagonal 
of the prism. Fracture uneven. Colour silver white, or, 
when tarnished, yellowish white. Streak silver ^hitei 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Slightly malleable. Easily 
frangible. Hardness 3 * 6. Specino gravity 9 * 44 to 9 * 8. 

Before the blow-pipe on charcoal readily melts, with the 
formation of white antimonial vapour, into a greyish globule, 
which is not malleable, but eventually pure silver is ob- 
tained. It is not totally soluble in nitric acid, oxide 'of 
antimony remaining undissolved. 

The Massive Varieties are amorphous, and have a gta- 
nular or foliated structure. 

Antimonial silver is found in olay-slate at Andreasberg in. 
the Harz ; in Baden ; near Gui^alcanalJ^^aMi ;^at Salz- 
burg; and at Allemont in Franoe,^^ ^^^-^ v_^ ^*^^ 

t I L 


S I L 

Tha Andreaftberg mineral (1), analysced by Vauquelin, 
and the Baden (2), by Klaproth, gave the annexed re- 
aulu* — 

fl) (2) 

Silver . .78*0 . 84*76 

Antimony . 22*0 . ]6'24 



Telluric Silver occurg in coarse-grained masses. Colour 
grey. Lustre metallic. Soft. Somewhat malleable. 
Specific gravity about 8 '5. It is dissolved by nitric acid, 
and when heated, and before the blow-pipe, or charcoal, 
gives a fused blackish mass, containing specks of metallic 

It is found at the silver-mines of Savdinski, in the Altai 
Mountains, Siberia. 
Analysis by Rose — 

Silver ... 62*42 
Tellurium . . .36*96 

Iron . . . . *24 


Native Amalgam is a compound of silver and mercury. 

AAiri/erous Native Silver occurs crystallized in cubes, 
capillary, and disseminated. Colour yellowish white. Spe- 
cific gravity 14*0 to 17*0. DiflTerent varieties gave the 
annexed results to 

Pordyee. Klaproth. BoGasinftault. 

Silver 72 34 15*6 17*6 
Gold 28 64 84*5 82*4 

26 35-07 
74 64-93 


98 100- 


100 100* 

Arsenical Antimonial Silver^ or nllher Arsenioferru- 
ginous Antimonial Silver, — ^This substance occurs mam- 
millated or in small globular and reniform masses, and 
sometimes investing other substances. When untarnished it 
is nearly silver white, but is commonly tarnished yellowish 
or blackish; its lustre is metallic. It is harder than anti- 
monial silver, but is sectile and brittle. Specific gravity 9*4. 
Before the blow-pipe antimotiyand arsenic are volatilized 
with the alliaceous smell, and a globule of impure silver 
remains. Its localities are nearly the same as those of 
antimonial silver. Klaproth obtained from a specimen from 

Silver . . . .12*75 

Antimony . . .4*00 

Iron • .44*25 

Arsenic • • .35* 


The native compounds of silver next to be described are 
those in whieh it ooeura in combination with the iioii- 
nietallio elements. It is not found simply combined with 
oxyn^n, nor at all with asote^ hydrogen, or fluorine. 

ChtoMe qf Silver. Horn Skiver. Muriate qf Siher. 
ZaoMMmni^—- This ore ocoura crystallised and massive. 
Primary form of the crystal a cube. No cleavage. Frac- 
ture uaaven. Hardness 1 * to 1 * 5. Yields to the pres- 
sure of the nail. Streak shining. Speoiflo gravity 4* 75 to 
5' 55. Translucent. Opaque. Lustre resinous. Colour 
giey, yellowish, greenish, and blue of various shades. Mal- 
leable and sectile. Fusible in the flame of a candle. 
Heated with potash by the blow-pipe, yields a globule of 
metallic silver. Insoluble in nitnc acid, but dissolved by 
ammonia. When rubbed with a piece of moistened amc, 
the surfkce becomes'covered with metallic silver. 

This ore occurs in various parts of Europe and America, 
along with others of the same metal. Tto largest masses, 
wbich are of a greenish colour, are brought from Mexko 
and Peru. It is found in veins, chiefly in primitive rocks. 

Two specimens from Peru (1) and from Saxony (2), ana- 
lyzed by Klaproth, gave — 

(1) (2) 

Chlorine. « 24 . .21*50 

Silver . . 76 . .67*75 

Oxide of Iron . — . 6*00 

Alumina . — . . 1*75 

Bttlphufio acid . — . • 0*25 

100 97-25 

Butierwilk Stiver. Bar thy Comeoue Silwr.— This is 
regarded as a variety of the foregoing. It is described as 
b»ing of a brownish colour, with occasionally a tinge of 
green or blue. It is opaque, dull, with an earthy fWicture, 
and is soft, sectile, and heavy. It occurs massive^ and also 

investing other substances. It occurs only at Andreasberg 
in the Harz. 
According to Klaproth, it is composed of— 

Chlorine . . .8*28 

Silver . . .24*64 

Alumina . . . 67*08 


Iodide qf Silver. Herreralite. — Occurs massive in thin 
plates, which are silver or greyish white, and which become 
bluish by exposure to the air. Transparent. Translucent 
Lustre resinous to adamantine; in thin laminee flexible 
and malleable. Melts on charcoal before the blow-pipe, 
vapour of iodine being evolved, and globules of silver 
remaining. Found at Abarradon near Mazapil, in the 
state of Zacatecas, Mexico, in serpentine. 

Sulphuret qf Silver, Vitreous Silver. Silver Glance, 
Henkelite. — Occurs crystallized and massive. Primary 
form a cube. Fracture fine-grained and uneven ; sometimes 
small and flat conchoidal. Colour lead-grey; blackish 
when tarnished. Lustre metallic. Opaque. Hardness 
2-0 to 2*5. Malleable. Sectile. Specific gravity about 7*2. 
When heated by the blow- pipe, sulphur is expelled and 
silver remains. It occurs in Saxony, Bohemia, and in great 
abundance in Mexico. It has been occasionally found in 
Cornwall, and in most silver-mines. 

Analysis, (1) by Klaproth, of a specimen from Freiberg, 
(2)by Berxelius: — 

(1) (2) 

Sulphur ... 15 12*95 

Silver ... 85 8705 

100 100 

Black Sulphuret qf Silifer. Earthy Silver Glance,-- 
Derived from the decomposition of the last mentioned. 
Occurs massive and pulverulent. Fracture uneven. Colour 
dark lead-grey, inclining to black. Devoid of lustre, or 
only feebly glimmering. Somewhat sectile. Streak shin- 
ing, metallic. It is found in Norway, Siberia, Hungary, &c., 
usually investing other siWer-ores or filling up cavities 
in them. 

Sulphuret qf Silver and Arsenic. Light Red Silver, 
Proustite. — Primary form a rhomboid. Colour cochineal 
to aurora red ; streak lighter. Lustre adamantine. Trans- 
lucent to transparent. Specific gravity 5*5 to 5*6. 

It is found at Joachimsthal, Johanngeorgenstadt, Anna- 
berf;, &c. 

Rose's analysis (1) and Proust's (2) give the following as 
the composition of a specimen from Joachimsthal : — 



Sulphur . , 


Sulphuret of Silver . 

. 74-35 

Silver • . . 


Sulphuret of Arsenic 

. 25* 

Arsenic . . 


Antimony . 




Sulphuret qf Silver and Antimony. Ruby Silver, Dai 
Red Silver, Sraardite, — Occurs crystallized and massive. 
Primary form a rhomboid. Cleavage parallel to the primary 
planes, usually indistinct. Fracture conchoidal. Colour, 
by reflected light, fVom lead-erey to iron-black ; by trans- 
mitted light, from brilliant to dark red. Lustre adamantine. 
Translucent. Opaque. Hardness 2*0 to 2*5. Extremely 
brittle. Streak red. Specific gravity 5*8 to 5*9. 

Massive Fam/f>*.— Structure granular, compact, lamel- 
lar, dendritic, amorphous. 

It is found in many parts of Europe and America, as 
Grermany, Norway, IWfexico and Peru, and also in Corn- 

According to Bonsdorff, a specimen from Andreasberg 
yielded by analysis- 
Sulphur . 16*609 
Silver . . . 58-949 
Antimony , 22846 

Sulphuret of Silver and Antimony, Miargyrite, — Occurs 
crystallized. Primary form an oblique rhombic prism. 
Cleavage imperfect. Fracture uneven. Colour iron-black 
in mass ; but m thin fragments deep red by transmitted light. 
Nearly opaque. Lustre bright metallic. Hardness 20 to 
2*5. Very sectile. Streak dark red. Surfaces of the crys- 
tals usually striated. Specific gravity 52 to 5*4. 

It is found with argentiferopsjQfgenical pyrites at Brauns- 
dorft, near Freiberg, Saxony, 


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$ t t 

According to Rose, it yielded— 

Sulphur . . ' . 


Silver ... 







Sulphurei of Silver and a litUe Irojt. Biegmmer Sil- 
lerglanz, — Occurs crystalline and massive. Crystals small 
and tabular. Cleavage para'llel to tbe terminal planes. 
Colour nearly blaok. Xustre metallic. Very soft. Readily 
separable into thin flexible laminss. 

Found only in Hungary and at Freiberpf. 
According; toWollaston, this mineral (which is extremely^ 
rare) consists of sulphuret of silver with a little iron. 

Sulphurei of Stiver and Iran. StembergUe* Flexible 
Sulphuret of Silver. — Occurs crystallized. Primary form 
a right rhombic prism. Cleavatj^e parallel to the terminal 
plane, distinct. Laminsa very tJexible. Colour dark>brown, 
often with a blue tarnish. Streak black. Lustre metallic. 
Hardness 1*0 to 1*5. . Specific gravity 4*2 to 4*25. 

It is found at Johanngeorgenstadt, Schneeberg, and Jo- 
acliimstald in Bohemia, with other silver-ores. 

A specimen from the lairt-mentioned locality yielded* ac- 
cording to the analysis of Zippe— 

Sulphur ... SO 

Silver . , 33-2 

Iron ... 36* 

-— 99*2 

Brittle Sulphuret of Silver^ Antimony, and Iron, Brittle 
Silver Glance. — Occurs crystallized. Primary form a right 
rhombic prism. Cr}-stals commonly macled. Fracture 
usually conchoidal, with a shining metallic lustre. Colour 
dark grey or iron-grey. Hardness 20 to 3. Specific 
gravity 5*9 to 6*4. 

It is found in Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, Siberia, and 

Analysis of a specimen from Frleberg by 

Klaprotli. Rose. 

Sulphur . . 12 . 16 42 

Silver . . 66*5 . 68*54 

Antimony . • 10* . 14*68 

Iron ... 5' . 000 

Copper • . 0*5 . 0*64 

98-5 100-28 

Sulphto'et qf Silver and Copper. SUberkupferglanz^^ 
Occurs massive. Compact. Fracture brilliant, granular, 
flat conchoidal. Colour dark iead-grey. Streak shining. 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Soft. Specific gravity 6*25. 

Found at Schlangenberg, uearColivan io Siberia. 
. Analysis by Stromeyer :— 

Sulphur . 15*96 

Silrer . . . 52*87 

Copper • • . 30*83 

Iron . . . 00 34 

■ 100 

Sulphuret of Silver, AfUimon^p and Copper^ Bomelite. 
Mine d'Argent grise Antimoniale. — Occurs crystallized. 
Primary farm a right rhombic prism. Cleavage parallel to. 
the lateral planes. Colour nearly silver- white. Lustre 
shining, metallic. Opaquew Haidne« 2 to 2*5. JEk- 
tremely brittle. Specific gravity 5*5 to 5*6. 

It consists principally of sulphur and the moUls above 
named, but in proportions upt yet determined. 

Sulphuret of Silver, Arsenic, Antimony, and Copper, 
Polyowte. Brittle Silver, — Occurs crystallized. Primary 
form a rigl^t rhombic prism. Cleavage imperfect Fracture 
uneven. Colour iron-black. Lustre metallic Translucent. 
Opaque. Hardness 20 to 2'5. Specific gravity 6*260. 

Occurs in Bohemia, Saxoi^» and other parts of Europe; 
and in Mexico and Peru. 

Analysis (l) of a specimen from Mexico by Robc, and 
(•2) from Freiberg by Braiides:—- 

Sulphur , . 



Antimony • 



100 15 97*41 

Bulphuret ^ Silver, Iron, Oupwer, Bimutk^ and Lead. [ 










.0 00 

9*93 , . 



. . ^46 


Bisn^dAia iS^&er.^^^Orcnrsiiiaeiouiararystttkmnd maitke. 
Fradnre uneveui Colour^ vhen first broken. kad-g»ey^b«t 
liable to tarnish. 

M<utive VarietieM disseuunated, amoiphoiis. ' Fracture 
fine-grained^ uneren. Lustre mettdUc. Opai|ue. Soft. 
Seclile and iNTtttle. 

It is found aooompanying pyrites and galena at Schap- 
pach in the valley of KinEig» Baden* 
. Analysis by Klaproih : — 

Sulphur • 4 

Silver . • • • 

Iron • • 

Copper . k • 

Bismuth . • . 

Lead • . • 

Seleniuret of Silver. 
Primary form a cube. 


Selemilver.'rrOecv^n^ crystallized. 
Occurs iu thin plates^ > Hardness 
between gypsum and calcspar. Flexible. Specific gravity 
80. Colour iron-black; streak the same, but brighter. 
Occurs at Tilkerode in the Htrz, associated with seleniuret 
Analysis by G. Rose ;— 

Selenium • • • 24*A5. 

Silver . . . ^ . 05*56 

Seleniuret of lead, with a little iron 6*79 

~. 96-40 
Selemurei qf Silver and Copper. Bukairite.—OcQwn 
massive. Structure gran nlar« Cdoiur gre}\ Lustre shtn- 
inz. Disposed in films on calcareous spar. 

Found in a oopper-mtne at Skrickerum in Smahnd^ 
Analysis by Berzelius:— 

Selenium • ^ • 26' ' 

Silver . . ^ 38*03 

Copper % • ♦ 23'M 

Earthy matter . • 8*90 ,^ 

Carbonic aeid and loss 2^12 


Carbonate of Silver and Antimanff. ' Selbite.^Oaeun 
onassive and disseminated. Fracture uneven. Colour 
greyifh*blaok. Structure Aoe gyannha** Lustre metallic 
Opaque. Soft. Brittle. Heavy. 
Found at Altwolfach in the Black Forest • 
Analysis by Selb : — 
Carbonic aeid . 

Silver . • . • 

Oxide of antimony aad a trace of 
copper • . . . 



100-1 J 

This analysiaeaimoi ]io«ei»r be correct, if Uie ore contain 
carbonate of silver. ' t 

Arseniateof Siitferund Iron, Ganeekothig^erz ; GteM- 
dung Silver'Ore.*-^eQ}invas^is%^ MamntiUated. Fracture 
conchoidal; sometimes eartiiy, and knixed with cobaltore. 
Colour yellow or pale green^ ^ Streak white. Lnatie resinous. 

Found chiefly in the mines of Clausthal in the Harz ; 
and also in Cornwall, and at Allemont in France. 

It does nol appear to have boM) eccurately aoalyced. 

Having now raCnttoned the principal annendswhidi con- 
tain silver, it is to be observed that few of them are largely 
worked as ores:, tbe; principal are native eilver, chloriile of 
silver, and sulphurei of silver. .1^ fimt, when the/quantity 
is considerable, is separable by mere fusion^ the^obloride 
and tbe sulpbiiret are obtained by amalgamatiott iwitb mer- 
cury ; the suli^uret being first cenvected inlo a chlofidft 
by treatment with common fiilt, Sut.. A considerabie guai^ 
tity of silver is also procured from tbe tead-or» or ihia 
country by oupellatton. 

Properties qf Silver. 

, The properties of silver are, that it has H purer .vhite 
colour than any other meUd; it hasgreajtbriWancy, end is 
susceptible qf a very, high pdisk Its specific gravitv is 
about 10*4 \^dien east* and 10*5, to 10*6 when stamped or 
rolled. It is sufficiently 9oft io be cut with a knifi^. Jt it 
very malleable and ductile, so tlial it may be beal«n into 
leaves about ]-10,000th of an inflh in thiijknics^ anddrawii 
into wire much finei: thaan human hiMir< It^ioesnotrus^ 
or oxidi*e,by expoawre to ^he^fiir, ^ut/Whoa tliemrconleina 
suluhur^MS vapours it tar ^ishaa, becoming first yel^wiah 
and afterwards WnAv^. Tb^-ee metals only, vis», iron,: coppery 
and platinum, exceed silver in tenacity.;, a, wire .07^' of % 

SI h 

n g I L 

iMuria ifsoMtep tupMHs imil»rni6re than 187 povnds 
wfUiMil braakin^. When expoied to a bright red heat 
silver melta, which, according to DantelW is equivalent to 
']i79° of Fahretvbeit; on faeiott its appearance is extremely 
Brffliantt^ndduringthis it absorbs oxygen from the air to the 
amount of about 22 times its volume, and this it gives out 
«itltor I9 effding or by being peured into water* When leaf- 
silver or fine siTver*wtre is heated by voltaic electricity, it 
burns with a fine green tlame; if intensely heated in the 
open flre^ il boils, and a portion is vaporised. 

Oxygen and Silver combine to form three oompounds, 
vi2. suboxide, protoxide, and peroxide. 

Protoxide 0/ Silver is prepared by oxidising and dissolv- 
ing the metal in dilute nitric acid; when lime or barytes 
water, or solution of potash or soda, is added to the solution 
of niihite of silver, a precipitate is formed, which is the prot- 
oxide of 'sHvef, eemposed of 

One eqaivalent of oxgyen • . 8 

'. One equivalent of silver . 108 

Equitaient . IIS 

The properties of this oxide are, that it is of a brownish 
oolour, inodorous, tastless, very sHghtlV if at all soluble in 
water; it is decomposed by the action of light, being reduced 
to metallk silver and oxygen gas, and the same efiect is 
produced by heat U is. iiBohible in the alkalis or alkaline 
earths in general, but is rapidly and largely dissolved by 
aivmonia. Nilrie» acetic, sulphnric, and some other acids 
combine with it readily, but it is decomposed by hydro- 
chloric acid, the results being chloride of silver and water, 
ift gives a yellow oolour to glass and poreelain. This is the 
oxide which is the basis of all the common salts of silver. 

Suboxide 0/ Silver was first prooured by Faraday, by the 
partial decooatposition of the protoxide ; when the ammonia- 
cal solution of this is exposed to the air, its sur&ce becomes 
covered With a pellicle or dark film, which is the suboxide in 
question ; it is probably owing to the decomposition of a 
portion of ttko ammonia^ whieh in this case yields hydrogen 
to a part^f the oxygen of the protoxide of silver. 

Ac^er^ng t<» WoMer, it may be obtained also by subject* 
ing citrate oTsilTer to a temperature of 212^ 

Suboxide^ oTsilver appears to be a di^oxide, composed of » 
One equivalent of oxygen • . 8 

Two equivaletits of silver « • 216 

Equivalent «' 224 
It does not readily, if at all, form salts with adds. 
Peroxide qf Stiver hUs been stated to be obtained by eleo- 
trizmg a weak solution of silver. It separates at the positive 
pole in the state of minute acicular crystals. 
> -Snlpbnrieand phosphoric acid decompose it with forma- 
tion of respective salts of the protoxide, and by ammonia it 
iaacCfcd apo&.aml deoomposed with great energy. 
' it appears to be a binoxide, composed of 

Two eqmivaleiits of oxygen • 16 

One equivalent of silver « • 108 

Equivalent • 124 
Chiorineemd SUver readily combine, and the compound, 
as alitoady mentioned^ fbvms one of ore of silver. 
^ It saay be artificially formed in several ways, first by heat- 
ing the metal in a finely divided state in the gas, or by 
adding any soluble ohloiidi, as common salt* to nitrate or 
any soluble salt of silver, except the hyposulphite. 

WbenreaeAtlv pteoipitoted, or if kept from the aetton of 
light, chloride of silver is perfectly whiter but by exposure to 
^yljght-it beooroe* slowly biuish^white* and eventually 
oltsoM black. The dirset rays of the sun prodace this effect 
almost instantaneously ; on this property is ibunded its use 
in photo;;enic drawing ; the exact nature of the change which 
takes place does not appear to have been satisfactorily 
fietormiiiedi Tins tbtoi^e is qoito insoluble in trater, either 
oold or lfol!;^^4l«>onger acids take it op sparingly, and it is 
oreolpitated from them by dilation \ it is aissolved hotwever 
to Some oxtent by hyposulphuroiM aoid, and readily and 
larfeiely li^f ammonia. It is decomposed by hydrosulphuric 
aelds;aa4-solabIe solphorets, which immediately blacken rt 
broon^ertiitgiilinto sulphuret of silver; it is alsocfecom- 
posed by hyd#^enijgs», and by ison tend tine when put into 
et^nOBCt'witb i^ and'watffr. By mere heat it undergoes no 
ehttYiffe eixeept fosion; and when it has solidified on cooling, 
h'tat^be appMi^nceof honi^ henc^ thcnameof korn silver 
fyv tho n«tiv« «blorid^ 

It is composed of— 

One equivalent of chlorino « • 36 
One equivalent Of silver • 108 

Equivalent * 144 
Chloride of silver is largely and advantageously used 
both in qualitative and quantitative analyse!>, to determine 
the presence and quantity of chlorine, clilorides, and hydro- 

Fluorine and Silver may be combined to form fluoride of 
silver. It is an ^ncrystallizable soluble compound ; when 
heated it fuses ; and at a higher temperature and exposed 
to the air it is slowly reduced. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of fluorine • • 18 

One equivalent of silver • . 108 

Equivalent • 1 26 
Sulphur and Silver fbrm sulphuret of silver ; this com* 
pound has been already noticed as existing in nature and 
constituting the vilreous silver-ore. It may be prepared by- 
direct action, as by heating alternate layers of silver and 
sulphur ; thus obtained, it is a soft malleable dark-coloured 
compound ; it may be procured also by decomposing solu- 
tion of nitrate or of ammoniuret of silver by hyorosulphuric 
acid, hydrosulphates, or soluble sulphurets. It is insoluble 
in water, ammonia, or other alkalis or acids, except nitric 
acid, which decomposes and is decomposed by it with the 
formation of sulphate of silver. 
It is composed of— 

One equivalent of sulphur • 16 , 

Oue equivalent of silver . 108 

Equivalent . 1^4 
Phosphorus and Silver. — The sesubstances combine when 
heated together; and form a white brittle compound; when 
fused and exposed to the air, it loses phosphorus. It may be 
formed either by projecting phosphorus on red-hot silver* 
or by heating a mixture of silver filings, phosphoric acid, 
and charcoal. 
It is composed of 

.One equivalent of phosphorus • 16 

One equivalent of silver • « 1 08 

Equivalent . 124 
Iodine and Silver readily combine when hydriodic acid 
or iodkte of potassium is added to a solution of nitrate of 
silver. The iodide of silver formed is precipitated of i| 
green ish'yel low colour: it is insoluble in water or ammonia,, 
and decomposed when heated with potash; when Aised, it 
acquires a red colour, and is discoloured by light; in the 
invention of the Daguerreotype, a film of this compound, on 
the surface of a polished plate of silver, is the substance 
that receives the impressions of light. It is decomposed by 
concentrated nitric or sulphuric acid. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of iodine « 126 

One equivalent of silver • • 108 

Equivalent • 234 
The compounds containing oxide of silver consist of tlie^ 
ammoniuret and theoxisalts of silver: we shall first mention- 

Ammoniuret 0/ Silver, — Protoxide of silver dissolves with- 
great readiness in ammonia, and by cnreAil operation the 
substanco discovered by Berthollet, and called fulminating- 
silver t is obtained. It should be prepared only in very small 
quantity at a timci on account of the facility and violence 
with which it explodes ; in exploding it forms water, sets 
free azotic gds, and metallic sHver, remains ; it is procured by 
adding a smaM quantity of solution of ammonia to oxide of 
silver ; a portion is dissolved, and a black powder, which is 
tlie fulminating smmoninret of silver remains; it may be- 
also formed by adding solution of potash from the ammonk>- 
nitrate of silver ; a very gentle beat or slight friction causes< 
it to explode, sometimes even before it is dry. Its exact 
composition has not been determined. 

We come now to the compounds of the oxacids and oxide* 
of silver, or the oxisalts of silver ; it is the protoxide only 
which enters into combination with acids; at least they are- 
the only wcH known compounds. The first we f^iall men- 
lion is ' * uiyiiizt: 

Nitrate ef 5i7wh-^This is one of the mo^ importai 

S I L 


S 1 L 

salts of silver. It is generally prepared by adding the metal 
to the diluted acid, in which case the silver i^^ oxidized by 
decomposing a portion of the nitric acid, and that which re- 
mains undecomposed dissolves the oxide formed. It may also 
be prepared, but less advantageously, by dissolving the j)rot- 
oxide of silver in the dilute acid ^ in this case np 'nitric 
oxide is evolved, for no nitric acid is decomposed. The 
solution is colourless, and by evaporation colourless crystals 
are readily obtained, the primary form of which is a right 
rhombic prism. Nitrate of silver has a bitter inetallic taste, 
is soluble in about its own weight of water at GO , and in half 
its weight of boiling water; the solution is neutral to litmus- 
paper. Cold alcohol dissolves only a little of this salt, but 
when boiling takes up a considerable quantity of it, the 
greater part of which separates on cooling. 

By the action of light, especially when in contact with 
organic matter, nitrate of silver is rendered of a dark 
colour, and is then insoluble in water. When moderately 
heated, nitrate of silver fuses, and being then cast in a mould 
in small cylindrical sticks, it constitutes the argenti 
nitras of the Pharmacopoeia, compaonly called lunar caustic ; 
if the heat applied bo too ^reat, the salt is decomposed* 
oxide of silver being left, whicji, if ^till more strongly heated, 
gives metallic silver. When sulphur, phosphorus, or char- 
coal is mixed with nitrate of silver, and struck on an anvils 
detonation ensues, and metallic silver is obtained; the 
experiment should be made on very small quantities, 
Nitrate of silver is decomposed by simply placing charcoal 
or phosphorus in its solution, metallic silver being deposited 
in the crystalline state; the same effect is produced by 
several metals, and more especially copper, which is used in 
Sliver-refilling for precipitating the silver from the nitrate 
in a pure state- 

Chhrate of Silver may be obtained by dissolving prot- 
oxide of silver in chloric acid ; the ^lution yie)ds small 
rhombic crystals, which are soluble in four parts of water at 
60". Tliis salt is not applied to any use. 

Nitrate of silver is decomposed by sulphuric and phos^ 
phoric acids, and their soluble salts, sulphate and phosphate 
of silver, aie thrown down. Potash and soda and, the 
alkaline earths precipitate protoxide of silver; ammonia pro- 
duces the same effect, but when added in excess, redissolves 
the oxide at first precipitated. Hydrosulphuric acid, hydro- 
sulphates, and soluble siilphurets occasion the formation and 
precipitation of black sulphuret of silver. 

Chlorine partially, and soluble chlorides and hydrochloric 
acid and hydrochlorates, perfectly, depompose nitrate of silver, 
cnloride of silver being precipitated. It is on this account 
that nitrate of silver is employed, and with great accuracy, in 
both qualitative and quantitative analyses. 

Nitrate of silver is composed of 

One equivalent of nitric acid . 04 

One equivalent of protoxide of silver 1 1 6 

Equivalent . 170 
Besides the uses already named, nitrate of silver it em- 
ployed by precipitation with carbonate of soda, &c. for 
writing on Imen ; it is commonly called indelible ink. 

Carhonate qf Silver is prepared by adding a solution of 
carbonate of potash, or of soda, to one of nitrate of silver. 
It is a white substance, insoluble in water, but dissolved by 
ammonia, and decomposed by acids ; it is blackened by ex- 
psure to light, and readily decomposed by heat. It is pro- 
bably composed of 

One equivalent of carbonic acid . 22 
One equivalent of oxide of silver . 1 16 

Equivalent . 138 
Sulphate qf Silver.— This salt may be formed by boiling 
finely divided silver in Ktrong sulphuric acid, by dissolving 
the protoxide in dilute sulphuric acid, or by adding a solu- 
tion of sulphate of soda to one of nitrate of silver, when it 
is thrown down as a crystalline precipitate. 

Sulphate of silver is a colourless salt, soluble in about 90 
parts of water at 60**; a saturated boiling solution deposits 
crystals on cooling, which are prismatic and anhydrous; 
when strongly heated, the acid is expelledt and metallic sil- 
ver remains. It is sometimes employed as a chemical re- 
agent, and is composed of 

One equivalent of sulphuric acid . 40 
One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 



It is decomposed by chloridM and salphureta, in the sani^ 
manner as the nitrate of silver. 

Sulphite qf Silver may be obtained by adding sulphite of 
potash to a solution of nitrate of silver, or by digesting oxidd 
of silver in a solution of the acid. It has the nirm of crys- 
talline grains, and, unlike most other salts of silver, h 
stated to retain its whiteness when exposed to light. It is 
composed of 

One equivalent of sulphurous acid . 32 
One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Equivalent . .148 
Hypoiulphate qf SihSr is prepared by digesting carbonate 
of silver in hyposulphuric acid. It crystallises in prisms. 

Hyposulphite qf Silver.— li is obtained by gradually 
adding a weak solution of nitrate of silver to a dilute one of 
hyposulphite of soda. It is a precipitate of a grey colour, 
and the supernatant liquor is stated by Hersehel, who has 
particularly examined this salt, to be remarkably sweet, 
without any metallic flavour. It is also formed when 
chloride of silver is dissolved in a hyposulphite. This salt 
is very liable to spontaneous decomposition, and becomes 
black owing to the formation of sulphuret of silver. Thd 
hyposulphites have been advantageously employed in re-^ 
moving of the unchanged salt of silver in photogenic draw- 
ings. Hyposulphite of silver is composed of 

Oneequivalent of hyposulpburous acid 48 
One equivalent of oxioe of silver . 116 

Equivalent . .164 
Phosphate of Silver.— Thu is prepared by adding a solu- 
tion or the common nentral phosphate of soda to one of 
nitrate of silver ; a yellow precipitate is fbrmed, whi6h is 
quickly discoloured by exposure to. light; becomes brown' 
when heated, but regains its yellow tint on cooling ; and 
when strongly heated, it melts. It is soluble in nitric and 
phosphoric acid. It is a subsesquiphosphate, composed of 
1 equivalent of phosphoric acid . 36 
1^ equivalent of oxide of silver . 1 74 

Equivalent . .210 
Pyrophosphate of Silver is obtained by heating neutral 
phosphate of soda, so as to expel its water, and adding a so- 
lution of it to one of nitrate of silver. This precipitate is of 
a white colour. Like the preceding, it is composed of one 
equivalent each of acid ana base. 

We shiiU mention the properties of a fbw of the salts 
formed by the oombination of the vegetable acids with oxide 
of silver. 

Acetate of Silver. — ^It may be prepared by dissolving oxide 
of silver in acetic acid, or, as it is a salt of slight solubility, 
in water, by decomposing nitrate of silver with acetate of 
soda, when it is thrown down as a crystalline flocculent 
precipitate. It is a oolonrless salt, sparingly soluble In 
water, and decomposed at a red heat. It is occasionally 
used as a chemical re-agent. It bonsists of 

One equivalent of acetic acid . 51 

One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Equivalent . .167 
Bemoate qf Silver may be obtained either by digesting 
moist oxide of silver in a solution of benzole acid, or by 
adding a benzoate to it It is a white anhydrous com- 

Citrate of Silver is formed by adding a citrate to nitrate of 
silver. It is an insoluble white powder, which blackens by 
exposure to light, and detonates slightly when heated, it 
is composed of 

One equivalent of citric acid . 86 

One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Equivalent . .172 
Oxalate qf Silver \s j^reeipitviied y^heti oxalic acid or an 
oxalate is added to nitrate of silver. It is insoluble in 
water, white, and rendered black by exposure td light It 
detonates slightly when struck on an anvil. It is soluble m 
nitric acid, and decomposed by hydrochloric adid. It is 
probably composed of 

One equivalent of oxalic acid . . 36 
One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Cyanide qf Silver 

Equivalent, CZnr\^](> 
is prepared by adding hydrocvanic 


S I L 


8 I L 

to a solution of nitrate of silver ; ibe hydrogen of the aeid 
uniting with the oxygen of the oxide of silver, water is 
formed, and the cyanogen and silver comhine, and form 
'6yai)ide of silver, which is precipitated. It is colourless, in- 
soluble in water or solution of potash or soda, hut readily 
token up by ammonia. Nitric and sulphuric acid act hut 
slightly upon it, unless concentrated and heated; hydro- 
fthloric acia decomposes it, and hydrocyanic acid and chlo- 
tHe of silver result, and this is one of the methods of pro- 
puring the last-me^itioned acidf adopted in the London 
PharmacopiOBia. It is decomposed hy hydrosulphurio acid, 
hy which sulphuret of silver and hydrocyanic acid are oh- 
ta|^ed. It is composed of 

One equivalent of cyanogen . . 26 
One equivalent of silver . . . 108 

Equivalent . .134 
Ferrocyanide qf Silver is obtained when ferrocyanii^e of 

Eott^sjum is added to nitrate of silver. It is a white insolu- 
le substance. 

Cyanaie qf Silver is formed when cyanate of potash is 
add^ to nitrate of silver. It is a white powder, slightly 
soluble in hot water, and also in ammonia. It blackens 
when heated, and burns with deflagration, and there are 
produced di cyanide of silver, cyanic acid, carbonic acid, and 
azotic gas. 

Fulminate qf Silver. Fulminating Silver,— -This very 
explosive compound is formed by dissolving 60 grains of 
silver in half an ounce of nitric acid of specific gravity 1*38 ; 
to the solution are to be added two ounces of alcohol of spe- 
cific gravity 0'88, and the mixture is to be heated in a capa- 
cious dask; a white ttocculent precipitate soon begins to 
appear, and when ebullition commences, the flask is to be 
removed from the heat; the effervescence still continues, 
and when it has ceased, the product is to be collected on a 
filter, washed with cold watet*, and dried at a temperature 
not exceeding 100** Fahrenheit. 

Fulminate of silver b a greyish- white crystalline powder. 
It becomes darker by exposure to light ; it ciissolves in about 
40 parts of boiling water, and separates, as the solution 
cools, in minute crystals. In the quantity even of a half 
grain it detonates violently, either by the action pf beat, 
electricity, strong sulphuric acid, or friction. When placed 
oa one flint, and slightly touched with another, explpsjon 
also takes place. It has been known to detpnate with great 
violence when a little has remained between a stopper and 
the neck of a bottle, on screwing in the stopper. It should 
be preser\'ed therefore in small portions, in paper, in ^ wide- 
mouthed corked vial. It is composed of 

One equivalent of fulminio acid • 68 
Two equivalents of oxide of silver . 232 

Equivalent . 300 

Alhye qf Si7f?er.— Little or nothing is known respecting 
the alloys of silver with the following metals : — Potassium, 
sodium, and the metals of the alkaline earths ; manganese, 
cadmium, nickel, uranium, tellurium, titanium, cerium, 
chromium, and vanadium. 

Iron and silver combine with difficulty. They separate 
on cooling, the iron retaining about one-eigbtieth of silver, 
and the silver about one-thirtieth of iron. According to 
Faraday and Stodart, steel containing about one five-hun- 
dredth of silver forms a good alloy for cutting instruments. 
Iron and silver form a bluish-white granular alloy ; tin and 
silver, a white, hard, brittle alloy. When cobalt and silver 
are fused together, they separate during cooling, each re- 
taining a portion of the other. Lead and silver ^ive a dull 
brittle alloy; antimony and silver, a white brittle alloy; 
arsenic and silver form a grey, brittle, granular compound, 
containing about 14 percenUof the former metal. Bismuth 
and silver give a yellowish-white, brittle, lamellar alloy; 
molybdenum forms a compact, brittle, grey, granular com- 
pound with silver ; and tungsten, a brown, slightly malleable 
button ; copper and silver readily combine, and the silver is 
rendered harder by it without much deterioration of eolour; 
the standard silver of this country is composed of 1 1*10 silver 
and 0*90 copper. Mercury and silver amalgamate readily, 
and this compound is sometimes employed for plating, but 
this operation is now being most advantageously carried on 
by precipitation by means of voltaic electricity. 

Properties of the Salts qf Silver. — The solutions of the 
salts of silver are recognised by the following, among other 
properties which have been occasionally mentioned : — 

They givs a white precipitate, insoluble in water or in 
dilute acKls, but readily in ammonia, by chlorides and hy- 
drochlorates ; the precipitate becomes black by exposure to 
the light. 

Metallic silver is precipitated by copper and the solution 
of protosulphate of iron ; black sulphuret, by bydrosulphurio 
acid and hydrosulphates. A yellow precipitate by arsenious 
acid and phosphate of soda ; a red-Drown, by arseniates ; a 
crimson, by chromates ; and white, by the ferrocyanide of po- 

With respect to the uses of silver it is scarcely requisite 
to say anything, as they are well known in its applica- 
tion to coin and the formation of vessels of great beauty and 

Silver-ores are found chiefly in veins which traverse the 
primary and the older of the secondary stratified rocks, but 
especially the former ; and also the unstratified rocks, such as 
granite and porphyry, which are associated with the above. 
Some of the richest mines in South America are situated in 
primary strata; also in limestone and in grauwacke, and in 
still moresecondarv strata. In some of the mines of Peru, and 
in those of Kongsberg in Norway and Freiburg in Saxony, 
silver has been discovered in masses weighing from 100 to 
8U0 lbs. In the mines of Europe the veins are numerous and 
slender ; in some of the mines in the Haiz Mountains and in 
the Hungarian mines the veins occur in a small number ot 
spots, and are of considerable dimensions. In three of the 
richest districts of Mexico there is only one principal vein, 
which is worked in different places. Oneof these veins, in 
the district of Guanaxuato, is from 130 to 148 feet wide, and 
it has. beeii traced and worked to an extent of nearly eight 

In Mexico there were 600 mining establishments, called 
Beales, at the time of Humboldt's visit, and from 3000 to 
4000 veins or masses were worked. The most common ores 
are the sulphuret of silver, antimonial silver, and muriate 
of silver. 

The a\'erage richness of all the ores in Mexico is from 3 
to 4 ounces per quintal of 102 lbs. In one of the Mexican 
mines a working of one hundred feet in length yielded in six 
months 432,874 lbs. troy of silver, equal in value to about 
1,000,000/. In Chili some of the mines yield only 8oz. in 
5000 lbs* of ore ; but in the rich mine of Ck)piapo, discovered 
in 1832, the ore A-cquently contains 60 or 70 percent, of silver. 
The average produce of the mines in Saxony is from three 
to four ounces in the quintal. The lead-mines of Craven 
in Yorkshire contained 230 ounces per ton ; and those of 
Cardiganshire, worked in the reign of Charles I., yielded 
80 ounces. The average proportion of the lead-mines of 
the north of England is 1 2 ounces per ton. Even when 
the proportion of silver is so low as eight ounces, or one 
grain per Jib., it has been found profitable to separate it. 

The pure metal is senarated from the ore by various pro- 
cesses; by mechanical division, roastings to separate thd 
sulphur and other volatile matter, and melting at ditforeat 
stages of purification, with the addition of fluxes of various 
$orts. Refining is performed by amalgamation with quick- 
silver, the two metals being afterwards separated by dis- 
tilling off the quicksilver. 

The produce of the Mexican mines averaged annually 
4,800,000/. from 1793 to 1803, of which nineteen- twentieths 
were silver. In the first ten years of the present century 
the average annual value was about 5,000,000/., the quan*- 
tity of pure silver annually produced in that time being 
1,440,650 troy lbs. The mines of Potosi in Peru are the 
most famous in South America. [Potosi.] The produce 
of the Chilian mines in 1632 was about 1,000,000 ounces^ 
At the commencement of the present century Humboldt 
estimated the annual produce of the silver-mines of Chili, 
Peru, Buenos Ayres, and New Grenada, at nearly 700,000 lbs. 
troy, valued at 2;074,476/. sterling. 

The annual average of both gold and silver coined in the 
different mints of Spanish America was estimated, in 1 810, 
at B millions sterling, namely, in Mexico 24 millions of dol- 
lars ; Lima, 6 millions ; Potosi, 4^ millions ; Santa F^ and 
Santiago, each 1} million ; and Popayan and Guatemala, 
nearly 1 million. The proportion of silver to gold coined at 
all these mints was stated as 30 to I ; but the proportion of 
silver to gold produced from all the American mines was as 
62 to 1 ; and from the mines of all countries as 52 to L 
In a work published at Paris in 1807 by M. Brongniart, the 
Valiie of the gold and silver brought annually into circulation 

S I L 


S I L 

from all parts of the world was estimated at nearly 46 mil- 
lions of doUan ; of which 36 were from the mines of Spanish 
America, 4:^ from those of Portuguese America, and 54 from 
the mines of the Old World. {Report of Bullion Com- 
mittee, 1810.) 

The most productire mmes in Europe are those in Saxony, 
Austria, Hungary, Norway, Russia, and Spain. The mines 
in Saxony have been worked since the tenth century. The 
average annual produce of all the European mines in the 
last twenty years of the eighteenth century did not exceed 
600,000/. in value. In the early part of the thirteenth cen- 
tury the mines of Schneeberg in Saxony are said to have 
yielded 600,000/. annually ; but taking the average of all 
the mines of late years, the annual produce does not, ac- 
cording to the estimate of Mr. Jacob, exceed 400,000 lbs., or 
lOO.OOOC. in value. The mines of Chemnitz and Kremnitz 
in Hungary have been worked about a thousand years. 
Those of the Tyrol have long ceased to be productive. The 
mine of Kongsberg in Norway was probably the richest in 
Europe during the middle 6f the last century. It yielded 
649,270lbs. troy, value nearly 2,000,000/., in the forty 
years from 1728 to 1768. The silver of Russia is obtained 
from the refining of stream gold found in the Ural Moun- 
tains, and from lead-ores. Silver- mines were worked in 
Spain from a very early period by the Phcenicians, Cartha- 
ginians, Romans, and Moors ; but they are now abandoned 
as unprofitable. 

Native silver and several of the other varieties of the ores 
are met with in some of the Cornish copperi-mines, and silver 
is extracted from the ore of English lead ; but with these 
exceptions, and very small quantities which are occasionally 
found of this metal, silver cannot be considered as consti- 
tuting one of the mineral treasures of the United Kingdom. 
A vein of silver-ore and the sulphuret was worked in Stir- 
lingshire during the latter part of the last century* and 
ttom 40,000/. to 50,000/. were obtained, when the vein was 
lost In 1607 a silver-mine was worked in Linlithgowshire. 

The silver-mines of Asia have ceased to be very produc- 
tive in modern times. There are mines in Armenia, but 
none are known to exist in Persia, nor in any part of the 
Bast India Com panv*s possessions. Silver-mines are worked 
in China; and Mr. Davis remarks (C/^tne^tf) that the great 
quantities of silver brought to Lintin for many years past, 
to be exchanged for opium and exported to India, prove that 
there must be abundant sources in the empire. Silver is 
not obtained in any part of Africa. 

Grold and silver appear to have been in request from the 
earliest ages. Abranam was rich in silver and in gold. 
He bought a field for a burial-place, for which he paid 400 
shekels of silver, delivered ' by weight, according to the 
currency of the merchants.* {Genesis^ xxii., 14-16.) 
Joseph, his great-grandson, was sold by his brethren for 
twenty pieces of silver (Genesis, xxxviii., 29); and when 
aftewards they went to Egypt to purchase corn, they brought 
• silver in their sacks* mouth.' {Genesis, xlv., 22.) In 
the book of Job (xlii., 11-12), we read of silver passing 
from hand to hand as money. The writer of that book 
was acquainted with the fact that silver was found in veins 
and gold in particles, though the country in which he lived 
did not proauce the precious metals. It is said (1 Kings, 
X.) that in the days of Solomon silver was nothing ac- 
counted of, and that * the king made silver to be as stones 
in Jerusalem.' Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia, annually 
collected 9880 talents of silver, besides gold, as tribute from 
Asia and Africa ; subsequently tribute came in also from 
the islands of the Mediterranean and from Europe as far 
west as Thessaly. Herodotus states (iii. 96) that the gold 
and silver were melted and poured into earthen vessels, 
and that the earthen vessels were then removed, which left 
the metal in a solid mass : when any was wanted, a piece 
was broken oflTas the occasion required. Silver was coined 
at Rome 266 b.c, before gold had been so employed. [Coin.] 

For further information on the production and uses of 
the precious metals, the reader may refer to Mr. Jacob's 
elaborate ' History of the Consumption of the Precious 
Metals,* 2 vols. (1831). Chapter ii. contains an account of 
the mines of the antients, and their modes of mining and 
smelting. Chapter x. is an inquiry into the production of 
the precious metals during the middle ages, from the disso- 
lution of the Western Empire to the discovery of America. 
Another chapter is on the produce of the mines at the epoch 
of this discovery ; also one firom this period to the opening 
of the mines of Potosi, in 1564; and two other chapters, 
oue on the produce of gold and silver from 17C0 to 1809, 

and the other extending the inquiry from 1809 to 1829, 
complete this part of the subject. The invesligations of 
Humboldt, and the personal mquiries of Mr. H. G.Ward 
(Mexico in 1827), with the scattered notices of other writers, 
are collected and arranged by Mr. Jacob, whose work must 
always be valuable for reference in all questions relating to 
the historv of prices. Several chapters of the work are de- 
voted to tnis topic in connection with the increased supply 
of the precious metals after the discovery of America, and 
the rise of prices which occurred in Europe in the sixteenth 
century. The gold and silver coin in Europe, in 1492, Mr. 
Jacob estimates at 34,000,000/., which was increased in the 
course of the next 112 years by 138,000,000/., making the 
total gold and silver currency in 1599, allowing for abrasion, 
&c., 1 72,000,000/. In book i.. chapter xi^ of the * Wealth of 
Nations,' there is a * Digression concerning the Variations 
in the Value of S'dver during the course of the Four last 

The proportional value of gold to silver was 12 and 10 to I 
from the Anglo-Saxon times to the discovery of America* 
it i* at present 14*28 to 1. In anlient Greece the propor- 
tion varied from 15 and 10 to 1, and in Rome from 12 and 
7 to 1. Herodotus (iii. 95) estimates it at 13 to 1. Since 
the discovery of America the proportion throu^liout the 
world has been 17 and 14 to 1. (Kelly's Cambist,) 

Mr. Jacob gives the amount of silver coined in each 
reign from the time of James I. : — 


James I. . • (22 years) 1,807,277 

Charles I. and the 
Commonwealth • (35 years) 9,776,544 

Charles II. . . (22 years) 3,722,180 . 

James II. . . ( 4 years) 2,115,115'* , 

William and Mary, 
and William III. (12 years) 7.093,074 

Anne . . . (13 years) 618.212 

George I. . . (13 years) 233,045 

George H. . . (33 years) 304,360 

George III. from 

1760 to 1809 . (49 years) 63,419 

1809 to 1820 . (11 years) 6,933,346 

The last new silver coinage for the United Kingdom was 
commenced in 1816, since whieh time the quantity of silver 
coined in each year has been aa follows >— 

Ymn. AmoQDt Coined. Ymts. Amount GolooC 

1816 £l,805»251 1829 108,259 

1817 2,436,297 1830 151 
1616 576,279 1831 33,696 
1619 1,672,272 1832 145 

1820 847,717 1833 145 

1821 433,686 1834 432,775 
1828 31,430 1835 146,665 
1823 285.271 1836 497,719 
1624 282,070 1837 75,385 
1826 417,535 1838 174,042 

1826 608,605 1839 390»654 

1827 33,1)19 1840 207.900 

1828 16,288 ' 

Total £11,108,265 
The weight of silver coined, and the number and deno* 
mination of each coin issued from 1816 to 1840 inclusive, 
were as follows, according to a parliamentary paper (Sess. 

Weiflit. N«Bb«r. VakM. 

Ibt. £ 

Crowns . 140,144 1,849,905 462.476 

Half-crowns . 1,190,876 31.438,434 3,929,804 . 

Shillings . 1,540,080 101.645,280 5,082,264 

Sixpences • 441,852 58,324,595 1,458.114 

Fourpences • 52,140 10,325,320 177,062 
Maun day money : — 

Fourpences . 306 60,720 1,012 

Threepences » 270 71,368 892 

Twopences . 225 89,100 742 

Pence . 272 215,424 897 

The seignorage, or the diflference between the pnce at 
which bullion is purchased and the mint price of the oeia 
at 5s, Bd, an ounce, amounted to 6I6,747/» on theaborei 
The Maun day money is coined fbr the purpose of being 
distributed by tlie liord Almoner in Whitehall Chapel on 
Maunday Thursday. 

When silver is issued for coin, it is always alloyed with 

* InclwUnf £1,996,799 bBMtnonojcoiDcd for Ireland, 

8 I L 


S I L 

copper : the maximum of hardness is produced by oue-ftfih 
. 01 topper. One lb. of standard silver of the English coin* 
age contains 11 oz. 2 dwts. of pure silver and 18 dwts. alloy, 
or 'd25 parts of pure silver in 1000 parts of standard silver. 
pHoNEY.] For purposes connected with the manufacture of 
various articles of use and ornament the alloy is greater. At 
Birmingham rolled sheets are made which do not contain 
more than 3 or 4 dwts. of silver to each lb. of the inferior 

The rolling of silver in contact witli tlie inferior metals is 
performed by powerful flatting-mills. A bar ot copper is 
niadc quite smooth and clear on one of its surfaces, and is 
then sprinkled over with glass of borax, and there is laid 
Upon it a plate of fine silver, and the two arc carefully bound 
together by wire. The mass is then exposed to a full red 
heat, which melts the borax and causes the silver to adhere 
to the copper. The ingot is now passed through a rolling- 
press and formed into a plate, both the silver and copper 
extending uniformly during the whole process, at the con* 
etusion of which they are inseparably joined. The art of 
silver-plating was introduced at ShefHeld about the middle 
of the last century. Another mode of plating is called ' sil- 
vering,* when an amalgam of silver and mercury is well 
rnbbed upon the surface of the copper; by the application 
of heat the mercury is driven off, and the silver remains 
behind, adhering firmly to the copper, and capable of being 
highly polished. 

Mr. Jacob estimates the annual consumption of silver in 
the United Kingdom at 3,282,046 oz., valued at 820.521/. 
The consumption for watch-cases is about 506,000 oz. 
annually: 100,000, each weighing on an average 2^oz., are 
stamped annually at the London Assay-ofiice; CO.OOO, each 
weighing 2 oz., are stamped at Birmingham ; and 80,000, of 
the same weight, are stamped at the other assay-ofiicea in the 
kingdom. About 900,000 oz. are used by coach-makers, 
harness-makers, and saddlers* ironmongers. In articles of 
small size, such as thimbles, of which hundreds of thou- 
sands are annually made ; chains for watch-guards, pencil- 
cases, necks of smelling-bottles, locks of pocket-books, in- 
strument cases, and portfolios, and small portions to handles 
of penknives and razors* the silver used is under the 
weight which subjects it to the stamp-duty of U. 6d. an oz., 
bat a very floMiderable quantity of silver is employed in 
these minor ol^eotv. Leai'silver lor gilding is made two 
and a half times thinner than gold, and the gold-beaters 
sequire a oonsidenri»Ae quantity of the metal for this pur- 
pose. Some articles are ' washed* with siWer. Mr. Jacob 
distributes the total consumption as follows :— 

That paying duty . . . 1,275,316 oz. 
That used in watch-cases • . 506,740 

That used in plating . • 900,000 

That for other minor purposes •> 500.000 

The value of the stock of silver in the hands of the ma- 
nuf^urers and dealers is estimated by the same authority 
at 3,280i000/. The value of ornaments and utensils of the 
precious metals in Europe and America, if brought to the 
crucible, Mr. Jacob values at 400»000,000/., or one fburth 
more thiia the value of the coined metals. The annual con- 
sumptioQ of gold and silver in £urope and Aix^erica for or- 
namental purposes ho states to be nearly 6,000,000/., ihat of 
dreat Britain being valued at 2,457,000/, In M Culloch's 
'Dictionary of Commerce,' it is stated that Mr. Jacob's cal* 
cttlations are generally too high.. Silver forms by far the 
largest proportion of the value of domestic utensils in which 
either of the two precious metals ai-e used. In England the 
gold currency is of much higher relative value than that 
of silver [CuRREr^cv]; but in most other countries this is 
not the case. The coinage of silvet and gold in France is 
estimated at 100,000,000/., a very large proportion of which 
is of silver. Since the peace, the number of silversmiths 
ami persons engaged in working silver and gold into articles 
of ornament and use has greatly increased on the Ck)ntinent ; 
and the increase of the same class is probably also con- 
sidei-able in the United Kingdom. See the articles Andes, 
Cbilb, MkxicOi Peru, Poroflt, for an account of the South 
AflAorican mines; Austria, Hungary, Saxony, &o., for 
tl^we of Europe. 

.(Jacobs Inqutn/ inio the Production and CoMumption 
qfike Precious Metals^ 2 vols., London, 1831 ; Humboldt's 
New Spain; Personal Researches, &c.; Ward*s Mexico^ 

P. C, No. 1362. 

SILVER, Medical PiopsrUes of. hi a purely metallio 
state silver has no action on the animal frame, and the only 
salt much used is the nitrate, termed also lunar caustic^ 
This is always fused in proper mouldy from which it is 
turned out in the form of cylinders, about three inches long, 
and the eighth of an inch in diameter. They are at first 
while» but quickly become of a dark grey or hlaok colour, 
from combining with organic matter in the air. To prevent 
this the cylinders are generally wrapped up in blue paper. 
'When nitrate of silver is brought in contact with any part 
of tlie human frame, it causes first a white mark, which 
gradually changes to blue, purple, and at last to black. This 
occurs more rapidly if moisture be present; and is owing to 
a chemical combination of the metal with the albumen and 
fibrin of the animal tissues. If the part be wetted, and tho 
caustic applied several times at short intervals, vesication 
results. Nitrate of silver acts therefore locally as an irri- 
tant and corrosive. When taken internally in small doses 
for a considerable time, such as six or twelve months, it is 
absorbed and deposited in various parts of the body, and 
when it is deposited in the rete mucosum of the skin it 
causes discol or at ions, which inmost cases prove permanent. 
It has been employed frequently with success, but often 
with failure, in the treatment of epilepsy, chorea* and some 
forms of angina pectoris, as well as morbid sensibility of 
the stomach. Larger doses can be borne when it is admi- 
nistered in the form of pill than in solution. Tiie pilli 
should be made with mucilage and sugar, but not with 
bread-crumb, as the common salt, or ciiloride of sodium, de- 
composes the nitrate and renders it inert. In cases of poi- 
soning by nitrate of silver, common salt is a ready and 
effeciual remedy. The liability of nitrate of silver to pro- 
duce discolorations of the skin in persons taking it inter- 
nally constitutes a serious objection to its employment, and 
there apiicars little necessity fur giving it, since any case of 
epilepsy likely to l>e benefited by it will generally receive 
eoual good firom the use of oxide of zinc, without the risk 
or stains or other inconvenience. It has been suggested 
that tho use of nitric acid internally as well as externally 
nuiy remove tho discolorations; but it is better not to incur 
the chance of causing them, than trust to the remote chanco 
of removing them by such au expedient. 

The external employment of this agent is not liable to 
any objection when used cautiously, while its advantages 
are very great. It is the most powerful direct antipfUngisUc 
agent known. All subacute infiammalions in any part to 
which it can be immediately applied will sub:>ide under its 
intiuence. In inflammations not merely of the skiti, but of 
mucous membranes when they occur in parts which are 
accessible, its intiuence is great, and speedily manifested. 
Many of the cases of croup which in an advanced stage are 
unmanageable, begin in the back part of the throat (fauces), 
and if these parts arc freely touched with a pencil dipped in 
a strong solution of niti-ate of silver, the farther downward 
progress of tlic intlammation may be arrested. The same 
treatment is applicable to the erythematous inflammation 
which frequently begins either externally, and spreads 
through the mouth or nose to the fauces, and thence down 
the (Bsophagus, or originates in the faiu^s. leading to verjr 
serious results. Erysipelatous intlammation occurring in 
any part of the body may be efiectually limited by nitrata 
of silver. For this purpose a completo circle should be 
formed round the inllamed part, but on the sound skuu 
For tliis case the solid cyliudor, moistened at the end, is 
best The circle must be perfect, or the morbid action 
may extend, escaping at the smallest breach. Chronio 
inflammation, and even ulceration of the eyes, may be re- 
moved by nitrate of silver applied in diflbrent forms. Old 
indolent ulcers are stimulated to a healthy act ion by its use; 
and many cutaneous diseases removed by it. Recent burns 
have the severe pain often very much mitigated by it ; but 
it must not in any of these cases be applied to too lai-ge a 
surface at once, as ill effects have followed such a practice. 
To specify all the uses of nitrate of silver would be impos- 
sible here, but one more deserves to be extensively known. 
It is the best application to chilblains, especially at first; 
but even after they break, it disposes them to heal. 

When a solution of nitrate of silver is made, distilled 
water should invariably be used- The neglect of this rule 
causes many of the solutions applied to the eye to be not 
only useless, but hurtful. Oxirle of silver has been recently 
strongly recommended as nn antispasmodic, and not liable 
to tho obieclious wh'ch attach to the nitrate. ^^ ^'^ 

Vol.. XXIL-E 

S I M 


S I M 

SILVER. GERMAN. [Ttjtbhao.] 

SILVER-GRAIN. In making a horizontal seotion of 
the trunk of any tree, a number of straight lines will be seen 
radiating from the central pith through the wood to the 
hark. These rays are called by botanists medullary rays ur 
plates, and by persons who work on wood silver-grain. 
They are composed entirely of cellular tissue, which is of a 
compressed form, and thedce called murifbrm, and often do 
not consist of more than a single layer of cells, although in 
some trees, as Aristolochias, the layers are very nu- 
merous. In longitudinal sections of the stem they give it a 
remarkable satiny lustre, which constitutes the great beauty 
of some woods, as the plane and the sycamore. The great 
variety that is seen in the character of different woods ap- 
pears to depend on the nature of the silver-grain, for the 
woody and vascular tissues do not present sufficient dif- 
ference to constitute any obvious peculiarity. Thus in the 
cultivated cherry the plates are thin, and their adhesion to the 
hark slight, so that a section of this wood has a pale, smooth, 
homogeneous appearance : but in the wild eheiry the silver- 
grain is much thicker ; it adheres closely to the bark, and 
is arranged with great irregularity, so that this wood when 
cut has a deeper colour, and a twisted^ knotted, irregular 
appearance. In the two species of oak the same kind of 
differences are observable. In Querotrs sessiliflora the rays 
are thin and distant from each other, so that when a wedge 
is driven into the end of the trunk the plates of wood do not 
readily break into each other ; but in Querous pedonculata 
the rays are hard, and are so close together that the wood 
may be split up without any difficulty. [Stbh.] 

SILVIO AOID, a substance which with pinic acid 
[Pi NIC Acid] constitutes the greater portion of colophony, 
or common rosin. When this substance is digested in cold 
alcohol of specific gravity 0*833, the pinic acid dissolves, 
hut the silvic acid remains insoluble in alcohol until it is 
boiled ; on cooling, it separates in crystals of considerable 
size, the form of which, according to Unverdorben, is a 
rhombic prism terminated bv four facets, but Laurent repre- 
sents it as an acute rhomboid, the edges of which are usually 

Silvic acid melts below 212^; is insoluble in water, but 
dissolves readily in hot alcohol and in eether, and is preoe- 
pitated by water ; it is soluble also in all nroportions in the 
volatile and fixed oils. Concentrated sulphurio acid dis- 
solves and water precipitates it ttom the acid ; by the action 
of nitric acid it is converted into another resinous acid when 
it has been precipitated fVom alcohol by water; ammonia 
dissolves this acid readily, and the siivate of ammonia 
formed, as well as that of potash and of soda, is soluble 
in water; most silvates are however insoluble in it, but 
many of them are dissolved by alcohol and by eetlier ; the 
siivate of magnesia especially is taken up bv alcohol ; the 
silvates of silver and lead are colourless and insoluble in 

Silvic acid may be regarded as an oxide of oil of turpen- 
tine; its composition, as stated by the chemists above 
named, is as follows : it will be observed that there is no 
great difference between them, but they do not agree as to 
its constitution : — 

Carbon . 
Oxygen . 

. 10-36 
. 79-28 
. 10-36 

Laarent* Cquimlents. 
9-7 or 40 . . = 40 
79-7 „ 52 . . = 312 
10-6 „ 4 . . = 40 


100- 100- 392 100- 

SIMARU^A is the bark of the root of the Simaruba 
amara (Aublet), S. officinalis (of Dec. and ' Pharm. Lend.'), 
a tall tree, native of Guayana, and also of Jamaica, if 
the tree found in that island be not a distinct species. 
It is imported in bales containing pieces a foot or more in 
length, tolerably broad, and generally formed into rolls the 
whole length of the piece. Externally it is rough, warty, 
and has a dirty-yellow cuticle marked with transverse 
ridges; the epidermis below this is of a whitish-yellow 
colour. Internally smooth, with a greyish yellow colour. It 
is devoid of odour, but intensely bitter. Its chief constituents 
are quassite, resin, a volatile oil having an odour like ben- 
zoin, ulroin, mucilage, and some salts. It is tonic and de- 
mulcent in small doses, and therefore useful in the later 
stages of dysentery, but in larger doses it is emetic. The 
bark of the root of Simaruba versicolor (St. Hilaire) is very 
like that above described, and is used externally by the 
Brazilians as a wash to ill-conditioned ulcers, and to destroy 

▼ermin ; but if taken tntemally it causes stupor and other 
narcotic symptoms; it should therefore be carefully distiu*, 
guished from the former. 

SIMARUBA'C)Ei£, a natural order of plants belonging 
to the gynobasic group of polypetalous Exogens. The 
plants of this order are trees or shrubs, with alternate ex* 
stipulate usually compound leaves, and mostly without dots* 
The flowers are whitish-green or purple, on axillary or 
terminal peduncles, hermaphrodite, orooca&ionally unisexual. 
The cal^x is 4 or 6 parted ; petals four to five, twisted in 
oestivation ; stamens twice as many as the petals, arising 
from the back of an hypogynous scale ; ovary 4 to 5 k)bed ; 
style simple ; stigma 4 or 5 lobed ; fruit a drupe ; seeds 
pendulous, exalbuminous, with a superior short radicle 
drawn back within thick cotyledons. With one exception 
they are all natives of Africa, India, and tropical America. 
This order was formerly included under Rutace®, but their 
differences from that order appear to many of sufficient 
importance to constitute a separate family. A. de Jussiea 
says, ' They are known Arom all Rutaceous plants by the 
coexistence of these characters, namely, ovaries with but one 
ovule, indehiscent drupes, exalbuminous seeds, a membra- 
nous integument of the embryo, and by the radicle being 
retracted within thick cotyledons.' 

The plants of this order are all intensely bitter. The 
Quassia on this account is used in medicine. [Quassia.} 
Simaruba versicolor is so bitter that no insects will attack 
it ; and when all other specimens of plants in dried col- 
lections have been attacked by Ptini, &c., specimens of 
this plant have been left untouched. The Brazilians use 
an infusion of this plant in brandy as a remedy against the 
bites of serpents. 

d e 

Qnutla amara. 

Ofbrauoh, Bhowlni; flowers and compound leaves; 6, dower t e, itanMSi 
separated, attached to hypogynous scale i d, stamens surroundfaig ovary ; #, 
ovary seated oo a stalk, to which the stamens are attached. 

SIMBIRSK, a government of Asiatic Russia, is situated 
between 52** and 57** N. lat., and between 42"' 20' and 58* 
20' E. long. It is bounded on the north by Kasan, on the 
east by Orenburg, on the south by Saratow and Pensa, and 
on the west by Nischnei Novgorod, The area is 24,000 
squaife miles. The surface is in general an undulating 
plain, but on the right bank of the Volga there is a range 
of hills, composed of clay, marl, limestone, and freestone, 
which rise to the height of 400 feet. The principal river 
of this government is the Volga, which enters it from Ka- 
san, about the middle of the northern frontier, and runs in 
a direction nearly south to Stavropol, where it turns to the 
east ; and there, after being joined by the Sok, coming 
from Orenburg, it makes a semicircular bend, and at Sa 
mara turns due west, in which direction it proceeds as iar 
as the town of Sysran, when it again turns to the south. It 
is at this bend that the eminences on the Volga are highest, 
thou$i[h they accompany the river in its whole course frcm 
north to south. Beyond the bend the surface of the country 

B I M 



tai, «Ad csramw acbanwt^ ntnnbliiie tiiftl of 
tbe Steppe. All the rivers belong to the system of the 
Vol^i which receives oo the right the Ousa and the Sys- 
ttMt and oa the left the Tehesemchan,. the Sok aAer iu 
^iticitoa with the Kandousteha, and the Samara. The 
Sviagu, maning parallel to the Volga from south to 
north, joins that river in the government of Kasan ; and 
tht Sottra, whkh ie aarigable in spring, coming from Pensa, 
InHwrses the western part of the ^veriimen^ and joins the 
¥olga ia tha government of Nisebnei Novgorod. The 
lakes aad Hvanare 460 in number, but they are ail amaU. 
^h» dimaite is generally healthy ; bat the winler is very cold, 
and the summer very hot. The Volga in usually froxen for 
€vm months in Uie year. 

The soil is geoerally fortile» eoiisisting of a good black 
ynottld, vfaioh requires no manursu It is peet^ carefully 
|5idtivated» and produces more com than is wanted for the 
liotne consumption : the priacipal species of grain are rye» 
Wheat, ond epelt ; but there are likewise oats, barley, millet, 
and buckwheat The inhabitants cultivate also the poppy, 
peas, ientill^ tlax« much hemp, tohaeoo,and some potatoes. 
Horticulture is ia a vary bc^kward state: none but the 
«iost ordioary kinds of culinary vegetables are grown, and 
Ibe fruit is of bad quality. In the northern parts of the 
gofenuBeot there are eiLteosive forests { but in the south 
4hey scartely suffice fof the supnly of the inhabitants. 
Tbyough there are good pastures, tine breeding of cattle i% 
,]»ot much attended t<^ except among tbo Calmucks, in the 
steppe of the circle of Slavrepel. The rich Calmucks have 
one nundred horsesi as many oxen, and four hundred sheep. 
Tha Tartars apply to agriculture with great success. Game 
if prHiy abundant, but the fur-bearing animals are scarce. 
The fisheries of various kinds in the Volga are productive. 
The mioerais are alabaster, sulphur, and limestone; but 
ue^ther salt aor metals, except some iron. 

The population amounts to 1,200,000, of whom about 
19680,000, are Russians and Cossacks : the remainder may 
be estipu^ed as, Tartars 60,000, Tcheremissea 40,000, 
Mordwias 4000, Tchuswasches 5000« Calmucks 6000, and 
Kissilbasehes 2000. These numbers are of course only 
approxii^ative. Not only the Russians, but most of the 
Tcheremisses, the Tchuswasches, and the Mordwins, profea 
the Greek rel^ion : some few are still adh^ents to Shamaa- 
ism, and the Tartars and Kissilbasches are Mohammedans. 

Though agriculture is the chief occupation of the in- 
habitants, there are some manu&ctures, both in the country 
^d in the towns ; they are woollen cloths, blankets, carpets, 
•ail-elothy leatbei*, and some of silk and nankeen. Glass- 
wares, soap, and candles are also manufactured ; and there 
are many brandy-distilleries, A great improvement in the 
Viaoufactures has been made of late years. The exports 
consist of horses, oxen, hemp, apples, water-melons, in good 
years corn, fish, tallow, leather, raw hides, and millstones. 
The priacipal trading towns are Simbirsk and Samara. 
The schools in this gov£inmeat are under the university of 
Kasan ; but they are very few, and only a small proportion 
of the inhabitants receive any education. The government 
endeavours to remedy this want by establishing every year 
some new schools. 

SiiCBiBaa« the capital of the government, is situated 
near the junction of the Sviaga and Uie Volga, on the right 
bank of the latter river. It stands on an eminence which 
command^ a &ne view of the Volga and over an immense 
extent of country uninterrupted by forests. The town is not 
regularly built, but there are some broad and straight streets. 
Alinost all the houses are of wood, but neat and convenient 
within. The churches, 16 in number, are all of stone, 
except one, which is of wood. There are two monasteries, 
a gymnasium, and manufactories of candles and soap, and 
some tanneries. The town is in a very fertile plain, and on 
one side there are gardens and orchards. The population 
founts to 13,500, who are in general in easy circum- 
stances ; but even the higher classes are without intellectual 
resources. Of the other towns the most considerable are 
the iblbwing:— I, Sysran, on the river of the same name, 
not far from its conflux with the Volga, has 7000 inhabit- 
ants (Schnitzler says 0800) ; 2, Samara, on the Volga, be- 
yond the bend which it makes here, is a trading town, with 
$000 inhabitants, which was built in 1591 as a defence 
against the Calmucks; 3, Stavropd, the chief town of the 
C&lmucbs, on the right bank of the Volga, was built ex- 
pressly for these peo^, on their conversion to Christianity, 
about the year 1737. In the centra is a kind of fort, sur- 

loanded with |>alisate, whfeh is Om ratidatioe of the chief 
of the Calmaaks. The Ruasian or Cossack garrison is in 
the upper town. The merchants reside together in a slobod, 
and the citizens in the lower towa. 

SIMEON STYU^fiS. [Monachism.] 

or Simeon the Son of Sath, the author of several Greek 
arorks atill extant, lived at Coastaatinople towards the end 
^ the eleventh century. He hdd there the office of wpuro^ 
fitcripx^, or * Master of the Wardrobe*' in the palace o. 
Antiochus, freos wheaoe originated his title Maltster An- 
tiockia^ and this gava oeoasion to the false opinion that he 
was bom at Antioch. His offiae appears to have given him 
the charge of the imperial jewels, which were kept iu the 
palace named after the Eunach Antiochus, who was consul 
a.o. 431. (Du Canga, Giossar. Med. ei Inf. Greedt., torn. 
U p. 194, ed. Lugd., 1666, and Constantinop. Christ., lib. ii., 
cap. 16, j 6, p. 166, ad Lutet. Paris., 1680.) Having taken 
the part of the unfortunate putridaa Dalassenus against tho 
usurper Michael of Paphlagoaia, the latter banuihed him 
from Gootftantinople, a.o. 1036. He retired to Thrace, and 
fiuinded on Mount Olympaa a monastery, in which he com- 
posed several works, aad peaceably ended his days. (Georg. 
Cedreai Hiilor. Compmd,, p. 737, ed. Paria, 1647.) Some- 
time after the fbuadatton of this monastery, Michael Dukas 
having asoaudad the throne, ajo. 1071, Simeon Seth dedi- 
catad to him his work entitled 'Simrmyiia wtpi Tpo<pC*v Avyd- 
fMlM^ ' SyotagBM de Cibariorum Facultate.' This contains 
an alphabetical list of eatable things and their propcriies, 
according to the opinioneof Greek, Persian, Agarenian (or 
Arabian), and Indian physickns ; and is the more valuable 
a« at that time the trade with the East, and the seeking after 
foreign and costly articles of food at Constantinople, were verv 
extaoaive. It is compiled chiefly from the treatise of Michael 
Psellus on the same sulyect, and shows us that the Greeks 
were beginning already to learn Materia Medica from tlie 
Aiabiana, to whom in return thay imparted their theories. 
Simaon Seth also goee through the medieines then in use 
m alphahetieai order* and he explains their mode of ad ion 
according to the elementary qualities of Galen, and their 
different dogrees. He says that Asparagus had been fur 
some time iatroduoed as an article of food (p. 6, ed. Gyrald.), 
and tliat it possesses great medicinai virtues. He is the 
first who speaks of yellow Amber (Sfiwup) which comes from 
a town in India, and whieh is the best; and also of Amber- 
gris, whkh is an animal productioD, coming from fish (p. 6). 
Apricots (fitpiiemuut}, he says, are indigestible and produce 
poorness of blood (p. 9). His work contains the first descrip- 
tion of Canaphor, whioh he says is the resin of a very large 
Indian tree ; that it is cold and dry in the third degree ; and 
that it is used with much advaatage in acute diseases, espe- 
oially in iDflam8uUk>ua (p. 35)» He is also the first who 
speaks of Musk, of which U10 best is of a yellow colour* 
and eomes from a town to the east of Khorasan ; the black 
musk comas from India: the properties attributed to this 
naedioine a^na the saiQa as those given to it in the present 
day (p. 41). The hast Cianamon comes Irom Mosul (p. 32). 
This work was first publishad, Basil., 1638, Gr. and Lat., 
8vo., ad. lilius Giag. Gyraldus, ap. Mich. Isingrinium. Tiie 
Latin translatioa was improved and published separately, 
Basil., l^U 6vo, ed* I>omin. Monthesaunus, ap. Pet. Per- 
nam. Tbe last and bast edition was published Paris, 1658, 
Gr. and Lat, Svo., ad. Mart, fiogdao, ap. Dion. Baohet et 
Lud. ]Billanium. 

Another of his works» entitled ' £vve^ roc ^kvavQuffia 
^h f m M§ f Tt Kmi ^ X o H^ ^ m f Myfutrmf,' 'Compendium et Flo tes 
Naturalium at Philosophorum Plaeitorum,' is still in MS. 
in savajral European libraries. A long aeeouot of it (ex- 
traated from Allatius, * Do Simeonum Scriptis) is given 
by Fahrioius iBibtiotk Gr» torn. xi.,p, 323*3^, ed. Harles). 

But Simeon Seth is pettar known in the history of 
literature than in that of medicine^ as having translated 
from the Arabic into Greek the work known under the 
name of ' Pilpay's Fablas»* in which ' fifteen moral and 
political sentences* (says GiU»on, Decline and Fall, 
chap. 42) 'are illustrated iu a series of apologues; but; 
the composition is intricate, the parrative prolix, and the 
precept obvioas and barren*' Ab account of the history* 
translations, and editions of this antieot and curious work 
ii given under Bwpai. (Sae also Fahricius» loco cit, ; and 
Miiman^s note to Gibbon, voL mu,, p. 310.) He is also 
said to have translated from the Persian a fabulous his- 
tory of Alexander the Graak* which at ptteseut exists, ^y 

E 2 

S I M 


S I M 

Warlon (HW. q/* EnglUh Poetry, voL i., p. 129), under 
the adopted name of Callisthenes, and is no uncommon 
manuscript in good libraries. It is entitled Bioc ^XKilav 
ipov Tov ^oKiddvoe icai UpdluQ, * De Vita et Rebus Gestls 
Alexandri Macedonis;* and a long passage from the begin- 
ning of the work is quoted by Abr, Berkel in the notes to 
Stephanus Bysantinus (m v» Bovttipaktia), and by Fabri- 
cius, Biblioth, Gr„ torn, xiv., p. 148-150 (ed. Vet.). This 
fabulous narrative is full (as might be expected) of pro- 
digies and extravagancies, some specimens of which are 
given by Warton* Of all the romances on the subject 
of Alexander the Great, this by Simeon Seth was for 
some centuries the best known and the most esteemed; 
and it was most probablv (says he) very soon af- 
terwards translated from the Greek into Latin, and at 
length from thence into French, Italian, and German. The 
Latin translation was printed at Colon. Argentorat., I4S9; 
perhaps before, for in the Bodleian Library there is an 
edition in 4to., without date, supposed to have b^en printed 
at Oxford, by Fred. Corsellis, about the year 1 468. It is 
said to have been made by one iEsopus, or by Julius Vale- 
rius ; supposititious names, which seem to have been forged 
by the arti&ce or introduced through the ignorance of 
scribes and librarians. This Latin translation however is of 
high antiquity in the middle age of learning; for it is 
quoted by Gyraldus Cambrensis, who nourished about the 
year 1 1 90. It was translated into German by John Hart- 
lieb MoUer, a German physician, at the command of Albert, 
duke of Bavaria, and published at August. Vindel., ibl., 
1478. Soaligeralso mentions (Epist. ad Casaubon,, 113. 
115) a translation from the Latin into Hebrew by one who 
adopted the name of Joseph Gorionides, called Pseudo Go- 

SIMEON OF DURHAM, an English historical writer 
who lived about the beginning of the eleventh century. 
He was a teacher of mathematics at Oxford, and was after- 
wards precentor in Durham cathedral. He wrote a his- 
tory 4>f the kings of England from 616 to 1130, for which 
he was at great pains to collect materials, especially in the 
North of England, where the Danes had eslablisbed them- 
selves. The work was continued to 1 1 56 by John, prior of 
Hexham. Simeon of Durham is supposed to have died 
soon after 1 130, when his history terminates. This work is 
included in Twysden's 'AngUcansd Historise Scriptores 
Decern/ Simeon also wrote a history of Durham'cathe- 
draU which was published in 1732: 'Historia EcclesisB 
Dunhelmensis, cui prsemittttur T. R. Disquisitio de Auetore 
hujus LibeMi ; edidit T. Bedford,' Lend., 1732, 8vo. 

SIMFEROPOL, the seat of the Russian government of 
Taurida, is situated in 45*" 12' N. lat. and 24'' 8' £. long., on 
an elevated plateau on the river Salgir. Simferopol is 
a modern town. There was indeed on this spot, in the 
time of the Khans, a place called Akraetsehet (the white 
church), and sometimes called Sultan Serai, but it was of 
little importance, and now forms a small part of Simferopol, 
under the name of tlte Tartar quarter. The antient capital 
of the Khans was Baktschiserai, but it is confined to a small 
space in a rocky valley. The Russians, who love everything 
spacious and open, left that town to the Tartars, and built at 
Simferopol a capital according to tlMir own taste, with im- 
mensely long and broad streets, in which horse-races might 
be held without interrupting the usual traffic. Being near the 
centre of the peninsula, it is well calculated for the seat of 
government. There are many pretty houses, with iron roofs 
painted green and adorned witn many columns, like all the 
new Russian towns. Besides the government offices there 
are« Russian chnrch, a pretty GU^rman church, one Greek 
and eoe Armenian ohurch, four Tartar chapels, a gymna- 
sium, and a seminary for Tartar schoolmasters. The popu- 
lation, about 6900 inhabitants, is i^ medley of Russians, Tar- 
tars, Armenians, Greeks, and 40 or 50 German fisimilies. 
There is here a very good botanic gai-den, or more properly 
speaking, a nursery where ail kinds of useful plants, shrubs^ 
and trees are cultivated, and sent to various parts of the 
empire. The town has no manufactures, and has only an 
inconsiderable trade by land, and scarcely any by sea. The 
immediate vicinity of the town does not produce much 
fVuit or culinary vegetables. During the hot season fevers 
are very prevalent, and the water is very indifferent. Use- 
wdoiski (as quoted by Hassel in 1821) makes the number 
of inhabitants 20,000; we imagine this is a misprint for 
20d0, for Stein in the same year gives 1800, and no sub- 
seqnrat account that we faaTe s^n states it above 6000* 

(Hassel ; Horschelmann ; Kohl* Bnn in Sud Jhmknd^ 

SI'MIAD^, the name of a quadrumanous family of 
mammals. [A pi ; Atblbs ; Baboon ;^hbibopoda ; Cmii- 
panzbe; Hylobatbb; Laqothrix; Mycstss; Nasalii; 
Orano-Utan; Quadrumana; Sakis; Sapajovs; Sem 
nopithbcus, &c.] 

These animals were known at a very early period. Th6 
Kophim of the Scriptures (1 King9, x. 22.; 2 Chren^ 
ix. 21), the Ceph of the Ethiopians, the Keibi and KubH 
of the Persians, the jc^Coc of the Greeks, and Otphi of th« 
Romans, were elearly apes. They ate to be traced in some 
of the earliest paintings of the Egyptians. (Roeellini, &c*) 

In the garden of the Zoological Society of London, among 
a great variety of the Smuadte, three of the forms which ap 
preach nearest to the human raoe may now (Sept., 1841) 
be studied ; for three Chimpansoes (two males and a femide^ 
an Orang-Utan, and a Gibbon {Hviobates agiH9)^ihe two 
latter females-— are all Mving at the menagerie in the Re- 
gent's Park. 

The CepM exhibited by Pompey (Pliny, Nat Hist., viii. 
19), as well as those shown by (38B«ar, appear to have been 
Ethiopian apes; and in the Greek name inscribed near the 
quadrumanous animals, in the Prssnestine ^vement, the 
oriental origin of the word is apparent. It is remarkable 
that the name Cebus [SAPAJong] is applied by modem 
zoologists to a genus of monkevs which eould not have been 
known to the antients; for the Cebi of our present cata^ 
logues are exclusively American. 

FoaSlL SlKIAD^. 

Remains of Simiada have been discovered and described 
from the tertiary formations of India, France, England, and 
Brazil. These fossils are illustrative of four of the existing 
types of quadrumanous, or rath^ Simious form. Thue 
we have Semnopithecus from India; Hylobates from the 
south of France; Macaeug from Suffolk; and CcUHthfiT, 
peculiar to America, found in Brazil. Nor is it unwortbf 
of remark, that we here have evidence that so high a qua- 
drumanous form as the Gibbon, a genus in which the skull 
is even more approximated to that of man than it is in the 
Chimpanzee, was living upon our globe with the Palseothere, 
Elephants, and other Pachyderms. We say that the bkull 
of the Gibbon comes nearest to that of man ; because, 
though the cranium of the young Chimpanzee approaches 
that of the human subject, it is far removed from it when 
the permanent teeth are developed. 

From these evidences we have also proof that Sitmada 
lived in our island during the Eocene period ; whilst the 
presence of fossil vegetables, abundant in the London clay 
at Sbeppy, and the remains of serpents in the same locality, 
show the degree of heat that must have prevailed here 
during that period, when Simada were coexistent with 
tropical fruits and Boa Constrictors. 

But Dr. Lund's observations relating to the extinct cmadru* 
manous form detailed in his * View of the Fauna of Brazil,^ 
previous to the last geological revolution, require special 
notice. He states that it is certain that the fomily of Si- 
miadcB was in existence in those antient times to which tlie 
fossils described by him belong; and he found an animal of 
that family of gigantic size, a character belonging to the 
organization of the period which he illustrates. He describes 
it as considerably exceeding the largest Oran-Utan or 
Chimpanzee yet seen ; ftom these, as well as from the long- 
armed apes (Hylobates), he holds it to have been generically 
distinct. As it equally differs from the Simiada now living 
in the locality where it was discovered, he proposes a generic 
distinction for it under the name of Ptoiopitheetis, and the 
specific appellation of Brotopithecus Brasiliensii, 

As connected with this discovery, Dr. Lund records a tra^ 
dition existing very generally over a considerable extent of 
the interior highlands, especiallv in the northern and 
western portions of the province of S. Paul and the Sert&o 
of S. Francisco. Accoraing to this tradition, that district 
is still inhabited by a very large ape, to which the Indians, 
from whom the report comes, have given the name of Cay- 
pore, or Dweller in the Wood, ITiis Cavpore is said to be 
of man's stature, but with the whole "body and part of 
its face covered veith long curly hair ; its colour brown, 
with the exception of a white mark on the belly imme- 
diately above the navel. It is represented as climbing 
trees with great facility, but most frequently going on 
the ground, where it walks upright like a man. In youth 
it is held to be a quiet inotTensive animal, living upon frUits» 



S I M 

o^nMBh it fettdt with tetth formed like (hose of the htaAtxi 
race; hut as it advances in age, its character is denounced 
as rapacious and blood-lhirsly. Then it chooses birds and 
sbmU quadrupeds ; lai^ canine teeth prefect from its mouth, 
and U becomes formidable to man« Its skin is supposed to 
be impenedcaUe to ball, with the exception of the white 
mark on the belly. It is an object of dread to the natives, 
who shun its haunts, whieh are betmyed by the Ct^por^s 
extraordinarv footmarti ending in a heel both before and 
behind^ so that it is impossible to know in what direction 
tba animid is gone. 

,Upoa this tradition Dr. Lund remarks, that it is easy to 
tiaeeJn it the childish embellishments of a savage race ; and 
he finds in the alleged double heel the meaning that the 
forepart of the foot is not broader than the hind and that 
the impressions of the toes are not distinguishable. As to 
the white spot in the bellyr ho remarks, that all the long- 
liaired apes now found in Brazil have the central part of 
the.belly very thinly covered with hain so that when the 
hair is of a dark colour and the skin light, an effect is pro- 
duced duHng^ the act of respiration as if there were a wuite 
SBDt on the stooKaoh. The impenetrability of its bide, he 
observes, mav seem fabulous, but he states that he is ac- 
quainted with a apeelea of this family, the Outgo {Myoetet 
cnmcttudM4 Lund), which has this property This unde- 
scribed animal, he adds (which constitutes a remarkable 
link between Mycetei and Cebus^ inasmuch as it cembinea 
the vecaL organs of the former with the perfectly hairy tail 
of the latter), is provided with a skin Clothed with such bng 
and felted hair as to be shot-proof on the back and sides. It 
wimkl seem, says Dr. Lund* to be well aware of iu shield ; 
for instead of seeking safety in flight, like other Simiadcp, 
when danger approaches it rolls itself up in a ball, so as to 
cover the Isait protected part, and thus defies the shot of 
the hunter. 

. Dr. Lund further remarks that he has introduced this 
tradition, leas on aoeount of iU coolagical interest, than for 
the striking coincidence it displays in many points with the 
stories reUtt^ of the Pongo of Borneo. He asks, if no such 
animal exists in the district where the tradition is current, 
wbeoee did it take its or^in ? Did the Indians receive it 
from their forefathers ? May this tradition be considered 
one more testimony in fovour of the Asiatic origin of the 
first.inhabitanta of America? In the Sertib of S. Francisco 
the tradition is coupled with additions which though, he 
remarks, they weaken its zoological interest, impart to it 
another, as betraying the only tmce he had met with in that 
district of a belief in iairy existence. According to the na- 
tive of Sert4o, the Caypore is lord of the wild hogs« and 
when one of them has been shot, his enraged vo*ce may be 
heard in the distance, when the hunter quits his game to 
save himself by flight The Caypore is said to have been 
beheld in the centre of a herd of swine riding on the 
largest, and indeed has been described as an ape aoove and 
a mfL below.. 

larity, resemblance, or likeness, means sameness in some, 
if not ia all, particulars. In geometry, the word refers to a 
sameness of one particular kind. The two most important 
notions which the view of a figure will give, are those of 
size and shape, ideas which have no connectbn whatsoever 
with each olher« Figures of different sizes may have the 
same shape, and figures of different shapes may have the 
same size. In the latter case they are called by Euclid 
^jV^i* in* the former similar (similar figures, dfioia axftf^aTa), 
The first term [Equax; Rei.ation], in Euclid*s first use of 
it, includes united sameness, both of size and shape ; but 
he soon drops the former notion, and, reserving equal to 
signify sameness of size only, introduces the word similar to 
denote sameness of form : so that the equality of the funda- 
mental definition is the subsequent combined equality and 
similarity of the sixth book. 

Similarity of form, or, as we shall now technically say, simi- 
larity, is a conception which is better defined by things than 
by words ; being in fact one of our fundamental ideas of 
figure. A drawing, a map, a model, severally appeal to a 
known idea of similarity, oerived from, it may be, or at least 
nourished by, the constant occurrence in nature and art 
of objects which have a general, though not a perfectly 
mathematical, similarity. The rudest nations understand a 
picture or a map almost instantly. It is not necessary to do 
more in the way of definition, and we must proceed to point 
out the mathematical tests of similarity. We may observe 

indeed that errors or monstrosities of size are always more 
bearable than those of form, so much more do our concep- 
tions of objects depend uppn the latter than the former. A 
painter is even obliged to diminish the size of the minor 
parts of his picture a little, to give room for the more im- 
portant objects : but no one ever thought of making a change 
of form, however slight, in one object, for the sake of its 
effect on any other. The giant of Rabelais, with whole 
nations carrying on the business of life inside his mouth, is 
not so monstrous as it would have been to take the ground 
on which a nation might dwell, England, France, or Spain, 
invest it with the intellect and habits of a human being, 
and make it move, talk, and reason : the more tasteful fiction 
of Swift is not only bearable and conceivable, but has actu- 
ally made many a simple person think it was meant to be 
taken as a true history. 

Granting then a perfect notion of similarity, we now ask 
in what way it is to be ascertained whether two figures are 
similar or not To simplify the question, let them be plane 
figures, say two maps of England of different sizes, but 
made on the same projection. It is obvious, in the first 
place, that the hues of one figure must not only be related 
to one another in length in the same manner as in the other, 
but also in position. Let us drop for the present all the 
curved lines of the coast, &c., and consider only the dots 
which represent the towns. Join every such pair of dots by 
straight lines: then it is plain that similarity of form 
requires that any two lines in the first should not only be in 
the same proportion, as to length, with the two correspond- 
ing lines in the second, but that the first pair should incline 
at the same angle to each other as the second. Thus^ 
if LY be the line which ioins London and York, and FC 
that which joins Falmouth and Chester, it is requisite that 
LY should be to FC in the same proportion in the one map 
that it is in the other ; and if FC produced meet LY pro- 
duced in O, the angle COY in one map must be the same 
as in the other. Hence, if there should be 100 towns, which 
are therefore joined two and two by ^4950 straight lines 
giving about 12 millions and a quarter of pairs of lines, it is 
clear that we must have the means of verifying 1 2^ millions 
of proportions, and as many angular agreements. But if it 
be only assumed that similarity is a possible thing, it is 
easily shown that this large number is reducible to twice 98. 
For let it be granted that / y on the smaller map is to re- 
present LY on the larger. Lay down/ and c in their pro- 
per places on the smaller map, each with reference to / and 
Pf by comparison with the larger map: then /and c are in 
their proper places with reference to each other. For if not* 
one of them at least must be altered, which would disturb 
the correctness of it with respect to / and y. Either then 
there is no such thmg as perfect similarity, or else it* may be 
entirely obtained by comparison with / and y only. 

We have hitherto supposed that both ciroumstances must 
be looked to ; proper lengths and proper angles ; truth of 
linear proportion and truth of relative direction. But it is 
one of the first things which the student of geometry learns 
(in reference to this subject), that the attainment of correct- 
ness in either secures that of the other. If the smaller map 
be made true in all its relative lengths, it must be true in 
all its directions; if it be made true in iM its directions, it 
must be true in all its relative lengths. The foundation of 
this simplifying theorem rests on three propositions of the 
sixth book of Euclid, as follows: — 

1. The angles of a triangle (any two, of course) alone are 
enough to determine its form : or, as Euclid would express 
it, two triangles which have two angles of the one equal to 
two angles of the other, each to each, have the third angles 
equal, and all the sides of one in the same proportion to 
the corresponding sides of the other. 

2. The proportions of the sides of a triangle (those of two 
of them to the third) are alone enough to determine its form . 
or if two triangles have the ratios of two sides to the third 
in one, the same as the corresponding ratios in the other, the 
angles of the one are severally the same as those of the 

3. One angle and the proportion of the containing sides 
are sufficient'to determine the form of a triangle: or, if two 
triangles have one angle of the first equal to one of the 
second, and the sides about those angles proportional, the 
remaining angles are equal, each to eaeh,^nd the sides 
abou t equal angles are proportional. ^ f^f 

From these propositions it is easy to show the trutni of all 
that has been asserted about the conditions of similarity^ 



S 1 M 

«nd the result is, that aby number of points aft "plabed 
similarly with any other number of points, when, any two 
being taken in the first, and the eorreeponding two in the 
second, say A, 6, and a, 6, any third point C of the first 
j^ives a triangle ABC, which is related to the eorresponding 
triangle abc of the second, in the manner described in either 
of die three preceding propositions. For instance, let there 
be five points in each figure: 
AfF^r >\f-: 

In the triangles BAE and bae, let the angles AEB and 
£BA be severally equal to aeb and eba. In the triangles 
ADB and adb let DA : AB : : (ia : ab, and D'Ri^kiidbi 
ba. In the triangles ACB and acb let the angles ABC and 
abe be equal, and AB : BC : : a6 : be. These conditions 
being fulfilled, it can be shown that the figures are similar 
in form. There is no angle in one but is equal to its corre- 
sponding angle in the other ; no proportion of an^ two lines 
in one but is the same as that of the corresponding line in 
the other. Every conception necessary to the complete 
notion of similarity is formed, and the one figure, in common 
language, is the $ame as the other 'm figure, but perhaps on 
a different scale. 

The number of ways in which the conditions of similarity 
oan be expressed might be varied almost without limit; if 
there be n points, they are twice (n— 2) in number. It 
would be most natural to take either a sufficient number of 
ratios, or else of angles : perhaps the latter would be best. 
Euclid confines himself to neither, in which he is guided by 
the following consideration ; — He uses only salient or con- 
Tex figures, and his lengths, or sides, are only those lines 
which form the external contour. The internal Hues or 
diagonals he rarely considers, except in the four- sided 
figure. He lays it down as the definition of similarity, that 
all the angles of the one figure (meaning only angles made 
by the sides of the contour) are equal to those of the other, 
each to each, and that the sides about those angles are pro- 
portional. This gives 2n conditions in an n-sided figure, and 
consequently four redundancies, two of which are easily de- 
tected. In the above pentagons, for instance, if the angles 
at A, E, D, C, be severally equal to these at a, e, d, c, there 
is no occasion to say that that at B must be eaual to that at 
b. for it is a necessary consequence: also, if BA : AE : : 6a: 
otf, and so on up to Efc :CB :: do : cb, therein no occasion to 
lay it down as a condition that CB : BA : t ^6 : 6a, for it is 
again a consequence. These points being noted, the defini- 
tion of Euclid is admirably aaapled for his object, which is, 
in this as in every other case, to proceed straight to the 
fbtablishment of his propositions, without casting one 
thought upon the connection of his preliminaries with na- 
tural geometry. 

I^t us now suppose two similar curvilinear figures, and 
to simplify the question, take two arcs AB and ab. Having 
already detected the test of similarity of position with refer- 



enoe to any number of points, it will be easy to settle the 
conditions under which the arc AB is altogether similar to 
ab. By hypothesis, A and B are the points corresponding 
to a and b. Join A, B, and a, b : and in the are AB take 
any point P. Make the angle bap equal to BAP, and abp 
equal to ABP ; and let ap and bp meet in p. Then, if the 
curves be similar, p must be on the arc ab ; for every point 
en AB m to have a corresponding point on a6. Hence the 
definition of similarity is as follows : — ^Two curves are simi* 
lar when for every polygon which can be inscribed in the 
first, a similar polygon can be inscribed in the second. 

It is easily shown that if on two lines, A and a, be de- 
•eribed a first pair of polygons, P and p, and a second pair, 
Q and q, the proportion of the first and second pairs is the 
same, or P : p t : Q : 9. The simplest similar polygons are 
squares ; consequently, any similar polygons descrii^ on A 
and a are to one another in the proportiou of the squares on 
A and a. This is also true if for the polygons we substitute 
•iaiilar ourves; and it must be proved by the metbod of 

exhatmtlofis [€hK)icxvRir> p« 164], er by the theoty of limlta 
applied to the prc^fiesition, that any curve may be approadied 
in magnitude by a polygon within any degree of nearness. 

The theory of similar solids resembles that of similar pety<- 
gons, but it is necessary lo commence with three points in- 
etead of two. Let A, B, C, and «, b, e, be two sets of three 
points each, and let the triangles ABC and abe be similar: 
let them also be placed so that the sides of one arc parallel 
to those of the other. If then any number of similar pyra- 
mids t>e described on ABO and abe, the vertices of these 
pyramids will be the comers of similar solids. If P and p 
be the vertices of one pair, then the pyramids PABC and 
pabc are Miailap if the vertiees P and p be on the same side 
of ABC and abe [Stmmbtry], and one of the triangles, say 
PAB, be similar to its corresponding triangle pab, and so 
placed that the angle ef tlie planes PAB and CAB is the 
same as that of tiMB planes pab and eab. The simplest 
similar solids are cubes ; and any similar solids described on 
two straizht lines are in the same proportion as the cubes 
on those fines. Similar curve surfieices are those which are 
such that every solid whioh can be inscribed in one has an- 
other similar to It, capable of being inscribed in the other. 

It is worthy of notice that the great contested point of 
geometry [Parallels] would lose that character if it weie 
agreed that the notion ef fbrm being independent of size, is 
as neoeesary as that of two straight lines being incapable of 
enclosing a space ; so that whatever form can exist of any 
one sice, a similar fbrm must exist of every other. There 
oan be no question that this universal idea of similarity in- 
volves as much as this, and no more ; that in the pa^ge 
fh>m one siee to another, all lines alter their lengths in the 
same proportion, and all angles remain the same. It is the 
subsequent mathematical treatment of these conditions 
which first points out that either of them follows from the 
other. If the whole of this notion be admissible, so in aity 
thing less; that is, the admission implies it to be granted 
that whatever figure may be described upon any one line, 
another figure having the same angles may be described 
upon any other line. If then we take a triangle ABC, and 
any other line ab, there can be drawn upon ab a triangle 
having angles equal to those of ab6. This can only be done 
by drawing two Hues from a and b, making angles with a6 
equal to BAC and ABC. These two lines must tlien meet 
in some point e, and the angle aeb will be equal to ACB. 
If then two triangles have two angles of one equal to two 
angles of the other, each to each, the third angle of tlie ono 
must be equal to the third angle of the other ; and this 
much being established, it is well known that the ordinary 
theory of parallels follows. The preceding assumption is 
not without resemblance to that required in the methods of 
Legendre. [Parallels.] 

SI'MILE is admirably defined by Johnson to be ' a com- 
parison by which anything is illustrated or aggrandised,' a 
definition which has been often neglected by poets. A Me- 
taphor differs from a Sin^ile in expression, inasmuch as a 
metaphor is a comparison without the words indicating the 
resemblance, and a simile is a comparison where the objects 
compared are kept as distinct in eicpression as in thought. 
Dr. Thomas Brown has well said, *The metaphor expresses 
with rapidity the analogy as it rises in immediate sugges- 
tion, and identifies it, as it were, with the object or emotion 
which it describes; the simile presents not the analogy 
merely, bat the two analogous obiects, and traces their 
resemblances to each other with the formality of regular 
comparison. The metaphor, therefore, is the figure of pas- 
sion ; the simile the figure of calm description.' {Lectures, 
XXXV.) Tho metaphor is only a bolder and more elliptical 
simile. When we sneak of the rudeness of a man, and ^ay 
' Mr. Jones is as rude as a bear,* we use a simile, for the 
rudeness of the two are kept distinct but likened ; when we 
say ' that bear Mr. Jones,' we use a metaphor, the points of 
resemblance being confounded in the identification of rude- 
ness with a bear. So, ' brave as a lion* is a simile — ^Ihe 
' lion Achilles' a metaphor. Where the resemblance is ob- 
ytous, it may be more forcibly and as intelligibly expressed 
bv a simple metaphor * but when the resemblance is not so 
obvious, it requires fliller elucidation, and then it must be 
expressed by a simile. Similes therefore, from their ten- 
deney to detail, are usually misplaced in passionate poetry, 
but metaphors constitute the very language of passion ; wr 
the mind, when moved, catches at every slight association 
to express itself, but never dwells on them with the delibO' 
^ ratenesa of a oompaiison. 

3 I M 


S X M 

pMt» filMuld never forget that similes are qoI used for 
ibeiff own sake* but fi>r the sake of ' iUustrating or aggran- 
dising' the oljeot or emotion they wimlA express: hsnee an 
iOBportanl but overlooked canon of eritieisin. Metaphors 
nay be indefinite, for they are themaelTos the expressions 
of strong but indefinite emotions ; bat similes must be uni- 
ibm^ definite, dear, and eorreet^ otherwise thoy are use* 
lees; fi>r the simile is used to illustrate, by a known object, 
one unknown or indescribable: hence the necessity for Its 
being Intelligible. Moreover, images addressed to the eye 
nsosl be such as are visually clear* These rules are conti- 
ttwilly violated by minor poets, but there are fow cases of 
sueh violation in the greater poets, and even there the ex- 
oeptiens prove the rtile. 

(Brown's LetHtrea on the Fhihsophu of the Mind; 
Kames*s EiemenU qfCriiieism^ Bishop Lowth's Leciuren 
Oft HebrmQ Ibetry ; Hegel's Vorle9ungm iiber die jBsthe^ 
iik; Boig^B JBetketik.) 

8IMMENTHAL. [Barn.] 

SI^MIAS was a native of Thebes, and is said to have 
been a disciple of Philolaus. He was a Ariend of Socrates 
(Plat, Chiio, p. 45, B>, and is introduced by Plato as one of 
Hie speakers in his 'Pb»don/ (Diogenes Laertius (ii. 16, 
194> mentions the titles of twenty^tbree dialogues which 
were in his time attributed to Simmies (Suidas, v, ^f^fuag), 
but none of his works have come down to us. 

A second Simmias, a grammarian, was a native of Rhodes, 
and probably lived about the year 300 ac. He is said to 
have written a work on languages, consisting of three books, 
and a collection of miscellaneous poems, consisting of four 
books* (Satdas^ v, ^pUas ; Strabo, xiv., p« 655.) Some 
of his poems, which however are of little value, are contained 
in the * Anth<^ogia 6r»ca.* (Compare A then., vii., p. 327 ; 
Si„ p. 479 and 491.) 

A third Sikmias, who lived about the commencement of 
the Olympiads, wrote a work called 'ApxaioXoyca rOv 2afni»v, 
of which nothing has come down to us. Soidas confounds 
tkts historian with Simmias the grammarian. 


SI'MOIS. Rifer. [TnoAD.l 

Thasi, was the second son of Mattathias, and brother of 
Judas Maccabaeus and Jonathan Apphus. Mattathias, 
when dying, recommended him to his brethren as their 
counsellor (I Maeo., ii. 3). He distmguiahed himself on 
ssveral oecasions during the lives of Judas and Jonathan. 
(1 MacCf V. 17 ; x. 74; 2 Macc^ viii. 22 ; xiv. 17). Under 
the latter he was made, by Antiochus Theos, governor over 
the eoaet of the Mediterranean from Tyre to the fWmtier of 
Bgypt (1 Maee., xi. 59) ; and here he took the fortified towns 
of Bethsur and Joppa, and founded Adida, in tiie plain of 
Sephela. (1 Maec.^ xi. 65 ; xii. 33, 38.) 

After the treacherous seisure of Jonathan by Trvpho 
[Jonathan Apphus], Simon was chosen by the people as 
their chief (1 Maec., xiii); and, according to Josephus 
(An^^ xiii. 6, 6), as high-priest also. After putting Jeru- 
salem in a state of defence, he marched out to meet Trypho, 
who did not venture to give him battle, and who was soon 
after compelled to retreat into winter-quarters in Oilead, 
where he murdered Jonathan and his two sons. Simon 
recovered his brother's corpse, and interred it in his father's 
sepulchre at Modin, and built over it a magnificent mauso- 
leum, which was standing in the time of Busebius« About 
this time (b.c. 143) Trypho had murdered Antiochus, and 
proclaimed himself king. Simon immediately declared for 
Ilia competitor, Demetrius Nicator, with whom he made a 
very fisvourable treaty, whereby Simon was recognised 
prince and high-priest of the Jews, all claims upon whom 
fbr tribute Demetrius relinquished, and consented to bury 
in oblivion their offences a^insl him. Thus the Jews be- 
came once more free and independent^ and they began to 
leekon from this period (1 70 Aer. Seleuc; 143-142, B.C.) a 
iHfw civil asra, which is used on the coins of Simon as well 
M by Josephus and the author of the Fir9t Book qfMacea- 
b<B$9 (1 Maec^ xiii. 41. X The last remains of their bondage 
tQ the Syrians were removed m the next year by the 
tnnender of the Syrian garrison in the citadel of Jeru- 

The suooeeding period of peace was employed by Simon 
in extending and consolidating his power, and improving 
tibe condition of his people. He made a harbour at Joppa, 
established magazines and armouries, improved the laws and 
•dminiateied them with vigour, restored the religious ritee, 

and renewed the treaties of alliance which Jonathan ha^ 
made with the Romans and Spartans. (1 Maec.^ xiv., xv.) 
In the year 141 B.C., the people met at Jerusalem, and 
registered a public act reoounting the services of the house 
of Mattathias, and reeognislng Simon and his heirs as per- 
petual prince and high-priest of the Jews : and this act wss 
afterwards confirmed by Demetrius. (I Mace,, xiv. 8d.) 
After the capture of Demetrius by the Parthians, his suo- 
ceesor Antiocnos Sidetes renewed the treaty with Simoui 
allowed him to coin money, and deciated Jerusalem a free 
and holy city. Soon afterwards however Antiochus not 
only refused to ratify this treaty^ but demanded of Simon 
the surrender of several fortified places, including the citadel 
on Mount Zion, or .the payment of 1000 talents. Simon 
refused these demands, and Antiochus sent a large army 
into Palestine, which was soon however driven back by John 
Hyrcanus and Judas, the sons of Simon (b.c. 1 39-8). For 
the next three years the Jews again enjoved a season of 
tranquillity, during which Simon occupied himself in in« 
specting and improving the state of the country. In the 
course of his tour be visits his son-in-law Ptolemy, at his 
castle of Doe, where he aiid his two sons Mattathias and 
Judas were^ireaeherously put to death by Ptolemy, who 
aimed at the principality of Judssa (e.C. 135). He was suc- 
ceeded by his surviving son John Hyrcanus. [HTRCANira^ 
John; Asmonaeans; Maccabses.] 

The coinage of Shnon is the first of which we have anf 
historical account among the Jews. [Shekel.] 

(Josephus, Anfiq, ; Prideaux's ConnecHon ; Jahn*s He- 
brew Commonwealih ; y? iner'B Biblisehee Healworterbuch,) 

SIMON MAGUS, that is, the magician, is mentioned in 
the Acts (if the Aposiie9 as having imposed upon the people 
of Samaria by magical practices. When PhUip the Deacon 
preached the gospel at Samaria, Simon was among those 
who received baptism at his hands. But when Peter and 
John came down to Samaria, and Simon perceived that thef 
Holv Ghost was received by those upon whom they laid their 
hands, he offered them monev if they would give him the 
same power. Peter vehemently rebuked him, and he showed 
some appearance of penitence (Acts, viii. 9-24) ; but the 
early Christian writers represent him as afterwards becom'* 
ing one of the chief opponents of Christianity. According Ui 
them he was the founder of the Gnostic heresy, and was ad-> 
dieted to magical practices and to abominable vices. After 
travelling through several provinces, endeavouring as he went 
to spread his errors and to damage Christianity as much as 
possible, he came to Rome, where it is said that he worked 
miracles which gained him many followers, and obtained fov 
him the favour of Nero. At last, as he was exhibiting in 
the emperor's presence the fbat of flying through the air in 
a fiery chariot, which he was enabled to perfbrm by the aid 
of deemons, the united prayers of Peter and Paul, who were 
present on the occasion, prevailed "g&inst him, and the dse^ 
mens threw hhn to the ground. 1%ere are also otha mar^ 
vellous stories about his life and doctrines. 

(Calmet*s DieHonary; Winer's Biblischee ReoifBorier' 
bueh: Lardner's Credibility t) 

SIMON MATTHES. [SmoK Macca^aetts.! 

SIMON, RICHARD, was bom at Dieppe, in Normandy, 
May 13, 1638. After he had finished his studies, be entered 
into the Congregation of the Oratory, and became lecturer on 
philosophv at the Colleee of Juilly. Being summoned by 
nis superiors to Paris, he applied himself to the study of 
divinity, and made great progress in onental learning. 
There being a valuable collection ci oriental manuscripts in 
the Oratory of Rue St. Honor6, Simon was directed to make 
a catalogue of them, whidi he did with great skill. In 1668 
he returned to Juilly, and resumed his lectures on philo^ 
sophy, and two years after published his defence of a Jew 
whom the parliament of Metz condemned to be burned on 
the charge of having murdered a Christian child : ' Factum 
pour le Juif do Metz,' &c. Paris, 1 670. In the following year, 
with a view to show that the opinions of the Greek church 
are not materially different from those of the Church of 
Rome with respect to the Sacrament, he published his 
'Fides Ecclesise Orientalts,* Paris, 1671, Svo., and 1682, 
4 to. This work, which is a translation of one of the tracts 
of Gkibriel, metropolitan of Philadelphia, with notes, Simon 
gave as a supplement to the first volume of the ' Perpetuity 
of the Faitn respecting the Eucharist/ whose authors his 
accused of having committed many gross errors, and not 
having sufficiently answered the objections raised V ^ 
Protestant minister Jean Claude, in his Heponse an Traif 

S I M 


S I M 

Ad ]a Perpltuit^ de la Foi sur rEucharistie.' [Clavds.] 
ThU involved him in a controversy with the writers of Port- 
Royal, and laid the foundation of that opposition which he 
afterwards met with from the learned of his own communion. 
His next publication, which came out under the assumed 
name of Recared Simeon, was a French translation of the 
work of Leo of Modena: 'C^r^monies et Coutumes qui 
a*observent aujourd'hui parmi les Juifs,' Paris, 1674, 12mo. 
A second edition appeared in '1681, under the name of the 
Sieur de Simonville, containing also a supplement respect- 
ing the Caraites and the Samaritans, and a comparison be- 
tween the ceremonies of the Jews and the discipline of the ' 
Church. In 167>5 he published the 'Voyage de Mont Liban/ 
from the Italian of Dandint, with notes, and about the same 
lime his ' Factum du Prince de Neubourg, abb6 de Fes- 
champs, contre les Religieux de cette Abbaye,' in which work, 
as was usual with him, he took an opportunity to attack 
the Benedictines. But the work which rendered him most 
famous is his ' Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament,' which 
immediately after its publication (Paris, 1678, 8vo.) was sup- 
pressed on the eround that it contained doctrines dangerous 
Co religion ana the Church. The work however was so 
much admired for its learning and criticism, that it was re- 
printed the year after, and translated into Latin at Am- 
sterdam, 1681, and into English at London, 1682, 4to., by 
John Hampden. After the publication of his ' Histoire 
Critique,' Simon left the Congregation of the Oratory, and 
repaired to Belleville, a village near Caux, where he held a 
curacy; but in 1682 he resigned his office and removed to 
Dieppe, and thence to Paris to renew his studies and make 
arrangements for the publication of other works. In 1684 
he published at Frankfort, ' Histoire de TOrigine et du Pro- 

5rds des Revenues Eccl^siastiques,* under the name of 
erome k Costa, of which a second edition appeared at the 
same place in 1709, in 2 vols. 8vo. In the same year (1684) 
he printed in London his * Disquisitiones Critics de variis 
per diversa Loca et Tempera Bibliorum Editionibus,' which 
was immediately translated into English. In 1688 he pub- 
lished at Frankfort, under the name of John Reuchlin, 
* Dissertation Critique sur* la Nouvelle Bibliothdque des 
Auteurs Bccl^siastiques par Du Pin,* in which he defends 
some opinions contained in his ' Histoire Critique,' which 
had been controverted by Du Pin. His next publication 
was * Histoire Critique du Nouveau Testament,' Rotter- 
dam, 1689, 4to., an Efnglish version of which appeared the 
«ame year at London. Besides the above, Simon was the 
^author or editor of many other works. He was unquestion- 
ably a man of profound learning and great acuteness, and 
be contributed in no small degree to lessen the authority 
of his own church ; but a love of controversy, in all its bit- 
terness, and too great a propensity to depreciate and abuse 
those who happened not to acquiesce in his opinions, ren- 
dered him equally obnoxious to Protestants and Roman 
Catholics. He died at Dieppe, in April, 1 7 12, in the seventy- 
Iburlh year of his age. 

SIMO'NIDES was a native of lulis, in the island of 
Ceos, and was born about b c. 556. His father's name was 
Leoprepos, and his grandfather's Simonides, who was also a 

Simonides is said to have obtained great fame as a poet 
at an early age. He appears to have remained in (Jeos till 
about B.C. 525, when he removed to Athens, where he was 
honourably received by Hipparchus, and became acquainted 
with Anacreon and Iasus (rlato, Hipparch*, p. 228 ; Aelian, 
Var, Hist,, viii. 2). After the murder of Hipparchus, he took 
refuge with the Aleuadae and Scopadae in Thessaly, whose 

S raises he celebrated in some of his poems (Theocrit., xvi. 34, 
:c., with the Schol. ; compare Plato, .Protagor,t p. 333). How 
long Simonides remained in Thessaly is not known ; but after 
the battle of Marathon (b.c. 490) we find him again at 
Athens. For the next ten years he appears to have lived 
chiefly at Athens, and to have been actively engaged in the 
pursuit of his art. AAer the banishment of Themistocles 
and the death of Pausanias, with both of whom he lived.on 
intimate terms, he retired to Hieron's court at Syracuse 
(Aelian, Var, Hist., ix. 1 ; iv. 15), where he died, b.c. 467, in 
his ninetieth year. 

Most of the poems of Simonides are lost ; but enough 
have come down to us to enable us to form some opinion of 
the merits of his poetry, and to justify the panegyrics which 
the antient writers bestow upon him. He was one of the 
most distinguished of the el^iac poets, and particularly ex- 
celled in the pathetic, as we see in his 'Lament of Danae* and 

in other remains of his poetry. He is stated to have had 
the superiority over Aeschylus in an elegy which he com 
posed in honour of those who died at Marathon, when the 
Athenians instituted a contest of the chief poets. But some 
of Simonides's best poems are epigrams, which species of 
poetry he carried to greater perfection than any of his pre- 
decessors. The Persian war gave constant employment to 
this muse, as he was frequently employed by the different 
states of Greece to adorn with inscriptions the tombs of 
those who fell, and the votive offering which were dedi- 
cated in the various temples. We still possess several of his 
epigrams belonging to this period. Of these one of the 
most celebrated is upon the Soartans who fell at Thermo- 
pylsB : • Stranger, tell the Lacedcemonians that we are lying 
here in obedience to their laws;' and another upon the 
Athenians who fell at Marathon : • Fighting in the van of 
the Greeks, the Athenians at Marathon destroyed the power 
of the glittering Medians.* Simonides also celebrated the 
sea-fights of Artemisium and Salamis in two larger poems, 
which are often referred to by antient writers, but of which 
no fragments have come down to us. 

The remains of the poems of Simonides have been pub- 
lished by Schneidewin, under the the title of ' Simonidis 
Carminum Reliquise,' Bruns., 1835, 8vo. The Greek letters 
X % Q, are said to have been invented by Simonides, who 
is also stated to have converted the sign of the aspirate H 
into a long e. 

Simonides of Ceos must not be confounded with Simo- 
nides of Amorgus, which is an island not far from Pares. 
The latter was a contemporary of Archilochus, and flourished 
from B.C. 693 to 662. He wrote iambics, in which be at- 
tacked private persons, and of which a few fragments have 
come down to us. He also wrote a satirical poem upon 
women in the iambic metre, which is still extant. The 
fragments of his poems have 'been published by Welcker 
Bonn, 1835. 

(Miiller's History of the Literature qf Greece, p. 125, 
&c., 140; Bode's Geschichte der Lyrischen Dichtkunst der 
Hellenen, vol. i., p. 318, &c.; vol. ii., p. 122, &c.) 

SIMONY is the buying or selling for money or other 
corrupt consideration any ecclesiastics benefice, dignity, or 
preferment, or the causing a clerk to obtain or to relinquish 
such benefice or preferment for corrupt consideration. The 
word is derived from Simon, who is mentioned in the ' Act3 
of the Apostles' (viii., 18-24) as having ofiered money to 
Peter ana John in order that he might obtain from them 
apostolical powers. 

Whether Simony was an offence at common law is at 
least doubtful. Lord Coke, it is true, repeatedly says that 
the common law doth abhor Simony, and adduces as evidence 
of this repugnance the fact that a patron of a living could not 
by the common law recover a pecuniary compensation for 
being impeded in his presentation. It is certain that Simony 
is a great ecclesiastical offence by the canons both of the 
Roman Catholic and of the Anglican church. Tlie 40ih 
canon of the latter (a.d. 1603), * to avoid the detestable crime 
of Simony,' and because the buying and selling of spiritual 
and ecclesiastical functions, &c. * is execrable before God»' 
prescribes an oath to be ministered to every person assum- 
ing such offices, by which he denies that he has made any 
Simoniacal payment, contract, or promise, directly or indi- 
rectly, for procuring such ecclesiastical ofiSce, or that he 
will perform any such contract made on his behalf without, 
his knowledge. 

But the offence now depends on the statute 31 Elizabeth, 
c. 6, although the word Simony is not mentioned in the act. 
By that statute any person presenting to a benefice for 
profit or ' any such corrupt cause ' forfeits to the crown that 
presentation and double the value of one year's profit of the 
benefice, and the person paying the price is rendered in- 
capable of holding that benefice (} 5). Any person so cor- 
ruptly admitting or instituting another is subject to the 
like pecuniary penalty, and the benefice is * eflsoons merely 
void,' and the presentation reverts to the patron as though 
the party so admitted were dead (} 6). An incumbent 
resigning or exchanging a benefice with cure of souls for 
profit, and the person with whom the bargain is made, both 
forfeit double the price, together with two years* profit of. 
the benefice (} 8). Any person obtaining for such corrupt 
consideration the ordaining of a minister, forfeits 40/., and 
the minister so corruptly ordained forfeits 10/. and is in- 
capable of holding any ecclesiastical preferment for seven 
years. The modifications which that enactment has under*. 

S I M 


S I M 

by tabaeqnent stetutea and decuMons irill be found 
under the head Benefice (n. 223-6). 

The indignation of ecclesiastical authorities against 
Simony, excepting in so &r as relates to the admission of 
persons into the ministry, seems somewhat unreasonable, 
and is certainly inefficacious, for the trafficking in ecclesias- 
tical preferment is extensively pursued. Pravided that the 
qualification of persons for holy orders is carefully in- 
Yestigated before their admission to the ministry, and that 
the discipline of the church can be strictly and easily en- 
forced by the bishops and other ecclesiastical authorities, the 
reason why a minister who has been admitted to a benefice 
for a pecuniary consideration should be disqualified for his 
office is not very obvious, especially in a country where 
advowsons are by law a marketable commodity, and the 
legislature recognises a bargain fbr compelling a minister 
to resign a benefice in favour of another person, provided 
the latter is within certain degrees of consanguinity to the 

(Rogers's EcclestMtical Law ; Bacon's Abrufgment, 'Si- 
SIMOOM. [Samieli.} 
SIMPLE BODIES. [Atomic Theory.] 
SIMPLE CONTRACT debu are those which are con- 
tracted without any engagement under the seal of the debtor 
or of his ancestor, and which are not of record by any judg- 
ment of a court. Money due for goods bought by the debtor 
IS the most usual of simple contract debts; and the declara- 
tion against a defendant, in an action for goods sold, usually 
alleges that the defendant undertook (or contracted) to pay 
the plaintiff the sum due. Simple contract debts are the last 
which are pajrable out of a deceased person's estate, when 
the assets are insufficient. [Executor.] 

SIMPLI'CIUS, a native of Tibur, succeeded Hilarius as 
bishop , of Rome, a.d. 467. He had a controversy with 
Acacias, Patriarch of Constantinople, about precedence. 
Simplicius dedicated several churches at Rome to particular 
saints, and he also ftramed several regulations concerning 
the discipline of the clergy of Rome. He died a.d. 483. 

SIMPLI'CIUS was a native of Cilicia, and lived in the 
reign of Justinian. He had been trained in the study of 
philosophy by Ammonius, and appears to have been engaged 
in teaching at Athens when Justinian issued the decree which 
imposed perpetual silence on the few yet remaining votaries 
of heathen science and saperstition in that city. Simplicius 
and six of his philosophic friends, who were resolved not to 
mbandon the religion of their forefathers, left Athens, to seek 
in a foreign land the freedom which was denied to them at 
borne. They went to Persia, where Chosroes then reigned, 
expecting to find all their hopes realised ; but when they 
saw the actual state of affairs in the East» they repented of 
the steps which they had taken, and declared that they 
would rather die on the borders of the empire than enjoy 
the favours and the wealth which the barbarian monarch 
might bestow upon them. They returned to their country ; 
and Chosroes, in a treaty which he at the time concluded 
with the Grreek emperor, nobly stipulated that the seven 

ailosophers who bad visited his court should be exempt 
m the penal laws which Justinian enacted against his 
pagan subjects. Simplicius and his firiends, after their 
return, lived in peace and retirement at Athens, where they 
devoted the remainder of their lives to the study of pfailo- 
iophy» enjoying the reputation of being wise and virtuous 

Simplicius wrote Commentaries on Aristotle*s Catego- 
l^ritt, Fhysica, De Coelo, and De Anima. One of his obteets 
in these commentaries is to reconcile the Platonic and Stoic 
tystens with the Peripatetic school, to which he himself be- 
longed. They are the most valuable of all the extant Greek 
commentaries on Aristotle ; for Simplicius possessed a pro- 
foinid knowledge of his author, as well as of other philoso- 
pbical writers of antiquity ; and as he frequently quotes the 
opiniona of antient philosophers whose works are no longer 
extant, his commentaries are a fruitful source for those who 
wish to study the history of antient philosophy. His com- 
mentaries aro printed in some of the early editions of AriS' 
totle ; they are also contained in ' Scholia in Aristotelem, 
ooUegit Ch. A. Brandis,' Berlin, 1836. &c 

Simplicius also wrote a Commentary on the Enchiridion 
of Epictetus, which for its pure and noble principles of mo- 
lality has oommanded the aidmiration of all ages. The best 
separate edition of this commentary is that by Schweig- 
r, with a Latin tran^tion, in 2 vols., Leipfig, 1800. 
P O, No, 13$3. 

It has been translated into G. Stanhope, 
London, 1704, 8vo. ; into French by Dacier, Paris, )715 ; 
and into German by Schulthess, Zurich, 1778. 
SIMPLON. [Switzerland.] 

SIMPSON. THOMAS, a distinguished English mathe- 
matician, was born at Market-Bosworth in Leicestershire^ 
August 20, 1710. He appears even in his boyhood to have 
had a strong inclination for acquiring information by read- 
ing and conversation ; but his father, who was a weaver, 
intending that he should follow that occupation, endea- 
voured to divert him from a pursuit which interfered with 
the labour of his hands. The impulse of genius bowevex 
prevailed over the remonstrances of the parent, and the 
youth, having quitted his father's house, went to reside 
at Nuneaton, where, in the exercise of his trade, he ob- 
tained the means of subsisting, and during the intervals 
of leisure he indulged his taste for the acquisition of know- 

Young Simpson was led to the study of mathematics by 
having accidentally obtained possession of a copy of Cocker's 
* Aritnmetic' to which was annexed a short treatise oil 
algebra ; and, similarly to what is related of Tycho Brah^^ 
it is said that he applied himself to astronomy from admi- 
ration of the science in consequence of the occurrence (in 
1724) of a great eclipse of the sun at the time, which had 
been predicted. It is added that an itinerant pedlar and 
fortune-teller instructed him at the same time in the mys- 
teries of judicial astrology, and this art he occasionally prac- 
tised during several years. 

While yet a stripling he married a woman about fifty 
years of age, the widow of a tailor and the mother of two 
children, of whom the younger was his senior by two years • 
all the family however appear to have lived together in bar* 
mony, Simpson working at his trade by day, and increasing 
his income by keeping a private school in the evenings. In 
1733 he went to reside at Derby, where he continued to fol- 
low the united avocations of weaver and schoolmaster, and 
where he found means to increase his knowledge of mathe- 
matics. With arithmetic, geometry, and algebra he vras 
already acquainted; and now, having obtained a loan of 
Stone's translation of the Marquis de rHdpital's ' Analyito 
des Infinimens Petits,' he was enabled by the force of 
genius and unremitting application to make himself master 
of the direct and inverse method of fluxions. Being thus 
qualified, he began in or before the year 1 739 to wrfte 
answers to the mathematical questions in the 'Ladies* 
Diary,' and even to propose questions fi)r solution in that 
work. Some of the questions have a certain degree of 
intricacy, and they aflford evidence that, at this thne, tho 
scientific attainments of Simpson, considering his means, 
must have been very extensive. 

In the year 1735 or 1736 Simpson came to London and 
took lodgings in Spitalfields, where at first he both worked 
at the loom and gave instruction, as he had done in the 
country; but his great abilities becoming known to the 
world, and being perhaps more conspiouous from the ob- 
scurity of his situation, be was enabled to give u^ his trade 
and devote himself wholly to science. Having brought his 
family to the metropolis, he established himself there as a 
teacher of the mathematics, and employed his leisure houra 
in extending his researches into the highest branches of the 

On the death of Dr. Derham, Mr. Simpson was, ia 
1743, appointed professor of mathematics in the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich; and this post he heid 
during nearlv all the rest of his life. He is said to have 
been successful in acquiring the friendship and esteem of 
his pupils; and while exerting himself diligently in fulfil- 
ling his public duties, he found time to compose numerous 
works on the most abstruse points in the mathematical and 
physical sciences. 

In 1746 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society^ 
and on account of the mediocrity of his circumstances he 
was excused the payment of the admission fee and the an- 
nual subscriptions : several of his mathematical papers were 
printed in the ' Transactions,' but mo:)t of them were after- 
wards republished in the volumes of his works. In 1760, 
when the present bridge at Blackfriars was about to be 
built, Mr. Simpson was consulted with other mathentfati- 
cians concerning the fi>rm which would be most advanr 
tageous for the arches ; he appears in consequence to have 
taken some pains in investigating the conditions of the st^- 
bili^ of vaults, and to have §JXf|ft^^e preferenc«to tb^ 

S I M 



c»f a hemi-cylindrical form* but he did Tkot live to comnletq 
the work* and the results ot his researches have never been 
made public. 

As Mr. Simpson advanced in life, he became gradually 
% prey to m el ancholy. which ap^carB to have been in- 
creased by the intluence of bad habits ; bis mental faculties 
were at length eo hx impaired that be became incapable of 
performing the duties of bis professorship, and in the be- 
ginning of rtie year t76l he wa?i prevailed on to retire to 
Sis native town. The fatigues of the journey increased hli 
disorder, and he died May 14, in that year, in the fifty -first 
year of his age- 
Considering the circumstances attending Simpson's early 
life, and I he lahomus occupation in v^hich he was after- 
wards engaged, it is not without surprise that wc contem- 
plate the number of wqrHs which he wrote, and the pro- 
found research those w«rks display* His first publication, 
which came out in 1737, was entitled * A New Treatise of 
Ftuitions/ in which the direct and inverse methods, as they 
were caOed, are deraonstraied with considerable precision 
and perspicuity, and agreeably to the manner of Newton ; 
the work also contains several useful applications of the cdI- 
cuius lo subjects in natural philosophy and astronomy. 
Thirteen years afterwards, that b, in 1 750, be publisbed 
*Tlie Doctripe and Applleations of Fluxions.' which he 
dedicated to the earl ot Macclesfield^ and which, though it 
embraces the same subjects as form the body of the * Trea- 
tise/ must, from the numerous improvcraem^ it contains^he 
considered as a separate work. 

In 1740 Simpson published * A Treatise mi the Nature 
and Laws of Chauce/ besides ' Essays on several subjectj( 
in pure and minted Mathematics ;' aiid two years afterwards 
' The Dfpcirine pf Annuities and Reversions,* with tables 
show i ng the val ues of sin gle a u d j o in 1 1 i ves, Th ese work a 
were followed. In 1743, by 'MatNmatica! Dissertations otf 
Physical and Apalytical Subjects/ among which w^U be 
found an invei^tigation of the figure of a planet revolving 
on its axis, and of the force of aiifaction at the surfaces of 
bodies w"hicji are nearly spherical i also a theory of thd 
tides and of astronomical refractions. These disBertatjoni 
were dedicated lo IJartip Folk^, ttsq*, the presi4enl of the 
Royal Society. 

* An Elementary Treatise on Algebra* was published in 
1743; *The Elements of Geometry/ In 1747; and m the 
next year * A 'fract on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry/ 
with tbe 'Theory of Logaritbiijs/ Witft the dements of 
geometry are given notes in which are suggested improve- 
ments on tome of the demonstrations of "Euclid; but in 
making occasional observations on the notes givon in the 
first edition of Dr. Robert Simson's 'Euclid/ lor example 
on the note to the ^rat propoisilion of the eleventh bookf hi 
has fallen into soino slight inaccuracies which have heeij 
remarked on in the succeeding editions of the latter work. 
A second edition of Thomas Siinpson^s ^Geohlietry^was pub- 
lished in 1760, 

In the year 175^ he published 'Select Exercises in Ma- 
thematic^'/ ii;^ which are given many geometrical and 
algebraical problems with their solutions, and a theory of 
gunnery; but his lasf and most valuable work was that 
Tjhioh is entitled * ifiscellaneous Tracts* (1754), This 
consists of eight separate papers, four of which relate t6 
pure mathematics, and the others to physical astronomy. 
The first paper ooptains investigations for determmiiig the 
precession of the equinoxes and the nutations of the earth's 
a^is ; the second contains equations for correcting the place 
of a planet in its orbit on the hypotheses of Bulbaldus and 
SethWard; and the thi^-d is on the manner of transferrins 
the motion of a comet from a panibolical to an elliptical 
orbit. In the fourth paper are explained ibe advanlagei?, in 
point of accuracy, which arise from using a mean of several 
astronomical observations instead of one single observation. 
The dfth contains the determination of certain ^uents ; the 
sixth, the resolution of algebraic equations by means of 
surd divisors ; and the seventh, a general rule for the reso- 
lution of isoperimetrical propositions. The eighth paper 
contains the resolution of some important problems in 
astronomy; the propositions in the Inird and ninth sec- 
tions of the first book of Newton's * Princtpia * are demon- 
strated, and the general equations are applied to the deter- 
mination of the lunar orbit. 

In order that the merit of this last paper may be rightly 
appreciated, it l^ nticessary to observe that about the year 
1745 the modem analyst was first applied fo the deS^rmi- 

nation of the eltfuenta of the oibita of the earth, momii, am^ 
planets; these bodies being supposed to pertu^hateedcU 
Q!tber*8 mdtlohs by their mutual attraJBtion8,u if ell as to1>e 
subject to the general attraction of the tun. In the prose^ 
ciitibh of the research, the mathematicians Clairaut, 
D*Al§mbert; and Buler particularly investigaled the eObet 
Of the siin'ft attraction In eauaiug a progresaion of the apogee 
of the nnooAlt orbit; which progression, beipg a remaimablQ 
cbiisequehce of perturbation, was considered as a teat of the 
eotrectness 6f The gfenefitl principle and law of athtictioik 
#hioh haid becii ateume^ bytlewton. The first etfo'rta of 
Vf, Cfafraut sbbw^d an amount of progression in the period 
of a revolutibh 6f the m<x>n about the earth, equal to abouf 
half oAly of that which bad been determined mm astrono- 
mical obiservatioAsCMtooires del' Acadtoii^/ 1747); and it 
1$ fehiarkabl6 Ihat'bdth 6'Alemberr and Buler obtained lat 
the satne tiine a like eri^neons tesblt Hiis ourcumstance 
at first ckus^d sdm^ doiibts to bd entertained of the truth of 
^t9Wton*s hypothesis, that the force of attraction varies in- 
^^Hely as fne square Of 'ihe distance : but the process em- 
ployed by the three mathematicians being one of successive 
approximations only, it was afterwirds discovered by Clairaut 
that, on continuing the phMlMs,' thd second step in the 
anph>XTmatibn promiced ar quantity heaily eqn'al to that 
Wnfch' h^d been obtained by the 'fiot step ; and thus the 
cothpiitis^ progression was fbttnd toiioincidewitfa the results 
of obieHrtt^ji. Kow '8imps6il, 'employing a differentiai 
equation tn niption like thai Whii5h had been used by the 
fbl^Tgh m^thetiaatlbiabs, obtained the valote of its terms by 
means of Indeterminate coefilcients ; a method which eii* 
tik^iy avoideld th^ Itiaccuracy resulting from the speofes of 
approxiihation which they had adopted ,* and*t||QS he arrived 
at once at the true value of the progression. 

The 'Tracts' were not publish ed till seven years after 
Glairaut's *M£moire' came out, and il appeam' that, in the 
interval, Ihat matbematictan durinc^ a visit to Xdgland bad 
an interview with Simpson ; the latter stales liowever; id 
the preface to hts * Tracts,' that previously to having had 
any communication with M. Clairaut, be bjld discovered 
(bat the movement of the moon's apogee could be accoiinted 
fcr on the Newtonian law of gravitation. There ii there- 
fbre no reason to doubt that Simpson had the merit of 
dVrmnj^ at a determination which ser^^ed to oonAl^m the 
fruth of that law by a process enitrefy his own: the whole 
investigation exhibits nrofoUnd mathematical skillf'atid ftilly 
4fh titles him to the cnaracter of fiaving been one of the 
ablest analysts, for all the purposes of practioal'ttcienoe, '6f 
^hicb the couhtrj' can boast . . ^ . , 

Rfr, Simpson continued during the whole of his life his 
po n t rib ut ions to the * Ladies* Diary/ of which work he Wad 
the editor from T 754 to 1 ?60. ' ^" 

*' SIMSON, ROBERT, one of the many mathematicians 
who have given a lustre to the universities of Sk^otland, Was 
a son of Mr, John Simson, of Kirton Hall in Ayrshire, ati'd 
was born in October^ 1687. About the year T701 he wAs 
sent to the university of Clasgow^ where ho acquired that 
broficjency in the learned languages which he retained dur- 
ing all his lifOf and at the same time he made considerable 
brogress in moral philosophy and theology, being destined 
by bis father for the rhurcb. Young Stmson soon (lowever 
found a pursuit more congenial to bis taste in the study of 
mathematics, and chiefly of the antient geometry : to this 
sbbjeot he applied himself at first »s a relief from ^haC he 
considered as a more laborious occupation, ^ind it became at 
length almost the sole employment of his life. • 

In 1710' Mr Simson made a visit to Ixindon, where he 
remained about a year, and where he beciime iEicauainted 
tf ith Dr, Halley, Mr, Caswell, Dr, Jurin, and Mr. Uittort ; 
(jrom the conversation of the last gentleman> who was then 
mathematical master of Christ's Hospital, he gained,' not as 
a pupil, but as a friend, a considerable accession to his 
knowledge of science. 

' On the resignation of Dr, Robert Sinclair, Mr. Simson 
was appointed, in 1711, to succeed him as professor of ma- 
thematics in the university of Glasgow, He then applied 
himself to the duties of his o6ice« and rogulariy gave lec- 
tures on five days in each week during the session of seven 
months. This practice he continued for nearly fifty years ; 
but in' I758,1)eing then seventy-one years of age, he was 
obliged to employ aft' assistant, and three years afterwards 
the Rev. Dr. Williamson, who had been one of his pupilk, 
was appointed his successor. * 

In 1735 Dr. Simson published in ^to. a 'Treatise pn Conio 

n I N 


S I N 

P^etioiif^' a.9da.4eoQ94 Qflitjpii in 17^0:1 in this work tlto 
investigations are e^ducted agreeably, to the spirit of the 
ant^Qjt geometry, sjoA propositions are introduced eiipressly 
Uiat, It might sejrve as an introduction to the treatise of 
ApollQniu^ on tbe.same sulijeot, . , . 

By the advice, it is said* pf Dr. Halhw, Slmson early di- 
rected his attention to a restoration of the works of the 
Greek geopietocp, and. his firiit.effort Was tnade on tjbe 
po^isms of Euclid: a^braittjh of tho^antient analysis vihich 
18 only knpwn fr9m,the $hOrtjaccoUnt in the Works of A^ 
pus. In this difficult task however he aucoeeded, but his 
* Tract' on.tho sul^oct.was not puhlishftd till after his 
death,, Qavii^ acquifod.a.sort of. key to thtt analysis, 
he undertook a restorfiiion of ihe ' loci plani * of Apolbnius, 
and tbi^ no completed about the year 1738. The. work was 
fir^t4>uh)i8h«d in 174$, and Dr. Simson. a^cc^uited by it the 
roputation of .boing one of the most i elegant geometers of 
the age, . Another su^ed on which ^be. peculiar tilents of 
Dr. Sipison jirefe vexec^ivd*. waa the ' sectio determinate * of 
ApollQpiiis, and this ^m he. was^ao jfoctnnate as to restore. 
Tho work.appeara to have be0n Commenced at an earh' pe- 
riod of his $ife». but. it was only published, sdobg with the 
Porismt* after his death. ji • 

A perfect edition of the pdneipal pari, of Euclid's ' £1^ 
ments' was the next object of Dr. Simson's labours. Nu- 

Serous ^jrors were known to feXifit in the Greek oopies, and 
« CQKieotion of these was a taak worthy of a scholar who 
had. made the antioqt .geemeti^ almost exclusively liis 
study. An edition of the ASlements* and of the * Data' was 
published .iA4to.ataoutJ768,.and the work has always ed- 
Joyed a high character both iot praciaion in the definitions 
and aiwuraicy in the demonstrations. It is pibbable.thal the 
British mathematician has evOn. corrected errors whidi 
existed in the original text, though his high regard for 
Sudid has led him^ to assume that all those which he has 
disoovered have arisen firokn the negligence or unskilful- 
noss of ihe antiant editbra at oopyists. Having been vexy 
general^ used for the purposes of elementary instmction, 
tinanir editions of ihss wnrk ^have since been pnUisbed. 

Artec hiareHrenient Dr. Simson employed himsdf chiefly 
in correcting his mathematical .writings ; but though he 
had several works nearly fit for publication, he ^pridted 
none except a new edition of Euclid's 'Data.' He was 
seriou^y ill only during a few weeks previously to his death, 
which took place October 1, 1768, in the eighty-'flrst year of 
fail age. 

la 1776 Earl Stanhope published, at his own expense, 
and for 4)rivate circulation, the above-mentbned restora-> 
tions of Euclid's books of Porisnis, and bf tlie two books of 
Apollonius * De Sectione Determinate :' together with these 
works the same nobleman published a tract on. the limits 
of ratios and another on logarithms, both of which had also 
been written by Dr. Simson. An edition of the workaof 
Pappus was found among the EK^tor's MSS., and was tent 
by. his executors Xo the University of Oxford. 

Dr. SimsoQ, though devoted to geometry. Was well ac- 
quainted , with the modern analysis, and the latter was 
oocasionfUly thb subject of his college lectures; it is how- 
ever to be n^retted that so much of his time wasapent in 
the effort toreatore the precise worths of the antients, when 
it might have beOn more profitably employed in forming a 
eonnected svstem of their aiuiiysis, and in sbowtng its appli- 
cation to the solhtion of probletns relating to physical 
science. He was iMver married; and the greater part of 
his long life was spent within the walls of the college ; his 
hours of studv, his exercises, and eveii h& amusements be- 
ing regulated with griat precision* In his disposition he 
vras cheerful and sociable; and his conversation, which 
was animated; abounded with literary anecdote and good 
humoor, though he waa subject; wbeil in company, to occa- 
sional fits of abtettco. He was a aan of strict integrity and 
pute morals, and he appears to havie had ju^t impressions 
of religion, though he never allowad the su^e<it to be intHw 
duced in iaixed so<^ty. 

SIN. One of the few passaf^es of 8crt]»tute in which we 
have something which ai^noachei to the character <^ a 
definition relatea to this word : ^ Sin ii die tranflgr^ion of 
the law.' (I Jdkn, iil. 4> Within thii dotnition woiiM be 
eomprehended all actual sins; when the wotrd law is inter- 
preted to mean the Christian law, the rule by Which the 
minds of sll who profess Christianity are bound ; and hot 
merely open |>alpable offences against the law, stich as mui> 
4ler, theft, lying; ftnd tho Itktf* hut sinAil emiisions of duty, 

and those sins which ere only those' of ooutemplation and 
thought:, since the . Christian rule commands us net to 
neglect, the performance of our duties, and to keep a watch 
over the thoughts as well as over the actions and worcb. 

It was this comprehensive and most excellent law which 
was in the mind of the Apostle when he tfaid that ' sin was 
transgression of the law,' or at least that other divine law 
wnich bound the conscience of the Jews. But the expres- 
^ion may \k taken to express more generally any laW vdiich 
^ person holds in his conscience to be binding upon him, 
Woether it be a hiw of nature only, or a law in which the 
uatuml perception of rijght and ^rong ^ .modified by and 
mixed with what is received as the WiU of Gk>d concerning 
US by direct revelation fibm him. . 

. Wfa^ the word sin is however applied to any act, it is 
always,, among correct writers or bpeakeS^ used with refer- 
ence, either expressed or implied,^ to religious obligation, 
and to the responsibility in which we stand to God, and the 
liability in which we are to future punishment. * To do 
wrong' would. express the same act as ' to. commit sin ;.' but 
we lise the fbrmer phrase without thinking of the offence 
which is done against God in isny dot of the kind ; not so 
whOn we use the other phrase. 

Under this definition it & evident that there may be 
degrees ih sin^ .and we mention this to remove What we 
deem an erroheoua opinion on this subject, which goes the 
length of saying that there is really no difieience between 
the slightest violation of any thoral obligation and the more 
heinoua transgretoions. The error on this point arises out of 
one of thb commonest mistakes in respect of language— con- 
founding words in their abstract with words in their concrete 
state. It la true that sin in the abstiract is one and indivisi- 
ble, and there aire no degrees in it; it expresses that which 
is most offensive in the sight of a pure, noly, and judging 
God. But when we say ' a sin,' we then refer to some par- 
ticular act ; and common sense tolls us that in all acts \n 
which the law is transgressed there is not the same amount 
of moral turpitude, the same dmount of defiance to the 
Divine Power, the same injury to society or to our neigh- 
bour» and consequently not the same 4monnt of offence in 
the sight of God. At the saiide time it cannot be loo strongly 
inculcated upon all to Jceep a watchful guard upon them- 
selves lest they commit even the smuleir offences; for more certain in ilie philosophy olTmind, than that 
small offences lead imperceptibly to the toleration of 
ghsater, so that the than who thinks little of small offences 
may become, before he is awaire, guilty of those of the knost 
heinous hature. 

There is ^dso what divines call Original Sin; a phrase 
which is differently interpreted by different persons. By 
some it is considered as being the act of sin committed by 
our first parents when they traiisgressed the law which had 
bound them not to eat of the fruit of a certain ti-ee ; and 
this act of sin is regarded as partaken in b^ all the posterity 
of Adam, who were, ai it were, existent m him their com- 
mon fether, and as fixing upon all the guUt Of his sin, and 
exposing them to punishment which would be inflicted for 
this particular sin, to say nothing of their own Sin, but for 
the great redemption. There are tnany modifications of 
this notion and many intermediate shades of opinion till we 
arrive at the view of original din which represents the 
nature of man as changed oy the transgression in this par- 
ticular of our common ancestor; so that a nattkre previously 
perfectly innocent and ilree horn the least tendency to sin, 
became changed into otie itl which the disposition to sin is 
inherent and the repugnance to the Divine will strong and 
universal. There are some classes of professing Christians 
who do not use the phrase original sin, though they admit 
the proneness of man to sin, attributing it to ^is ignorance 
dnd imperfection, to the violence of his appetites and pas- 
sions, and in general referring it to that state of probation in 
which it seems to them to have blden the intehtioii of their 
Maker to place us. 

SINAI, MOUNT. [Arabia, p. 213.] 

SINA'PIS. the nanie of a gehus of plants helongihg to 
the natiiral order Cruciferte or Brassieace^. All the specfea 
are knpwn by the nanie of miistard, a word derived ftoxa 
musiitM ardens, in allusion to their hot and biting charac- 
ter. The ^hus is known by its siliqiiose fruit, which is 
rather terete with nerved valves ; small, short, acute style ; 
subgldbosie seeds disclosed in one row in each cell, and siiread- 
ing calvx^ The leaves are of various forins, Ivrate or deeply 
tCotheii. The flowers yellow, arranged oii terminal bractlesa 


S 1 N 


S I N 

nt^emes. They are chiefly natives of the teai)>erate parts 
of both hemispheres of the old world. Between 40 and 50 
species of this genus are enumerated. Of these two species 
are well known and much cultivated in this country, Stfia- 
pis nigra and iS. alba, the black and white mustard. 

8. ni^a, the black mustard, is known by its smooth, even, 
somewhat tetragonal siliques closely pressed to the pe- 
duncle ; lyrate lower leaves, and lanceolate upper leaves. 
It is found in cultivated fields, waste grounds, and road- 
sides throughout Europe. The young plants of both black 
and white mustard are eaten as salaa, and are both culti- 
vated for this purpose. The black however differs from the 
white mustard in the flowers and seed being much smaller, 
and in the latter being black. But the great purpose for 
which the black mustard is grown is for the seeds, which 
when ripened and powdered form the well-known condi- 
ment mustard. *To raise the seed for flour of mustard and 
other officinal occasions, sow either in March or April in an 
open compartment, or large sowings in fields, where designed 
for public supply. Sow moderately thick, either in drills six 
or twelve inches asunder, or broad-cast, after the ground has 
been properly ploughed and harrowed, and rake or harrow 
in the seed. When the plants are two or three inches high, 
hoe or thin them moderately where too thick, and clear 
them from weeds. They will soon run up to stalks, and in 
July, August, or September return a crop of seed ripe for 
gathering ; being tied up in sheaves and left three or four 
days on the stubble.* (Don^s Miller.) Rain damages the 
crop very much. Black mustard exhausts the soil rapidly. 
It is cultivated to a great extent in the county of Durham. 
When once grown it is difficult to extirpate on account of 
the great vitality of the seeds, which, if buried at almost 
any depth and for any length of time, will germinate when 
brought to the surface. In preparing the flour of mustard 
in this country, the black husk of the seed is separated by 
delicate sifting. This process, which is not gone through 
on the Continent, makes the British mustard of so much 
lighter and more agreeable *oolour. The mustard on the 
Continent however is stronger, as the greater proportion of 
the volatile oil on which the strength of the mustard depends 
resides in the testa, or husk of the seed, which in this coun- 
try is thrown away. 

S, alba, white mustard : siliques hispid, spreading, rather 
narrower than the ensiform beak : leaves lyrate, smoothish ; 
stem smooth. It is a native of Britain and most countries 
in the south of Europe. It is frequently cultivated, and when 
young is eaten as a salad. Its seeds are white, and by ex- 
pression yield a bland insipid oil perfectly free from acri- 
mony, but leaving behind a cake more pungent than the 
seeds themselves. In the culture of this plant for salad the 
seed should be sown once a week or fortnight, in dry warm 
situations, in February and March, and in shady borders in 
the heat of summer. They are best sown in shallow flat drills, 
from three to six inches apart The seeds should be put in 
thick and regular, and covered with not more than a quar- 
ter of an inch of mould. In winter or early spring it may 
be Ki'own under a hand-glass, or in hotbeds ana stoves. 

SINAPIS. Two species of this genus are used in this 
country to yield the mustard of commerce, S. alba and S. 
nigra, or white mustard and black mustard. Both are 
annuals, the latter extensively cultivated in Yorkshire and 
Durham. Of the former the seeds are large, smooth, not 
veined or reticulated, and when bruised and mixed with 
water, do not evolve a pungent odour. The integument or 
skin is also thin, and the quantity of flixed oil obtained 
from it is less than from that of the black mustard. White 
mustard is of a light colour externally (but one variety is 
blackish), and when reduced to powder, is of a light yellow 

The seeds of black mustard are about the size of the 
head of a common pin, ovato-globose, of a reddish-brown, 
beautifully veined, mternally yellow, oily, and yielding a 
yellowish-green powder. The chemical constitution of the 
two is essentially diflferent, as it is only the black mustard 
which evolves, when bruised and mixed with water, the 
pungent principle which irritates the eyes, nostrils, and 
akin. The white mustard possesses a non-volatile principle, 
which is developed by the addition of water. It is the 
young plants from this species which are eaten with cress 
as a salad. 

The chemical constitution of black mustard seems to be 
of the most complex kind. According to Dr. Pereira, it 
contains myronate of potash, myrosvne, fixed oil, a pearly 

ttX matter, gummy matter, sugar, colouring matter, ainft« 
pisin, free acid, peculiar green matter, and some salts, 
chiefly sulphate and phosphate of lime. The volatile oil 
does not pre-exist in the mustard, but is formed, when water 
is added, * by the mutual action of the contained myrosyne 
and myronate of potash (sinapisin ?).' It may be obtained 
by distilling one part of the marc (t.0. the cake of bruised 
mustard-se«ds which remains after the fixed oil has been 
expressed) with firom five to eight parts of water. It is so- 
luble in alcohol and esther, and also, what is very singular, 
in water, requuring however five hundred parts for its solu- 
tion. Water in which it is dissolved is a powerAil vesicant 
and rubefacient. It has been recommended as a counter- 
irritant in the same cases as sinapisms or mustard-poultices 
are employed. It possesses the advantage of extreme ra- 
pidity of action ; and when used in cases of torpor or coma, 
if on the return of sensibility the patient complains of pain 
from the application, this can be immediately removed by 
washing the part with sulphuric ssther, a property no other 
rubefacient agent possesses, and which entitles it to a pre- 
ference in many cases. It is the only volatile oil of indi- 
genous origin which is heavier than water, its specific 
gravity being 1- 015 at 68"* of Fabr. It possesses the same 
power as other volatile oils in preventing the development 
of fungi. 

The fixed oil is perfectly bland, like that of olive or rape, 
which 4ast it greatly resembles. It exists to the extent of 
20 per cent in white, and about 28 per cent, in black mus- 
tard-seed. To obtain it the seeds are crushed in a mill or 
between rollers, and the skins should be subjected to pres- 
sure as well as the farina or flour. The cake may then be 
sifted and reduced to a fine powder, as it retains all the 
pungent properties. In France the oil is generally left in 
the seeds, which renders them very difficult to powder, and 
makes it expensive. It is also less potent than English 
mustard in eauivalent quantity. The mare or cake is 
sometimes usea as manure, but this is a waste. The oil is 
valuable for burning, especially as it does not f^reese, except 
at a temperature below sero. It also forms, with an alktlt* 
a firm good soap. It has been supposed to be anthelmintic 
as well as purgative, but its medicinal properties are insig- 

Flour of mustard, mixed with water, forms the well- 
known condiment so much used with all the more indi- 
gestible articles of food, the solution of which it seems to 
favour by rousing the powers of the stomach. A table- 
spoonful of mustaM in a tumbler of water forms a ready and 
useful emetic in many cases of poisoning, especially when 
narcotic poisons have been taken. Added to foot-baths, 
mustard has a revulsive action, which is often serviceable 
in the commencement of colds, and when gout has seized 
the stomach or brain ; also when cutaneous diseases have 
suddenly receded. 

Sinapisms are generally directed to be made with vinegar, 
but water of the temperature of about 100® Fahr. is pre- 
ferable, and less expensive. French mustard for the table 
is often prepared with vinegar. Some years ago, the seeds 
of white mustard, taken whole, in the dose of a table- 
spoonful, were recommended as a cure for many complaints. 
This was only an old practice revived, and not free from 
danger, as the seeds have been known to lodge in the in- 
testines and cause death. See Cullen's * Materia Medics,' 
vol. ii., p. 1 70. Respecting the mustard-plant of Scripture, 
see * Trans, of Linnean Society of London,' vol. xvii., p. 449. 


SINCLAIR, SIR JOHN. Bart, third son of 6. Sin- 
clair, Esq., heritable sheriflf of Caithness, was bom at Thurso 
castle, in the county of Caithness, in the year 1764. 

He embraced the profession of the law, and was called to 
the English bar in 1 782, having been admitted a member 
of the mculty of advoeates in Scotland in the year 1776. 

In 1780 he was chosen member for his native county, 
and sat in the house during several successive parliaments, 
sometimes for Caithness, sometimes fbr other places. He 
was created a baronet in 1786, and in 1810 was honoured 
with a seat at the board of privy oounciL He was likewise 
a member of several learned societies, and became exten- 
sively known by his writings, which, for more than fifty 
years, issued rapidW from the press. His death took place 
at Edinburgh, on December 21, 1836, in the 82nd year of 
his age. 

Sir J. Sinelaur did much for the improvement of his 
country. He established a very useful society in Scotland 

8 i N 


S I N 

in 1791 for improytsg wool, and hii exertions l«d to the for- 
mation of the Board of Agriculture in 1 793, of which he was 
the first presadeut. Among the roost important of his nu* 
merous works may he mentioned his ' Statistical Account 
of Scotland ;' ' Historjr of the Revenue of Great Britain ;* 
and * Account of the Northern DistrioU of Scotland.' The 
. first of these is an extraordinary work, and displays an 
almost inoredible amount of khour and research. 

SINDB. [Hindustani 

8INDIA. FAMILY OF. The orif^n of this celebrated 
ikmily of Mahratta cfaiefr and princes is comparatively mo- 
dern. The family were sudras, of the pMceful tribe of 
koombeek or cultivators. The first who dutinguiahed him- 
self as a soldier was 

Ranojsb Sindu, who was originally a potail, or head 
map of a village. . The Paishwa 6(4<urow, who succeeded 
his father Biswanath Row in 1720, appointed Ranojee to 
the humble office of bearer of his slippers. A circumstance 
which seemed to show his fidelity and attachment to his 
master is said to have led to his promotion. Bajerow one 
day found him asleep on his back, with the slippers firmly 
clasped to his breast, and was so much pleased as to ap- 
point him immediately to a station in his bodv-guard. Ra- 
nojee Sindta was active and enterprising, and he was rapidly 
Sromoted. In 1743 he had risen to the highest rank of 
Eahratta chiefs ; for when Binerow came into Malwa in 
that year, Ranojee signed a bond which was required by the 
emperor of Delhi, Mahomed Shah, as a surety for the good 
conduct of his master the Paishwa. Before Ranojee died he 
had obtained the hereditary government of one-half of the 
extensive province of Malwa. By his wife, who belonged to 
his own tribe, he had three sons, Jeypah, Duttagee, and 
Juitabah; and by a Rajpoot woman he had two sons, Tu- 
kajee and Madhajee, of whom 

Madhajes SiNDiA became the head of the family. The 
date of his birth is uncertain; it waa probably about 1743 ; 
he was present at the battle of Pauiput in 1761, when the 
Mahrattas were defeated by Ahmed Shah Abdallah and his 
Afghans, in union with the Rajpoot and Mohammedan 
princes of northern Hindustan. In this disastrous blittle 
one-half of the Mahratta army, which amounted to 200.000 
men, are said to have been slain. Madhajee Sindia was 
pursued by an Afghan horseman for many miles, who at 
length overtook him, and left him (or dead in a ditch, afker 
laving wounded him with his battle-axe in the knee in 
auoh a manner as to render him lame for life. The Sindia 
family, as well as the other Mahratta chiefs, were for a time 
deprived of all their possessions in Malwa and Hindustan 
proper; but this was not of long continuance. The Paishwa 
Bajerow died in 1761, and was sucoeeded by his son Mad- 
hoo Row, under whom, on the death of Mulliar Row Hdkar 
in 1764, Madhajee Sindia became the most powerful of the 
Mahratta chiefs. Besides being the principal leader of the 
household-horse of the Paishwa, he had a large army of his 
own; and the return of Ahmed Shah to CStbul, and the 
contests among the Mohunmedan princes under the weak 
emperor Shah Alim 11^ in a few years aflforded opportunity 
to him and his brother Tukajee Sindia to recover their 
former hereditary government and possessions in Malwa 
and northern Hindustan. 

In 1770, on the invitation of Nujeeb ud Dowlah, who was 
the minister of Shah Alim, Madhajee Sindia, Bassajee Row, 
and Tukajee Holkar entered Hindustan proper with their 
armies, for the purpose of expelling the Sikhs, who had in- 
vaded the emperor's territories. This was soon accom- 
plished; and on the death of Ni^b ud Dowhih in 1771, 
Madhajee Sindia obtained possession of Delhi, whither he 
invited Shah Alim to return from Allahabad, where he had 
been livine under the protection of the British since 1 755. 
In December the same year the emperor was crowned with 
great pomp in his capitaL He was not however the less in 
subjection. Madhajee compelled him to sign a commission 
by which he appointed the Paishwa vicegerent of the em- 
pire; and the Paishwa, by a like commission, appointed 
Madhajee his deputy. 

In 1772, and again in 1773, with his two colleagues 
Bassajee and Holkar, Sindia invaded and ravaged Rohil- 
ftund, and was preparrog to cross the Ganges, when the 
murder of the young Paishwa Narrain Row, the usurpation 
of the office by his undo Ragoba, and the appearance of the 
British and the nabob of Oude, who had been invited to 
assist the Rohillas, caused him to return to Poena. A con- 
federation of Mahiratta chiefs was got up against Ragoba, 

who, after a reign of a few months, was compelled to ffy. 
Sevfl^ee Madhoo, the posthumous son of Narrain Row, was 
appointed Paishwa, and Ballajee Pundit, better known as 
Nana Fumavese, was elected dewan, or minister. The 
British, on the condition of hia ceding to them certain ter> 
ritories, came to the assistance of Ragoba, which oeoasbned 
a war between them and the Mahrattas. This war, twice 
interrupted by treaties which were not completed, con- 
tinued till 1782, when the treaty of Salbhye was concluded, 
l^ which Madhajee Sindia was confirmed in all his posses, 
sions, the places taken from him by the British were re. 
stored, and he was recognised by them as an independent 

Madhajee Sindia had now time and opportunity to prose- 
cute his plans of aggrandisement In 1785 he again ap. 
pcMsrod at Delhi, and by the murder of two of the imperial 
ministers once more got the emperor into his power i he 
also conquered Agra and Alyghur, and obtained possession 
of nearly the whde of the Doab About this time he en- 
gaged in his service a Frenchman, De Botgne, who became 
of the most essential service to him ; for by his assistance he 
formed an army consisting of troops regularly disciplined, 
he foueht pitched battles, besieged fortresses previouslr 
deemed impregnable, gradually subjected raja after raja to 
contribution, and added district after district to his posses- 
sions, till he became master of nearly all the territory south- 
west from the banks of the Ganges to the Nerbudda. The 
battle of Meerta, gained by De Boigne in 1 790 over the col- 
lected forces of Joudpoor, had made Sindia master of that 
principality,' as well as of the weaker state of Odeypoor ^ to 
these eonquests was added soon after that of Jypoor, which 
was followed in 1792 by the defeat of the troops of Jonk»- 
jee Holkar, when four corps of regular infantry belonging 
to Ho]kar*s army, which were commanded by a French 
officer, were almost utterly destroyed Sindia himself had 
returned to Poena in 1791, where he died in 1794. 

Madhajee Sindia*s life was one of incessant activitVi he 
was engaged in a series of contests in which he displayeil 
great talent and untiring energy, and by which his nowei 
and possessions were gradually extended, consolidated, and 
confirmed. His habits throughout the whole nf his career 
were those of a plain soldier ; he was never seduced br 
luxury, and he despised the trappings of state. Though 
occasionally guilty of violence ana oppression, his life waa 
for the most part unstained by cruelty; his disposition 
was mild, and he was desirous of improving the countriea 
which he conquered. Towards the British and those statea 
which were unconnected with the Mahratta government 
he conducted himself as an independent prmce, but in mat- 
ters relating to the Paishwa he paid the most scrupulous 
attention to all the forms of humility, of which he made a 
curious display when Sevajee Madhoo Row, at the termina- 
tion of his minority in 1 791, entered upon the duties of his 
office, and Sindia came to Poena to pay his respects to him. 
Sir John Malcolm thus relates it: ' The actual sovereign of 
Hindustan from the Sutleje to Agra, the conqueror of the 
princes of Kajpootana, the commander of an army composed 
of sixteen battalions of regular infantry, 500 pieces or can- 
non, and 100,000 horse, the possessor of two thirds of 
Malwa, and some of the finest provinces in the Deckan, 
when he went to pay his respects to a youth who then held 
the office of Paishwa, dismounted from his elephant at the 
gates of Poena ; placed himself in the great hall of audience 
below all the mankarries, or hereditary nobles of the state* 
and when the Paishwa came into the room, and desired him 
to be seated with others, he objected on the ground of be- 
ing unworthy of the honour, and, untying a bundle that he 
carried under his arm, produced a pair of slippers, which 
he placed before Madhoo Row, saving, ' This is my occupa- 
tion ; it was that of my father.' Madhajee, at the moment 
he said this, took the old slippers the Paishwa had in use, 
which he wrapped up carefully, and continued to hold them 
under his arm ; alter which, though with apparent reluct- 
ance, he allowed himself to be prevailed upon to sit down. 
It has been supposed that by this affected humility he 
aimed at obtaining the situation of dewan to the Paishwa ; 
if such however was his object, he was frustrated in it, for 
Nana Fumavese still retained it. 

Madhi^jee Sindia had no sons. His brother Tuksgee had 
three, of whom the youngest, Anund Row, became the 
favourite of his uncle, who adopted Dowlut Row Sindia, the 
son of Anund Row, as his heir. • 

DoYfhVT Row SiNDiA» at the death of his grand-uncT 




waft only tliirteea yean of. fige. He waa opposed by tfie 
widows of Madh^ee, who set up another pnnod in bppor 
aition to him, and ha.wtls not established in hia power till 
after several battles had been fought. He married, soion aftet 
his accession, the daughter of Siqee Row Gatkia» an artfUl 
and wicked man, who belcbtQe.hiaininiater, to whom is doublr 
less to be ascribed much of the rapacity and cruelty which 
marked Ule. early part of Do#lut Row's reign; Theaeisore 
and imprisonment of Naha Fumavese, the murder bf teveral 
Brahmins, the plundering of Pooiia and the ubighbouring 
places under pratence of paying the expensea of his marr 
riage ; ^nd the aidinf^of Oasee iuw Holkarin the.muhlerof 
his brother Mulhar Row, are among his early atrocitiea; in 
addition to which it should be mentioned, thkt w)ieh Giijee 
Row Gatkia defeated Jeswunt Row Holkat in 1801, he plun- 
dered the city of Indore, set fire to tha best hoUsei, and mur- 
dered many of the inhabitants '^ in 1802 however Holkav de- 
feated Sindia, and re-established himsdf iuMalwa^ But the 
interierence of the British at length put i atop to this carder 
of spoliation and bloodshed. The PaishwaBsjerow, having 
been defeated by Jeswont Row Hdkar ihl80S, fl^toBaaiein, 
and placed himself under the protection of the Bdtiib, by/a 
tireaty, the chief conditions of which were, that ha should cmb 
to them the island of Sakette, ahd thev should restcwe him 
to the office of Paishwa. Afte^ tbahy fruiUesa n^ooiatioas 
with Sindia and the Raja of Berar, the British resident left the 
court olT Sindia, August 3, 1803, ahd war ^as commekioed 
on the 8th by an attack on the fortreaa of Ahmedhugghur bjr 
Major-General Well^ley, which he abon iook, and Mowed 
up on the 25th of September^ 1803; by the battle of Aasayo, 
when he gained a complete victor)r over the confedemted 
fbrces of Sindia and the Ra{a of Ber^, which were under the 
command of the FreAch general P^n, and greatW inore 
numerous than his own. In Hindustan Propisr, General 
Lake, on the 29th of August, 1803, defeated Sindia*s fbrcte 
in the Doab, took the strong fort Of Alygbur, and Afterwards 
the cities Of Delhi and Agra. In the short period of &ve 
months was included a series of the most brilliant and debt- 
sive victories ; th6 battles of Delhi and Laswaree, of Asaaye 
and Arghaum, the reduction of the strong forts of Ahn4ed- 
kiugghur, Alyghur, Agra, Gwalior, Asserghuh and Cutiack, 
besides a number of inferior conquests. The two Mahmtla 
chiefs were compelled to sue for peace separatelj^. 8india*s 
brigades, wbich had been trained under De Boigne and 
P£ron, and which amounted to at least 40,000 well-dis- 
ciplined infantry, were destroyed \ 500 guns, cast in the 
foundries which Madhajee had established, were taken ; and 
by the treaty of December, 1803, he was compelled to cede 
to the British the Upper Doab, Delhi, Agra, 8aharuttpoo)^ 
Meerut, Alyghur, Btawah, Cuttack, Balasore, the fi>rt and 
territory of Baroach, 8cc., amounting altogether to more 
than 50,000 square miles. By a treaty of defensive alliance, 
February 27, 1804, he engaged tO receive a British auxiliary 
force in those dominions which he was suffered to retain, 
which were still large, and which were considerably in- 
preased, after the subjugation of Golkar, by the territory of 
Gohud and the strong fort of Gwaltor, which were glvbn 
up to him by the treaty of Muttra, November 23, 1805, one of 
the conditions of which treaty was, that his fether-in-law Sir- 
jee Row Gkitkia should be for ever excluded firom his councils. 

Dowlut Row Sindia, though he reiained fo^ a consider- 
able time no friendly feeling towards his British alllies, by 
whom he had been so severely humbled, never again ven- 
tured into a direct contest with them ; and after he was freed 
from the influence of his father-in-law, he b^ame by de- 
jg:rees better disposed towards them ; so that in the war of 
1818, by which theMahratta power was entirely d^royed, 
he prudently kept aloof, though the Paishwa urgently cdled 
upon him for his assistance. The consequence was that he 
retained his territories, and continued on fHendly terms 
with the British till his death, which took place March SI, 
1827. Be left an army of about 14,000 infantry, 10,000 
cavalry, and 250 pieces of orddattce, with territories worth 
about 1,250,000/. per annum, 

JANto How Sindia, the present Rajd of Gwalior, was 
elected by the widow of Dowlut Row, Baiia Bai. She was ex- 
pelled from his territories in 1833 by Janko Row, who is 
now (1841) about 19 years of age. 

(Malcolm's Political History qflficUa ; Malcolm's Central 
India: Mill's ^ri/t>A India; Bicgraj)hie Umvenelle; Art 
de vtrifler lee Dates,) 

SINE and. COSINE. We separate from the Article Ita- 
QOKoAsTRT tte m'eEB ^tescrlptton imd properties ^ uese^ 

lundMttentM.t^KmPk which, thpugh origji^y derived froDi 
aimplfl t|:igonoai9icy,.ace npw amppg ^ft mo|t usefnl foun- 
dationa of mathematical expressipUf fox whal we have to 
s^.ea their histoQr, we refer to th^ articU ju«| Qited* 
. According. to the antient.syateqpL of .trigoc^emeti^jb th# !M» 
andcoshie are only names given A9.tb$ fiJi)s^i$sja.«A4 olidiaaft^ 
of a poipt, not wi^i reference. to. |h^ ppaHioaof t^t point in 
snaoe, but to the radiua vector of that Apint .and iu angk^ 
Thus, measuring angles from th«i lij^ OtN; (Vnd in th^.di- 
ifectioh hf , the atiow; the «0]tle HO P.h^inn itiftjuitiBkhiitt^r 
of sinbs and cosiaea. With teferenoe to ih».n»iius O P. 

k»N is the Bine and ON the eo£ne of Z N OJPj btit with 
r^reiiea;to theiradius OQ, QR is the iine and OR the 
ckiUne. Tbafdndamehtal relatioa . . 

(sineO)" *f (ooaind e)* r± (radius^ 
ia obvious attough. 

The atudent slwayi began trioonometry, with thia multi- 
plieity of dleftkiitiona, and witti ttie idei of ioliie particular 
nidiua beihg ftOeessiur^ to the ooiliplet& definition of the sine 
and coilne. But as he.prooeedadU he wiu alwaya uught to 
ftu^ypoae the vitdius a unit \ that i^ dlwtMra to.adopt that line 
ha a radius ^hich was agreed upoh to berenrasented by !• 
Henee he grkdualfy learned to fbrget hii first definition ; 
and, passing from geometry to arithmetic to uaa the follow- 
ing: PO b^ns ilni^, the aine of NOP is PN, which ia 
therefiffe fa anthmetie the fraetkm w^ich PN ia of PO; 
and the cosihe is the fraotioh which ON ia.of PO. If Q O 
had been used aa a uhit, thie rMult would, have been the 
same ; for by sAttUar trtiajKles^ RQ ia the same fraction nf 

In the mbat modem trijgionotteti^, and foSr cogent toaaona, 
the atvident ia neve^ for a moment allowed to imagine that 
i^e sine and cosine at^ in any manner keptesentieittvea of 
linctt. In a practical )i>oint of view, the final definition of 
the old trigen6metry oomcidea exactly with that of the new ; 
bnt the latter haa this advantage, that all subsef^uent geo- 
metrical fbrmuks are seen to be honu%ene6ha m a.muoh 
note distinct manner. The^ definition ia thia : The sine of 
NOPIanotNP, noranynumbertorepreabntNP^ it ia 
the fraetton Vhfeh N P ia of P O, considered as an abstract 
nutiatien Thaa if ON, NP* PO; be in tha prcmortionof 
3, 4, and 5)PN is|of OP: this|la theapoeof NOP, not 
I of any line, nor any line considered as i of a unit; but 
simblyi fb^lr-flfthsof an abatrtust unit. Bimiiatly the cosine 
is the ikctioa which ON ia of OP* In jast the same 
manner the abetract nnAbbr w, or 3*14159 ^^.t is not styled 
(as it used to b^) the circumfbrehoe of a circle wboae di- 
ameter is a unit, b«it the proportion of thb circihnference to 
the diaaieter, the number of timea which ois^xnreumference 
contains its diameter. We cannot too atrongly recommend 
th6 universal adoption of thia change of atyle, a alight 
matter with reference to iihere ealchlatioh of results, but 
one of considerable importance to a correcl understanding 
of the meaning of foi^ulie. 

The line O P being considered as positive [Sign], the 
signs 6f PN and NO deteHnine those of the sine and 
cosine ; and the manner in which the values of these frine- 
tions are determined When the angle ia hothUig, or one, two, 
or three right angles, ia eaiy enough. The finlowing abort 
table Embraces all thia resulu of s^i— • 

p t iTin IV 

Sine i-(-1 4-0-1 T- 6 
Cosine i^-o^i-O -ft. ^ 
Raid Ibis as fblloWS:— When the iftgle sO, the sine =0 ; 
from thence to a righ^ angle the sine ia positive: at the right 
angle the sine ii 4-1 » ftom theace to two r%ht inglea the 
sine is positive* ^ 

The fhndatnenial thaotdjtoa of the sine and coaiae. fton 
#hich all their pron^rties may be derived* arc% 
sin (a4-6) =s sin <t cosj^ -f o^a aii 6 
Bin (a-ft) s iin d dbs o — cos a^ 1] (> 
Cos ((r4-i^^ ^ c68 a COB 6 — aitt 4 sin t 
dM (!ai^y± m unm^ J^ «ilt«^aii^ 




«n whMi 4i«oraibs wt€ \nhtt eontaitied id wiTcm oitliMB, 
Ib'sobn Ik "tfatt oiia ii sbowQ to bl^ nnfTerially trto. ' It tr^ 
qutitntly liftftpens'bowover that <h« student is allowed to 
gtsuine the ui^ersal truth of these theorems upon too 
Slight a foffndation of previous proof: draVing a flgore for 
Ifttftanoi hi wbibh both loigres ar^ less than a right angle. 
Wft givo» ai an ivstanos^ the proof of the first Ibrtnula \vheb 
both^anglM Ire greater thali two right angles. Lot XO P 
iso,' FO Q is A Both angles bbing moasured in the direction 
of r^olttttott Indicated by the Urr«w. The sum is four rigbt 

and:le8 -fX'OQ, whidfa has thd 'same sfne ihd cosine^ as 

•.^-•"^ -?...•»- ' ...... *.' ., 

QM Qi . N» OS QN , NB NO 
QO?9|0 + <^0^4^ <to'''NO QO 

ByiimihrtTtaDgles =^ oStlo QQ'. 

Now. rememberUiK the magnitudigs of ^ and h, and the 
rure6rkipi'i8t«blteH«t>8'Sve' .■••''. ^^ 

FT PT . . QK 

eos^s f- 2^ I 

and substitution immediatel y gim the Irst foranuH. We 
shall not here'dwell on the linnor cofiseo^oes of these 
formuUB/butshidl refor to tiie ooHeetiob in TkisoifOVffn. 
The cooneotion of the sine and angle depeqds ih great pirt 
upon the foDowing theorem >-if#mar be made as small 
as we pteaM, sin i# : xn^r in made «v near to unity M w;e 

e^Mwe. C^Merre that this -^eorem, supposes the an^^ w to 
measured ^ the theoreiicftl unit EAicgsbI or thb angle 
I to be iheiu^le ofwhiek the ar^ asd ramus are' equal. 
Tfae-proof depei^ upon tbeassum^on tha| in the a^ioraing 
obvious QguVB Uio sto AB ii lessifasn its oontaining eontour 
▲€4>€S. It tfaeradhisOB^n weseOthat:»miistBe 
are AB : n or ABssrv. Also BlTsr fino^ BG±: 
Alft sr—r«oiap^%r definition. iSow the aro AB ii greater 

9 H 4 

than BM, and less than BM-fMA, or nv lies between 
r sin df and r sin op+r-^r 00* 4 oc^lios between sin '4? and 
sin:r+l— ocsitf; 

or between sm« and sin# + 



^•^ Sni^^ ^^"^^ * ^^ ^+ 1+^* 

^«ince, 02 ^idini^hipi; ifjAou^ lilflit, the difference be- 
tween I and X : sin x o^j^ip^e; wit^Qut limit, and tperefore 
ti^t hg^w^n I and sm' x:x' wbicn ^'a^ \q ^e proved, 
jfrofli' bencp jt fol%^^ ih^ I -cos a? and* j^of apprpacTi tp a 
^t^ of e<iualily, aj iiay ^p ^^!^^% proved hojs^ |n^ fSH^t*?*^ 
«■ / sin y\ ' % 

1 - w ^^Y\r^j ^-fQos^ 

in which the second and &ird foolers have unity for their 
limit 'Qende then, ^ben ^h very small, x and l^ior* 
lire very near representatives of the sitiO. an4 cbaii^ ; and 
the gooaness of the representation may1>e ihcreasea to any 
extent by dibainishing i?: ' ' 

The complete theory of the sine and cosine, firom and 
after the two theorems j^st established, depencb u|>bn the 
lotrodnetioii cit thd siphS^ ro^ of iti^ negative quantity. If 

we tlilce ordinatiy ilgebra only (as in NsoATiTi, ^bcl 'Quah* 
TiTiBS, p. 134,001;^], in wnkh' the impossible ohantHy is 
uniBX]^ame4, we have the mbst'oonnnoii mode of proceed- 
ing. The explanations afterwards given would mbke this 
theory the mo8t~ simple imaginable, to a student who had 
learned tdgehra flrom the begtm|infl^ m the manner pointed 
out. To take the middle course, let us assume the rules of 
algebra {OPBR4tioif] independently of the meanings of the 
symbols. Let ain x and~CQs x ^ deBued as * such func- 
tions of ^ that sin (x^yj gives sin x. cos y+cos a?, sin y, and 
cos <aB-f y)=cos a?. ^ y- sin x., sin y.* Observe that we do 
hot in thus defining say there are $uch functions ; we only 
say, ff there be such, let tnem have these names. Tlien, as 
in Nboatitb, &c. iiiod above, we see that if 0ar=s 
cos a?+V— x, ihe relation ^(ir+y)=0xX^ fol- 
lows; whence [Binoicui* Thbo^bm] ^x can be nothing 
but K', where K4s inde'peqde'^t ot m. Let^si, whence 
^1)=K, or we havd 

• 4(n'ir4-^-^I.ain«s(cos 1+V— 1)» ;•, (i) 
and^tinllarty It is Khown that ' 

cos a?— V— I . sin d?=(cos I — ^/— 1 . sin 1)# • . • OK). 

From these we get, by multiplication, - 

'l50^arH«smta?=r(cos*l+sin»l)»: W 

if it be possible>^4it cos' 1 +8in* Issl, then cos* df-fsin' x is 

idWaytr ^, or at' UkBt TRdor] we may' always take one 

patr'^f forms sktitfiyinguhis condition. Hence, making 

^ 1+V"1'W^ 1=?^ >?e ^ye C9{S l-^-l.^in l;:?e"* . 
anid thip IwQ ^uf^fioi^ g\yi 

cos jpss-^ 

e — e 

which will be found to satisfy all the conditions used in 



e^— Ca e — e 

i - 2,^-1 «V-^ 

JT-Hf < i y » — • y , — y 

9 , -*» sf -*y 


Tp deterihine what algebraical formula e must he, take tno 
univetaalfokAuliBi "■ ' ' 

€? =l+log e . a?+(log e)« ^+(l6g e)l ^+ . . . 

whenoe wO easily get from (4) 
. ' logo , dog e)» ir* (lege)* a^ 


1 +(loge)» Y+ Ooge)^, j^ +. 

Eiw e, ^ for as our definition^ have yet extendeds is 
boily ufidetermine(^, every value of e being applicable, 
e^'iis add to our conditions that sin x;x shall approach 
td uni^ a^ x is dimihistictd ^thout limit: but sin a; : a? ap- 
pfpjfhes \f^ ]og e: y-^; therefore log e=V-l, or 

e=2f* '• 

The preeedioff is purelv symbolical ; we merely ask how 
are' previous symbols, ttmrunder certain taws, to be put 
together so as to represent certain now symbols which are 
to haver ceHain pronsrties. Let us now lake the real geo- 
metrical meaning en sin x and cos x, and the complete sys- 
tem of algebiv, ini^ich V— 1 Ss'explamed [Nxgatitb, 
itc QuAKTiTiBsl. In that system, if a line equal to the 
unit-line be inclined to it at an angle ^ it b obviously 
represented by cds ar4- V— 1 . sin x, and any power of it, 
whole or fractional, can be obtained by changing x into mx, 

cos mx+ V— I • fin maf=(cos a?+ //— ] . sin a:)* 
is an immediate oons^uenoe of definition; and making 
opsl, the equation 

cos m+ V— 1 •sin «7}=(cos * -r V— 1 .sin ; 

follows at once. To prove that t^ and cos 1 + a/^\ 
sin Vare identical, in the most logical manner, requires a 
previous definition of an exponential quantity, in a sens'' 
so general, that exponents of the form a4-6 v- I ihall T 

S.I N 


S I N 

inoladed : without this, the new algehra just referred to is 
not free from the resulU of Intbrprbtation. 

However we may proeeed, the series above given for the 
line and cosine of x become 



cos Jf=l— -T- + 


2^ 2.3.4 
and these series are always convergent. Their present form 
depends entirely on the unit chosen ; if however by x we 
mean x*, x', or a/', we must write 

a* X* cfix* 
sm *=«^— 277+2737475-" • • • • 
a^ x^ a^ X* 
^»*=1"— 2"+ 27374 •"•••• 
where [Anou, p. 23] a is *0 1 745,32925 . . . ., '00029,08882, . . . ., 

*00000,48481, according as x means a number of degrees, 

of minutes, or of seconds. 

The preceding is enough on the fundamental meanings 
of these terms, and on their connection with algebra. Some 
applications will be seen in Trioonombtbt. 

SINE and COSINE. CURVES OF. By the curve of 
sines is meant that which has the equation yssin x, aud 
by the curve of cosines, that which has the equation yza 
cos J?: it beine understood that x stands for as many angu- 
lar units as there are linear units in the abscissa. The 
undulatory forms of these curves are easily established - and 
if the ordinate of a curve consist of several of them, as in 
y^a sin x+b cos x^c sin 2x, the several parts of the com- 
pound ordinate may be put U^ther in the same manner as 
that in which the simple undulations are compounded in 
Acoustics, p. 92. Except as expressing the most simple 
form of undulating curves, these equations are of no particu- 
lar use in geometry. 

SINE-CURB. Sine-cures are ecclesiastical benefices 
without cure of souls, and are of three sorts:-— I. Where the 
benefice is a donative [Bbnbficb, p. 220], and is com- 
mitted to the incumbent by the patron expressly without 
cure of souU the cure either not existing or being entrusted 
to a vicar ; this is the strictest sine-cure. 2. Certain cathe- 
dral offices, viz. the canonries and prebends, and, according 
to some authorities, the deanery. 3. Where a parish is desti- 
tute, by some accident, of parishioners ; this last kind has 
been called depopulations, rather than sine-cures. 

Rectors of a parish in which vicars were likewise esta- 
blished with cure of souls have often by degrees exempted 
themselves from their ecclesiastical functions, and so have 
obtained sine-cures ; but this is rather by abuse than legiti- 

Sine-cures are exempt from the statute of pluralities. 
(Burn's Ecclesiastical Law.) 
SINEW. [Tbndon.] 

SINGAPORE is a British settlement in the East Indies, 
situated at the most southern extremity of the Malay Penin- 
sula. It consists of the island of Singapore, and about fifty 
islets dispersed in the sea south and east of the principal 
island, or in what is called the Straits of Singapore. The 
territories of this settlement embrace a circumference of 
about a hundred miles, including the seas and straits within 
ten miles of the coast of the island of Singapore, and they 
lie between l"" 8' and l"* 32^ N. lat., and between 103"* 30' 
and 104^ lO'E. long. 

The island of Singapore occupies about half the space be« 
tween the two capes with which the Malay Peninsula ter^ 
minates on the south. Capes Buru and Ramiinia (commonly 
called Romania). It has an elliptical form, and is about 25 
miles in its greatest length from east to west, and 15 in its 
greatest width. It contains an estimated area of about 275 
square miles, and is about one-third larger than the Isle of 
wight. It is divided from the continent of Asia by a long 
and narrow strait called Salat Tabrao, or the old strait of 
Singapore. This strait is nearly forty miles long, and varies 
in width between two miles and a ouarter of a mile. At its 
western extremity, near the island of Marambong, it has 
only a depth of 2i fathoms, but farther east it is nowhere 
less than five fathoms deep. This strait was formerly navi- 
gated by vessels bound for the C^ina Seas ; but the advan- 
tages which the StraiU of Singapore offer for a speedy 
and safe navigation are so great, that the Salat Tabrao has 
not been used since the Straits of Singapore have become 

known. The last^tifentioned strftit extends along the south- 
ern coast of the island of Singapore, and the most navigable 
part lies within the British possessions. It is the high road 
between the eastern and western portions of maritime Asia. 
The surface of the island is gently undulating, here and 
there rising into low rounded hills of inconsiderable elevation. 
The higher ground rises in general not more than a hun- 
dred feet above the sea ; the highest hiU, called Bukit Tima, 
which is north-west of the town, but nearer the northern 
than the southern shores of the island, does not attain 
200 feet. The shores of the island are mostly low, and 
surrounded by mangrove-trees. In a few isolated places low 
rocks approach the sea, chiefly along the Salat Taorao. In 
several places however the coast is indented by salt creeks, 
which sometimes penetrate into the land three and even five 
or six miles. When the island was first occupied by the Bri- 
tish it was entirely, and is still for the greater part, covered 
with a forest composed of different kinds of trees, five or 
six of which are well adapted for every object of house- 
building. The soil of the interior is composed of sand and 
of clay iron-stone, mixed up with a large portion of vegetable 
matter, which gives it a very black appemnce. There is a 
general tendency to the formation of swamps. Rivulets are 
numerous, but they are of inconsiderable size. Their 
waters are almost always of a black colour, disagreeable 
taste, and peculiar odour, properties which they appear to 
derive from the peculiar nature of the superficial soil over 
which they pass, which in many parts resembles peatrmoss. 
The water however drawn from wells which are sunk lower 
than the sandy base is less sensibly marked by these dis- 
agreeable qualities. 

The climate of Sinjnpore is hot, but equable, the seasons 
varying very little. The atmosphere throughout the year 
is serene. The smooth expanse of the sea is scarcely ruffled 
by a wind. The destructive typhous of the China Sea, and 
the scarely less furious tempesU which oc-cur on the coasts 
of Hindustan, are not known. The tempests of the China 
Sea however sometimes occasion a considerable swell in the 
sea, and a similar but less remarkable effect is produced by 
a tempest in the Bay of Bengal. It is only in this way, and 
as it were by propaj^tion, that the sea is affiscted by remote 
tempests, ana their effects are particularly remarkable in 
the irregularity of the tides, wnich at times run in one 
direetion for several days successively, and with great ra- 
pidttv. In the numerous narrow channels which divide the 
smaller islands, their rapidity is sometimes so great that it 
resembles water issuing through a sluice. The regular and 
periodical influence of the monsoons is slightly felt, the 
winds partaking more of the nature of land and sea breezes. 
To these circumstances must be attributed the great uni- 
formity of the temperature, the absence of a proper con- 
tinual and periodical rainy season, and the more frequent 
fall of showers. Few days elapse without the occurrence 
of rain. According to an average of four years, the num- 
ber of rainy days was 185, and that of dry only 180. The 
greatest quantity of rain fells in December and January, 
and the smallest in April and May. These frequent rains 
keep the island in a state of perpetual verdure. 

The thermometer ranges during the year between 72^ 
and 88^ The mean annual temperature is 807^ of Fah- 
renheit. In the four months succeeding February it rises to 
82'50^ and in the four months succeeding October it sinks to 
79^ The daily range of the thermometer never exceeds 
ten degrees. Crawfurd states that the climate of Singa- 
pore is remarkably healthy, which he attributes to the free 
ventilation that prevails, and to the almost entn*e absence 
of chilling land-winds, but Newbold thinks that it is not so 
healthy as Malacca, and he ascribes this to the less regular 
alternations of the land and sea breezes. 

Singapore is not rich in agricultural productions. No 
part of it was cultivated when the British took possession of 
the place, and at first the soil was considered ill adapted for 
agricultural purposes. But it now appears that consider- 
able tracts near the town have been cleared by the Chinese, 
and that this industrious people have succeeded in culti- 
vating different kinds of fruits and vegetables, rice, cof* 
fee, sugar, cotton, and especially pepper and the betel- 
vine (Piper siriboa). Only the summits of the higher 
grounds are barren, but on their slopes and in the depres- 
sions between them the soil frequently has a considerable 
degree of fertility. Tropical fruits succeed very well, such 
as the mangusteen, pine-apple, cocoa-nut, orange, and 
mango. The mango is founa wild in the forests. The tro- 

S I N 


S I N 

pical vegetables, ag the egg-plant, different kinds of pulse, 
the yam, the batata, different varieties of cucumber, and 
some others, grow very well, but the climate is too hot for 
most European vegetables. The produce of the paddy- 
fields, as well as of the orchards, is far from being sufficient 
for home consumption, and accordingly large quantities of 
rice are imported from Sumatra and Java, and fruits from 

The animals of Europe have been introduced, but most of 
them are few in number, as pasture-grounds are scarce. 
The Chinese however keep a great number of hogs. None 
of the large quadrupeds of the continent of Asia, such as 
elephants, rhinoceroses, tigers, and leopards, are met with on 
the island, but there are several kinds of monkeys, bats, and 
squirrels ; also the Ictides, the porcupine, the sloth {Brady' 
pm didaciylush the pangolin, the wild hog, and two species 
of deer, the Moschtu pygmaew, which is smaller than an 
English hare, and the ludian roe {Cervus mut^ac). Some- 
times the dugong (HcUicora dugong) is taken in the straits. 
It is ten or twelve feet long, and the flesh is considered for 
flavour and delicacy not inferior to beef: the skin is as 
strong; as that of the hippopotamus. Birds are numerous, 
especially different kinds of passeres, climbers, and waders, 
particularly the first, which are remarkable for their no- 
velty and beauty. Tortoises are common. The coral reefs 
and shoals in the vicinity of Singapore furnish that delicate 
fern-like sea-weed called aggar-aggar {Fiicui Saccharinus) 
in abundance, and it forms an article of considerable export 
to China, where it is used in thin glues and varnishes. It 
is made into a very fine jelly by Europeans and the native 
Portuguese. The average annual produce is 6000 peculs, or 
7980 cwt., and it is sold at three dollars the pecul. 

In 1819, when the British took possession of the islands, 
the population amounted to about 1 50 individuals, mostly 
fishermen and pirates, who lived in a few miserable huts ; 
about thirty of these were Chinese, the remainder Malays. 
The first census was taken in 1 824, and then the population 
amounted to 10,683 individual!. Since that period it has 
constantly been increasing, and at the census of 1836 it was 
found to amount to 29,984 individuals. More than half of 
the population were settled in the town of Singapore, 
vhich contained 16,148 individuals, of whom there were 
12.74S males and 3400 females. West of the town only 
a few settlements occur along the southern shores of the 
island, and on some of the small islands near the coast 
These settlements constitute the district of Singapore town, 
and contained in 1836 only 4184 individuals, viz. 2338 Chi- 
nese, of whom forty-one only were females, and 1765 
Malays, of whom 759 were females ; and the remainder, 
wiih a trifling exception, Klings and Bugis. The country 
east of the town, which is named the District of Kampong 
61am, contains a greater number of settlements, and they 
extend to the shores of the Salat Tabrao, and the islands of 
Tekong and Pulo Ubin, which lie within the strait. In 
this district there were 9652 individuals, viz, 4288 Malays, 
of whom 2050 were females; 3178 Chinese, of whom 72 
only were females ; 1515 Bugis, of whom 672 were females ; 
and the remainder 671 were made up of Javanese, Balinese, 
and a few Bengalees and Klings. The islands of Tekong 
and Ubin contained 1901 inhabitants. 

The population is composed of nearly all the nations of 
Southern Asia and the Indian Archipelago, among whom 
a small number of individuals of European origin have set- 
tled, as appears from the following table, which also shows 
the increase of the population in two years, and the dispro- 
portion between males and females: — 

Population of the Island qf Singapore in 1834 and 1836. 

NatioMConititutiogUM ^834. 1836. 

Ptopulation. MalM. Ftmalef. Males. Famalet. 

Europeans, nearly all 

Britons • . 100 38 105 36 

Indo-Britons . . 55 58 65 52 

Native Christians, 

mostly Portuguese . 186 140 224 201 

Armenians . . 32 12 26 8 

Jews ... 6 4 

Arabs ... 55 11 33 8 

Malays . . . 5,173 4,279 5,122 4,510 
Chinese . • . 9.944 823 12,870 879 

Natives of the Coast 

of Coromandel, Chu- 

liahs, and Klings 

(Telingas) . . 1,659 69 2,246 102 

P. C, No. 1364. 








Natives of Hindustan 










Bugis and Balinese • 





Caffres . 





Siamese • 

• • 

• • 



Parsees . 

• • 

• • 


• • 

19,432 0,897 22,755 7,229 

These censuses do not include the military, their follow- 
ers, nor the convicts, as Singapore is a place of banishment 
from Calcutta and other parts of Hindustan. The number 
of these classes of inhabitants may be estimated at about 
12U0. The Europeans and Chinese constitute the wealthier 
classes. The Europeans are for the most part merchants, 
shopkeepers, and agents ibr mercantile houses in Europe. 
Most of the artisans, labourers, agriculturists, and shop- 
keepers are Chinese. The Malays arc chiefly occupied m 
fishing, collecting sea-weed, and cutting timber, and many 
of them are employed as boatmen and sailoi-s. The Bugis 
are almost invariably engaged in commerce, and the natives 
of India as petty shopkeepers, boatmen, and servants. The 
Chuliahs and Klings are dailv labourers, artisans, and petty 
traders. The Caffres are the descendants of slaves, who 
have been brought by the Arabs from the Arabian and 
Abyssinian coasts. The most useful are the Chinese set- 
tlers. A common Chinese labourer gets from four to six 
Spanish dollars a month, a Kling from three to four and a 
half, and a Malay from two and a half to four and a half. 
A Chinese carpenter will earn about fifteen dollars a 
month, a Kling eight, and a Malay only five. The immi- 
gration of the Chinese is much favoured by circumstances. 
Among the dense population of China there are many pau- 
pers, who are a burden to the state, and the government 
connives at the poorer classes quitting the country, though 
it is contrary to their antient laws. The poor Chinese 
leaves his country without a penny, and agrees with the 
captain of the junk to pay firom eight to twelve dollars for 
the passage. On landing he enters into one of the secret 
societies, which are always formed by the Chinese, and the 
society pays the passage-money and engages his services. 
In three months he has generally paid his debt, and then 
he begins to make his fortune. The Chinese emigrants at 
Singapore and Penang are mostly from Canton, Macao, or 
Fokien. Many of those of Fokien become merchants, and 
show a strong propensity to speculate largeljt The Canton 
emigrants are the best miners and artisans. 

It is very probable that the population of the settlement 
now (1841) amounts to more than 36,000 individuals, which 
gives more than 130 individuals to a square mile, which is 
a considerable population even in a country that has been 
settled for centuries, and is certainly a very surprising 
population in a country which twenty years ago was a 

The town of Singapore stands on the southern shores of 
the island, in 1' 17^ 22" N. lat. and 103* 51' 45" E. long., 
on a level and low plain of inconsiderable width, fronting 
the harbour. It extends about two miles along the shore, 
but only a thousand yards inland, where it is enclosed by 
hills from 100 to 150 feet high. The commercial portion of 
the town occupies the most western extremity, and is se- 
parated from tue other parts by a salt creek, called the Sin- 
gapore river, which is navigable for small craft. A good 
wooden bridge connects it with the eastern part, which con- 
tains the dwellings of the Europeans, the public ofiiices, and 
the military cantonments. Contiguous to this portion of 
the town is the government-house, which is built on a hill. 
The most eastern part is oecupied by the sultan of Johore, 
the Malavs, and Bugis. The whole of the warehouses, and 
all the dwelling-houses in the principal streets in their 
vicinity, are built of brick and Hme, and roofbd with red tiles. 
The more distant dwelling-houses are built of wood, but 
roofed with tiles. It is only on the distant outskirts of the 
town that there are huts with thatched roofs. The Malays 
and Bugis live in huts. The population (16,148 individuals) 
consisted, in 1836, of 8233 Chinese, 361 7 Malays, 2157 Chu- 
liahs and Klings, and the remainder was made up by Java- 
nese, Bengalees, Bugis, native Cliristians, and Europeans. 
Ships lie in the roads of Singapore at the distance of from 
one to two miles from the town, according to their draught. 
With the assistance of lighters, cargoes are discharged and 
taken in with scarcely any interruption throughout the year. 

Vol.. XXIL— G 



S I N 

The lighten convey the goods to the river of Singapore, 
where they discharge them at a convenient quay, and at the 
door of the principal warehouses. There is no want of com- 
mon artisans. The Chinese follow the occupations of shoe- 
makers, hakers, butchers, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, gold- 
smiths, and carpenters ; they also manufacture pearl sago 
on an extensive scale, for the European market, the mate- 
rial being obtained from the island ef Sumatra. They also 
employ a great number of forges, in which native arms 
and domestic and agricultural implements are made. These 
latter articles are mostly sent to the settlements of the 
Chinese on the different islands of the Indian Archipe- 

The principal public buildings At Singapote are the go- 
vernment-house, a court-house, a gaol, custom-house. Mis- 
sion chapel, and the Singapore Institution. Sir Stamford 
Raffles formed a very extensive plan for ttiis institution, 
which however has not been earned into effect. At present 
t consists of three schools, English, Malay, and Tamul, and 
the number of scholars amounts to upwards of seventy. A 
Chinese school on a large scale was contemplated in 1837, 
and has probably been opened. Some Chinese youths are 
to be admitted as students, to reside at the institution, and 
to receive instruction both in English and Chinese for a term 
of four or five years. There are several native schools in the 

If the commerce of Singapore were litoitea to the pro- 
duce of the place, it would hardly give employment to two 
or three vessels. Besides the pearl sago and the iron im- 
plements, it exports only a small quantity of pepper and 
gambier, and perhaps at present coffee of its own growth, 
together with a large quantity of aggar-aggar. But Sin^- 
pore has become the London of Southern Asia and the In- 
dian Archipelago. All the nations that inhabit the countries 
bordering on the Indian Ocean resort to it with the produce 
of their agriculture and manufacturing industry, and take 
in exchange such goods as are not grown or produced in 
their own countries. All of them find there a ready market, 
which at the same time is well stocked with European 
goods. This effect has partly been produced by the wise 
policy of declaring the harbour of Singapore a free port, in 
which no export or import duties, noi: any anchorage, har- 
bour, nor lighthouse fees are levied. The effect of this 

lolicy was evident even at the beginning of the settlement. 

n the first year the exports and imports by native boats 
alone. exceeded four millions of dollars, and during the first 
year and a Imlf no less than 2889 vessels entered and 
cleared from tne port, of which 383 were owned and com- 
manded by Europeans, and 2506 by natives : their united 
tonnage amounted to 161,000 tons. In 1822 the tonnage 
amounted to 130,689 tons, and the total value of exports 
and imports to upwards of eight millions of dollars. 

Number and tonnage ofecpare'Tigged veesels which entered 
into and cleared at the port (f Singapore in 1835 and 






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According to this statement the numher of vessels which 
entered the port in 1836 exceeded the number in 1835 bv 
22, and by 9540 tons ; and the number of vessels which 
cleared out in the first-mentioned year exceeded that of the 
preceding year by 16, and by 9443 tons. This statement 
however does not include the native craft, which are largely 
used in the intercourse with Sumatra, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Rhio, Borneo, and the neighbouring islands, and which 
in 1836 amounted to 1484, of 37,521 tons. If these are 
added, the shipping that entered the port in 1836 amounted 
to 203,574 tons. 

The commerce of the newly established colony increased 
at first with incredible rapidity. In the year 1824, oi&ly 
five years after its foundation, the imports amounted to 
6,914.536 Spanish dollars, and the exports to 6,604,601. In 
the following year however it suflered some slight diminu- 
tion, and it may be said that it has beeb nearly stationary 
since that period ; for in 1835 the imports amounted only to 
6,61 1,778 dollars, and the exports to 6,238,131. In the for- 
mer account however the exports to and the imports from 
Malacca and Penang probably were included, whilst they 
were not taken into account in 1836. In this year goods to 
the value of 160,970 dollars were imported from Malacca, a tid 
others anaounting to 168,867 dollars exported to that settle- 
ment. The commercial intercoui'se with Penang was much 
more important ; the goods imported from that settlement 
were to the value of 426,176 dollars; and those that were 
exported rose to 544,640 dollars. If these sums are added, 
the exports in 1835 amounted to 7,325,285 dollars, and the 
imports to 6,825,277 ; and the whole commerce exceeded 
that of 1824 by 631,425 dollars. From 1835 an increase 
both in imports and exports took place ; for in the year end- 
ing with the 30th of April, 1837, the imports amounted to 
8,243,629 doliai'S, and the exports to 7,806,965 dollars, ex- 
clusive of the trade with Malacca and Penang, so that the 
difference between that year and the preceding was 1, 900^032 
Spanish dollars. 

The commerce of Singapore may be divided into the 
Eastern trade, that of the Straits, and the Western trade. 
The Eastern trade, or that which is carried on with the 
countries east and south-east of Singapore, comprehendi 
the commerce with China, the Spanish settlement of Ma- 
nilla, the independent ti'ibes of the Indian Archipelago, the 
Dutch settlements on the island of Java and at Rhio, and 
the countries of the Peninsula beyond the Ganges which 
lie east of the Malay Peninsula. The most important 
branches of this commerce are those with China, Java, and 

The commerce with China is entirely carried on in 
Chinese vessels. The Chinese junks come from the ports 
of Canton, Changlim, and Ampo, in the province of Quan- 
tong, from Amoy in the province of Fokien, and from th« 
island of Hainan. They leave their respective ports during 
the north-east monsoon, about January, and return with the 
south-west monsoon, which blows fi-om April to October. 
They perform the voyage from Canton in from 10 to 20 days, 
and from Fokien in 12 or 15 days. The most valuable, but 
not the largest of the Chinese junks are fh)m Amoy; the 
largest come from the province of Quantong, and the 
smallest and least valuable from Hainan. They bring an- 
nually from 2000 to 2500 emigrants to Singapore. The 
imporU from China amounted, m the year ending the 30th 
of April, 1836, to 712,265 dollars; the most important ar- 
ticles were Spanish dollars. 138,927 in number; raw silk, 
113,942 dollars; chinaware. 93,902; lea, 57,509; tobacco, 
47.239; cassia, 93,092; nankeens. 25,715; and gold- 
thread, 11,016 dollars. Minor articles were camphor, 
copperware, earthenware, ironware, paints, piece-goods, 
salt, sugar-candy, and woollens. The imports entered under 
the head of sundries amounted to 152,440 dollars. The ex- 

Sorts to China amounted in the same year to 1,079.752 
ollars. and consisted chiefly of opium and such articles as 
had been brought to Singapore from the Indian archipelago 
Next to opium, which amounted to 252,327 doilan, the most 
important articles were edible birds'-nesls, to the amount lof 
162.852 ; tin, 1 1 7,386 ; and trepang, 74,723 dollars. Rice wAs 
sent there to the amount of 59,408 ; pepper. 56,023 ; betcA- 
nut, 44,962; and ratans, 36,019 dollars. Other articles of 
importance were woollens (25.064 d.)> European piece-goods 
(20,796 d.), cotton-twist (18,100 d.), raw cotton (16,155 d.), 
aggaraggar (16.100 d.). camphor barus (16.155 d.), spioes 
(ll,314d.), tortoise-shell (12,684 d.),sandal-wood(l 1,143 d.), 
and lakka-wood (10,900 d.). Minor articles were antimony. 

S I N 



birds' feathers, canvas, dragon's-blood, gambier, gold-dust, 
glassware, European gold thread, hides, garro-wood, spirits, 
and sundries. Spanish dollars were sent to China to the 
qumber of 21,864. 

The commerce between Singapore and Manilla is carried 
QD pajrtly by Spanish and partly by American and English 
Tassels. In the year ending on the 30th of April, 1836, the 
imports from that settlement into Singapore amounted to 
166,086 dollars, of which cigars constituted more than one- 
half the amount, viz. 89.468 dollars. Sugar was brought to 
the amount of 23,190 dollars, and the other minor articles 
were trepang, cotton, hides, indigo, mother-of-pearl shells, 
Qi\s, wines, sapan-wood (8802 d.), spirits, and sundries (8842 
4.). Cowries were imported to the amount of 2252 dollars, 
and also 3000 dollars. 

The trade with Celebes is almost exclusively in the hands 
of the Bugis of Waju, a country on the western side of 
that island, the inhabitant of which have colonized many 
islands of the Indian Archipelago^ and carry on what may 
be called the foreign trade of the countries in which they 
have settled. They disperse the goods obtained at Singa- 
pore over most of the islands east of Celebes, as far as the 
30ast of New Guinea, and also over that chain of islands called 
the Lesser Suuda Islands. [Sunda Islands.] Their coun- 
try vessels, called prahus, arrive at Singapore during the 
prevalence of the eastern monsoon. The goods brought by 
the Buflris from Celebes in 1835 amounted to 214,703 dol- 
lars. The most important articles were tortoise-shell 
(61,878 d.), gold-dust (23.230 d.), mother-of-pearl shells 
(21,277 d.), coffee (14,098 d.), trepang (12.755 d.). birds*- 
nests (10,190 d.}, and rice (lO.oOl d.). Minor articles were 
birds* feathers and birds of paradise, bees*-wax, hides, oils, 
paddy, ratans, aggar-aggar, spices, and tobacco. The importa- 
tion of sundries amounted to 23,287 dollars, and 21,650 
dollars in specie were also brought to Singapore. The value 
of the goods exported to Celebes was 339,966 dollars, and the 
principal articles were derived from Europe and Hindustan, 
m. opium (71*162 d.), India piece-goods (66,236 d.), Euro- 
pean piece-goods (47,881 d.). cotton-twist (44,244 d.), and 
popper coin brought from England (12,076 d.). The expor- 
tation of raw silk (1 7,498 d.) and of gambier (13,334 d.) was 
also considerable. Minor articles were arms, benjamin, 
or benzoin, chinawate, earthenware, gold thread, ivory, iron 
and steel (7315 d.) ironware and cutlery (5510 d.)> nan* 
keens, stick-lac, tobacco (7569 d.)» and woollens (7547 d.). 
Besides, there went 8792 dollars in specie and 4000 Java 

The commerce between Singapore and the northern coast 
of Borneo is almost exclusively carried on by native vessels, 
many of which are of great size ; some of them are managed 
by Bugis. The articles imported from that island in 1 835 
amounted to 268,074 dollars. The most important article was 
{(old-dust, to the value of 128,748 dollars. Other articles of 
importance were edible birds*-nests (30,355 d.). ratans 
(28,776 d.), antimony-ore (24,872 d.). pepper (17,847 d.), 
and camphor barus (10,478 d.). Minor articles were sago 
(9102 d.), tortoise-shell (8624 d.), bees'-wax (8360 d.), tre- 
pang (5067 d.), ebony, hides, rice, sugar, tobacco, garro- 
wood (5957 d.), and lakka-wood (4472 d). The sundries 
.amounted to 7137 dollars, and the dollars in specie to 5290. 
The goods exported to Borneo were to the value of 231,342 
dollars. The largest articles were India piece-goods (1 1 0,934 
d.), opium (73,490 d.), nankeens (17,311 d.), Malay piece- 

foods (17,024 d.), and European piece-goods (9150 d.). 
'here were also arms (5507 d.), iron and steel (6775 d ). iron- 
ware and cutlery (4449 d.), raw silk (5155 d.), china-ware 
(3138d.). ganabier (3792 d.), cotton-twist (2627 d.), gun- 
powder (2001 d.). and China sundries (2309 d.). Minor 
articles were trepang, benjamin, earthenware, ivory, rice, 
aalt, saltpetre, stick-lac, tea, tobacco, woollens, Java and 
Eastern sundries. To these were added 9389 dollars in 
ipecie, Java rupees to the amount of 4840 dollars, and cop- 
per coin to the amount of 100 dollars. 

An active commerce is carried on between Singapore and 
the rival settlement of the Dutch at Rhio. [Rjwo.J The 
imports into Singapore from that place amounted, in 1 835, 
to 111.395 dollars, of which the pepper alone amounted to 
82,483 dollars, and the rice to 1 2,349. Minor articles were 
bees'- wax, cotton, gambier, hides, sugar, tin (2700 d.), and 
Java sundries; there were also 7933 dollars in specie im- 
ported. The exports to Rhio amounted to 167,461 dollars, 
and consisted especially of dollars in specie (84,882), Euro- 
pean piece-goods (25,938 d.), India piece-goods (16,940 d.), 

rioe (12.911 d.), and opium (5252 d.). Minor articles wera 
anchors and grapnels, arms, chinaware, ebony, iron and 
steel, lead, oils, paints, ratans, raw silk, sago, salt, spelter, 
tea, lakka-wooa, and sundries, with Java rupees amounting 
to 400 dollars. 

The direct compaeree between Singapore and Java is 
limited to the three ports of Batavia. Samarang, and Sura- 
baya, but European and India goods may be snipped from 
these places to any other Dutch settlement on the island of 
Java, or on the other islands of the Archipelago, the Mo- 
luccas excepted. The exports of Java to Singapore, in 1 835, 
amounted to 876,321 dollars. The most considerable articles 
were— tin (155,527 d.), European piece-goods (142,317 d.), 
birds*-nests (101,949 d.), and rice (86,479 d.). Next to these 
were tobacco (44,1 39 d.), spices (4 1,845 d.), ratans (34,589 d.), 
spints, especially hollands (26,938 d.), Java sundries 
(26.145 d.), pepper (18.176 d.), sandal-wood (18,490 d.), 
sugar (17,043 d.), gold-dust (14,523 d ), cotton (10,751 d.), 
and tortoise-shell (10,059 d.). The importations were^ 
woollens (9394 dollars), European sundries (8088 d.), ar- 
rack (7856 d.)> hides (7519 d.), glassware (6275 d.), 
mother-of-pearl shells (5308 d.), and cotton-twist (4223 d.). 
Minor articles were camphor, camphor barus, coffee, cop- 
per-ware, copper sheathing, ebony, ivory, indigo, oils, paints, 
provisions, spelter, stick-lac, sugar-candy, tea, wine, garro- 
wood, and Eastern sundries. There were also brought to 
Singapore 48,374 dollars in specie, Java rupees to the 
amount of 4709 dollars, doubloons (980 dollars), and cow- 
ries (150 dollars). The exports from Singapore to the 
ports of Java were of the value of 568,470 dollars. The most 
valuable articles were India piece-goods (135,900 d.), 
opium (118,495 d.), and China sundries (70,790 d.). 
Next to these were raw silk (40,135 d.), cigars (27,112 d.), 
china-ware (22,336 d.), gunnies (15,252 d.), tea (14,310 d.), 
wheat (11,749 d.), and nankeens (10,994 d.); Euro-' 
pean sundries (9231 d.), China piece-goods (7617 d.), India 
sundries (7308 d.), copper (6433 d.), pepper (6014 d.), 
iron and steel (5537 d.), Straiu sundries (4935 d.), tobacco 
(4829 d.), saltpetre (4449 d.), tin (4000 d ), and cassia 
(3340 d.) Minor articles were arms, benjamin, bees*- wax, 
canvas, cordage^ dragons*-blood, earthenware, glue, glass- 
ware, gunpowder, ivory, lead, oils, provisions, European 
piece-goods, Malay piece-goods, sago, stick-lac (3758 d.), wool- 
lens, and American sundries (2052 d.). There are still to 
be added 7024 dollars in specie, and Java rupees to the 
amount of 2000 dollars. 

The island of Bally, whose surface does not much exceed 
2000 square miles, sent to Singapore goods to the amount of 
59,724 dollars, of which the rice alone fetched 37,274 dol- 
lars ; the tobacco 8288 d., the tortoise-shell 4021 d., and the 
edible birds* -nests 2755 d. Minor articles were trepang, 
bees*- wax, coffee, hides, sandal-wood, and Eastern sundries 
(1230 d.) ; also 4270 dollars in specie. The goods exported 
from Singapore to Bally amounted to 65,073 dollars, and 
consisted especially of opium f24,264 d.), copper coin 
(13,339 d.), India piece-goods (10,119 d.), and European 
piece-goods (4583 d.), with several minor articles, as arms, 
chinaware, earthenware, gold thread, ivory, ironware, China 
piece-goods, raw silk, woollens, and China sundries, with 
200 dollars in specie. 

The commerce between Singapore and the several islands 
which lie in the sea between the settlement and Java, in- 
cluding Banca, is also considerable. The goods brought 
from them amounted to 133.536 dollars. The larger arti- 
cles were tin (47,461 d.), trepang (10,662 d.), India sundries 
(7942 d.). Eastern sundries (5622 d.), pepper (5689 d.), aggar- 
aggar (4869 d.), and tortoise-shell (4882 d.). Minor articles 
were bees'-wax, birds* nests, chipaware. coffee, ebony, ghee, 
gambier, go,ld-dust, gram, oils, paddy (3612 d.), ratans, rice, 
sago, tobacco, wheat, ^arro-wood, and sapai^-wood. There 
were also 12,296 dollars in specie sent to Singapore. The 
export? from our settlements amounted to 101,180 dollars, 
and consisted principally of opium (18,528 d), India piece- 
goods (12,450 d.), rice (11.902 d.), raw silk (685^8 d-.), 
European piece-goods (5829 d.), and Malay piece goods 
(5047 d.). Minor articles were anchors* arms, cotton- twist, 
earthenware, gambier, gold thread, gunpowder, iron and steel, 
ironware, nankqens, oSs, sago, stica-lfic, sugar, tea, tobacco 
(2500 d.), wheat, garro-wood, spirits, and sundries. Besides, 
17,110 dollars in specie and 300 dollars in copper coin 
were exported. 

The commerce between Singapore and Siam is mostly 
carried on by the Chinese who 4re settled in that countr' 


S I N 


S 1 N 

Ind ih Jutika built at Bangkok and other places. The im- 
ports from Siam amounted, in the year terminating with the 
30th of April, 1836, to 282,019 dollars. The principal 
articles were sugar (114,453 d.), rice (43,330 d.), stick-lac 
(18,264 d.), iron-ware (12,379 d.), sapan-wood (1 1,674 d.), 
oils (8485 d.), salt (7959 d.) and Eastern sundries (6483 d.). 
Minor articles were china-ware (2147 d.), hides, ivory, paddy, 
India piece-goods, raw silk, sugar-candy (2250 d.), tea, 
spirits, and (jhina sundries. The imported silver consisted 
of 12.120 dollars, and ticals to the amount of 35,913 dollars. 
The goods imported into Siam were of the value of 180,604 
dollars. The principal articles were European piece-goods 
(58.155 d-X India piece-goods (26,845 d), cotton-twist 
(19,913 d.), opium (18,925 d.), ratans (9533 d.), ebony 
(9200 d.), bees'-wax (8475 d.), woollens (5085 d.), gambier 
(4708 d.), and iron and steel (4560 d.). Minor articles were 
anchors, arms, betel-nut, earthenware, lead, lakka-wood, 
and European, India, China, and Eastern sundries. Only 
400 dollars, and cowries to the amount of 100 dollars, were 
sent to Siam. 

The commerce with Cochin China is much less consider- 
able. It is likewise carried on by the Chinese settled at 
Kangkao and Saigun in Camboja, and at Quinhon, Faifo, 
and Hu6 in Cochin China. In 1835 the imports from these 
places amounted to 62,319 dollars, and consisted chiefly of 
sugar (27,055 d.), rice (10,356 d.), copper (9300 d.), and 
salt (4388 d.), with some ebony, indigo (2970 d.), iron, oils, 
raw silk, tea, and Eastern sundries. The exports amounted 
to 91,073 dollars, and the principal articles were woollens 
(28,534 d.) and opium (26,019 d.). The other articles, as 
arms, canvas, copper sheathing, gambier (4708 d.), iron, 
iron- ware (2485 d.), lead, piece-goods, ratans, saltpetre, 
lipelter, tea, tobacco, sapan-wood, European sundries (3267 
d.), and China and Eastern sundries, amounted in general to 
bmall sums ; but 9500 dollars in specie were exported. 

The commerce of the Straits is carried on with the Malay 
Peninsula and with the island of Sumatra. The harbours 
on the eastern side of the peninsula, which trade with 
Singapore, are Pahang, Tringanu, and Calantan, and this 
trade is rathor active. The trade with the western coast of 
the peninsula is not important, and is almost entirely 
limited to the harbour of Salangore. In )835 the imports 
from these places to Singapore were 319,134 dollars. The 
most valuable articles were gold-dust (145,040 d.) and tin 
(107,670 d.). Pepper amounted to 11,273 dollars, and sugar 
to 4210 dollars. The other articles were trepang, bees'- wax, 
biids'-nesttt, coffee, ebony, ghee, hides, ivory, iron-ware, 
ratans (2216 d.), raw silk, rice, stick-lac, tortoiseshell,garro- 
wood, lakka-wood, and several other articles; 31,313 dol- 
lars were also imported. The exports in 1835 amounted to 
316,370 dollars. The principal article was opium, to the 
amount of 169,348 dollars, and next to it followed cotton- 
twist (40,867 d.), tobacco (30,034 d.), Malay piece-goo^s 
(21,538 d.), European piece-goods (14,994 d.), and India 
piece-goods (9474 d.)* Minor articles were arms, bees'-wax, 
cotton, earthenware, gambier, iron and steel (3431 d.), iron- 
ware and cutlery, raw silk, salt, and several sundries. There 
were also 14,4U8 dollars sent from Singapore to these ports. 

The commerce between Singapore and the island of Su- 
matra is almost entirely limited to the ports along the 
eastern coast of the island ; there is hardly any commercial 
intercourse with the Dutch settlements of Bencoolen, Padang, 
and Trappanuli, which are on the western coast. The com- 
merce of the eastern coast is divided between Singapore and 
Penang. The ports south of the free port of Batu Bara send 
their goods to Singapore, whilst those which are farther 
north visit Penang. The harbours connected with the firsts 
named settlement are Cam par. Slack, Indragiri, lam- 
bie, Assahau, and Batu Bara. The goods imported from 
these places amounted to the sum of 130.921 dollars. The 
principal articles were coffee (44,842d.), betel-nut (24,946 d.), 
cotton (12,134 d.), sago (10.972 d.), ratans (8261 d.) gold- 
dust (5936 d.), and benjamin (4652 d.). Minor articles were 
trepang, bees'-wax (3712 d.), dragon's-blood, gambier, 
hides, ivoiy, iron, iron- ware, mother-of-pearl shells, paddy. 
pepper, hc« (3682 d.), spices, tortoise- shell, lakka-woorl, and 
several sundries. There were also sent to Singapore 1250 
dollar^ and Jav^ rupees to the amount of 300 dollars. The 
goods exDorted to these places amounted to the value of 
165,601 dollars. The principal articles were India piece- 
goods (37,774 d.), European piece-goods (16,443 d.), raw-silk 
(12,680 d.) opium (1 1,767 d.), Malay piece goods (10,837 d.), 
China sundries (8995 d.), irpn (6390 d.), and 9aU (3915 d.). 

Minor articles were arms (2475 d.), brass-ware, chma-wara 
(3196 d.). copper sheathing, cotton-twist, earthenware, gold 
thread, gunpowder, iron-ware, nankeens, oils, stick-lac, tea, 
tobacco, wheat, woollens, and several Sundries. There were 
also sent to Sumat4-a 26,906 dollars, and Java rupees to the 
amount of 1800 dollars. 

The western trade of Singapore comprehends that with 
Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, the island of Ceylon, and 
Arabia, with the Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, and Aus- 
tralia, and with Europe and America. In the commerce 
which is carried on between Singapore and Calcutta larger 
capitals are employed than in that with China or Great 
Britain. The imports from Calcutta amounted, in 1835, to 
1,191,390 dollars. The principal article was opium, of 
which 1640 chests, of the value of 957,855 dollars, were 
imported. Next to it were India piece-goods, which 
amounted to 135,679 dollars; gunnies (24,745 d.), cot- 
ton (21,060 d.), rice (14,042 d.), wheat (13,978 d.), India 
sundries (8024 d.), and saltpetre (7451 d.). The other arti- 
cles, as brass-ware, canvas, copper-ware, cordage, copper 
sheathing, ebony, ghee, hides, mother-of-pearl shells, 
tobacco, and European sundries, amounted only to small 
sums. The exports from Singapore to Calcutta were to 
the value of 876,851 dollars. The most valuable article 
was gold-dust, which amounted to 473.565 dollars. Tin 
was sent to the amount of 69,045 dollars, pepper 44,839 d., 
cigars 29,550 d., European piece-goods 20,669 d., sapan- 
wood 18,829 d., spirits 17,992 d., ratans 13,465 d., gambier 
10,230 (1., Java sundries 8402 d., spices 6333 d.. Eastern 
sundries 5721 d., canvass .5931 d., cotton- twist 5619 d., 
European sundries 4712 d., and tea 4510 d. Minor articles 
were anchors and grapnels (2014 d.), arms, benjamin, bees'- 
wax, betel-nut (3589 d.). cassia (3951 d.), copper, cordage, 
glass-ware, iron and steel, sago (3142 d.), sugar-candy, to- 
bacco, wine, sandal-wood, woollens, and India, China, and 
American sundries (3916 d.)- From Singapore there were 
sent to Calcutta 70.189 dollars, sicca rupees to the amount 
of 5092 dollars, Java rupees 1943 dollars, sycee silver 650 
dollars, ticals 25,004 dollars, sovereigns 475 dollars, gold 
mohurs 93 dollars, and cowries 2989 dollars. 

The commerce with Madras is much less important. The 
imports from that place to Singapore amounted only to 
151,133 dollars. The largest article was India piece-goods 
(132,679 d.), and all the others, except ebony (6822 d.), 
amounted to small sums, and were trepang. earthenware, 
ghee (2993 d.), mother-of-pearl shells, European piece- 
goods (2880 d.), rice. wine, spirits, and a few sundries. The 
exports to Madras amounted to 138,365 dollars, and con- 
sisted principally in money, viz. 99,758 dollars in specie, 
ticals to the amount of 17,000 dollars, sicca rupees 311 
dollars, and Java rupees 125 dollars. Cigars, amount- 
ing to 5187 dollars, were the most important article. 
Other articles were benjamin, chinaware, cordage, earthen- 
ware, gold-dust, glassware, iron and steel, ironware (2984-d.), 
European piece-goods, ratans, sago, spices, sugar-candy, 
woollens (2168 d.), spirits, and some sundries. 

The commerce with Bombay is more important. The 
imports from that place amounted to 1 56,904 dollars. Opium 
was to the amount of 1 17,195 dollars, and India piece-goodg 
1 9,5 78 dollars. The other articles were of little value, and con- 
sisted of brassware, cotton (2308 d.), grain, saltpetre, tor- 
toiseshell, woollens, and a few sundries ; there were also 
imported 13,000 dollars. The exports to Bombay amounted 
to 196,757 dollars. Tlie largest articles were gold-dust 
(38,683 d.). tin (3 1 ,050 d.), sugar (30,489 d.), spices ( 1 7,05 1 d.), 
piece-goods (1 1,202 d.), ratans (7598 d.), and cigars (5441 d.). 
Minor articles were benjamin, betel-nut, cassia (2962 d.), 
gambier, Jvory, oils, pepper, raw silks, sago, garro-wood 
(3360 d.), sapan-wood, spirits, and several sundries. Bombay 
received also from Singapore 30,437 dollars, ticals to the 
aniount of 5896 dollars, Bombay rupees 371 dollars, gold 
coins 92 dollars, and doubloons 62 dollars. 

The exports from Singapore to (I!eyloii amounted only to 
3849 dollars, and consisted of chinaware (1097 d.), ratans, 
cigars, sugar (1358 d.), and a few sundries. But Ceylon 
sent to Singapore goods to the amount of 30,876 dollars, of 
which ebony alone was of the value of 19,872 dollars. The 
other articles, except cordage (4669 d.), were small, and 
consisted of trepang, birds' feathers, canvas, ghee, hides, 
India piece-goods, wheat, spirits, and some sundries. 

The imports from Arabia to Singapore amounted only to 
6395 dollars, and consisted of India sundries (4240 d.), and 
small quantities of gold thread, tortoiseshell, oils, and salu 

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Bat Singapore exported to Arabia, probably on account of 
the pilgrims who go from the Malay Peninsula and the 
Indian Archipelago to Mecca, the value of 70 J 53 dollars, 
of which 41,000 dollars were in specie. The largest articles 
of goods were benjamin (8708 d.), tin (6779 d.), sugar 
(5885 d.)> and garro-wood (4710 d.) Minor articles were 
gold-dust (607 d.), pepper, India piece-goods, rice, sago, 
spices, 8Ugar-candy» sapan-wood, and a few sundries. 

The imports into Singapore from the Cape, Mauritius, and 
Australia amounted only to 4860 dollars, of which 2900 
were in specie, to which arms and ebony in small quantities 
were added. But Singapore exported to these places goods 
to the amount of 88,674 dollars. The most important 
articles were tin (12,570 d.), cigars (11,272 d)., wheat 
(11.017d.), Eastern sundries (8739 d.), sugar(6425 d.). and 
coffee (5886 d.) The other articles were of less importance, 
and consisted of antimony, bees'-wax, canvas, cassia, cord- 
age (2608 d.), gram, garobier, gold-dust, gunnies, opium 
(2400 d.), pepper, paddy, provisions (2302 d.). ratans, rice 
(2633 d.), sago, sugar-candy, tea (2360 d.), tobacco, wines, 
spirits, and European sundries (3216 d.). 

Tne United States of America carry on an active com- 
merce with Singapore, but as most of their goods are not 
adapted for the market of Southern Asia, they generally 
pay for the goods that they buy with ready money. They 
imported 87,800 Spanish dollars, and also manufactured 
goods ri4,548 d.), provisions (9853 d.), and American sun- 
dries (9122 d.) Minor articles were canvas, cordage, gun- 
powder, hides, cigars, and tobacco (1556 d.) The whole 
importation amounted to 125,897 dollars, whilst the articles 
exported were of the value of 177,526 dollars. The most im- 
portant articles among the exports were tin (43,751 d.), 
sugar (38,184 d.), coffee (34,279 d.). pepper (19,793 d.), 
tortoise-shell (6784 d.), rice (6258 d.), and gunnies (5760 d.). 
Minor articles were antimony, betel-nut, canvas, cassia 
(3956 d.), cordage, dragon's-blood, gambier, hides, oils, 
opium (2660 d.), India piece-goods, ratans (2117 d.), sago, 
cigars, spices (2400 d.), tea, and several sundries. 

As to the harbours of continental Europe, that of Ham- 
burg had the greatest share in the trade. But the imports 
from these places amounted only to 65,657 dollars, and the 
largest articles were spirits (12,876 d.), piece-goods 
(12,700 d.), wine (10,578 d.), and European sundries 
(16,584 d.). Minor articles were arms, canvas (3000 d.), 
cordage (2300 d.), qotton-twist (2340 d.), glassware, gold 
thread, iron (2161 d.), ironware, lead, oils, paints, provisions, 
salt, and woollens. The goods exported from Singapore to 
these parts amounted to 115,303 dollars. The largest articles 
were coffee (42,649 d.), tin (23,319 d.), sugar (15,942 d.), 
pepper (13,772 d.), European sundries (5329 d.), and cassia 
(3355 d.). Minor articles of export were bees'- wax, cordaee, 
gold dust, hides, rice, ratans, sago (2084 d.), cigars (2386 d.), 
tortoise-shell, sapan-wood, arrack, and some sundries. 

The commerce of Singapore with Great Britain is nearly 
equal to that with (Calcutta, and more active than that with 
China. Great Britain imported into the port of Singapore 
in the year ending with the 30th of April, 1836, goods to the 
amount of 1,150,808 dollars. The most important article 
consisted of several kinds of piece-goods, to the amount of 
675,776 dollars. Other articles of importance were cotton- 
twist (58,994 d.), European sundries (56,772 d.), iron 
(49,409 d.), woollens (48,976 d.), arms (45,778 d.), earthen- 
ware (3 1,560 d.), glassware (23,480 d.), gunpowder (20,793 d.), 
copper sheathing and nails (16,728 d.), ironware and 
cutlery (15,486 d.), anchors and grapnels (14,383 d.)* 
and wines (13,445 d.). The importations were — beer 
(8281 d.), canvas (5188 d.), cordage (6684 d.), opium 
(2000 d.), paints (3077 d.), provisions (4220 d.), spelter 
(3296 d.), and spirits (4724 d.). Minor articles were brass- 
ware, gold thread, lead, and tea. Great Britain sent also to 
Singapore 1 7,000 Spanish dollars, and copper coin to the 
amount of 25,072 dollars. The goods shipped at Singapore 
for Great Britain amounted to the value of 890,017 dollars. 
The most important articles were tortoise-shell (125,101 d.), 
tin (101,204 d.), pepper (91,289 d.), raw silk (70,675 d.), 
sugar (62,406 d.). Eastern sundries (59.586 d.), coffee 
(53.644 d.), tea (44,376 d.), sago (35,89 1 d.), soices (34,939 d.), 
mother-of-pearl shells (27,570 d.), China sundries (25,544 d.), 
bees*- wax (22.656 d.), cassia (22,298 d.), antimony (1 8,704 d.), 

fambier (16,339 d.) hides (13.950 d ), benjamin (8708 d.). 
ava sundries (7982 d.), raians (6988 d.). Straits sundries 
(5943 d.), and ivory (5053 d.). Minor articles were birds' 
feathers and birds of paradise, camphor, cordage (2524 d.). 

coloured cotton-twist (2541 d.), dragons'-blood, ebony, goldi 
dust (4355 d ), nankeens (3440 d.), oils, China piece-goodsv 
rice, cigars, wines, sapan-wood (4262 d.), and India sundries' 
(3106 d.). There were also sent to Great Britain 95 sove^ 
reigns, and cowries to the value of 1086 dollars. 

Such is the state of the commerce of Singapore at present^ 
but it will probably increase largely in a few years. If the- 
Chinese government continue the vexatious restrictions on 
our commerce at Canton, it may be expedient to discontinue 
the direct commercial intercourse with the Celestial empire. 
Instead of dJanton, the settlement of Singapore woula be 
the market to which tea and other articles of Chinese in- 
dustry would be brought, and our goods adapted for their 
consumption would be sold. The consumption of all these 
articles, with the exception of opium, would probably b« 
much increased by such a change, for the Chinese them* 
selves would be able to sell their goods at a less price att 
Singapore than we have hitherto paid for them at Canton:. 
Our vessels and merchants have to pay very heavy dues^ 
whilst Chinese vessels pay very little in comparison, and are- 
almost entirely free from dues whenever a part of their 
return cargo consists of rice. This article is at present 
always to be had at Singapore, and might be grown to an 
indetinite extent in the eastern districts of Sumatra and in 
our Tenasserin provinces, if there was a demand for it. 
Thus it is probable that the Chinese junks would be able to 
sell tea and other articles at least 1 per cent, less than we 
pay for them at Canton ; besides, the tea is brought to Canton 
by a transport over land of many hundred miles, whilst 
the countries in which it grows are near the sea ; and it 
could be brought directly from Amoy, Ningpo, and Sanghae, 
to Singapore, at a much less expense. The only difference 
would be, that our vessels, instead of proceeding to Canton^ 
would stop at Singapore; but that can hardly be considered 
a loss, when we reflect that the increased consumption 
of Chinese goods, in consequence of the decrease in price,, 
would certainly be attended bv an increase of our shipping.. 

History. — On the site of the present British settlement 
formerly stood the capital of a Malay kingdom. According 
to the history of that nation. Sang Nila Utama, from Men- 
angkabau in Sumatra, founded the city of Singhapiira (the 
lion's town) about 1160, and Rattles was able in 1819 to 
trace the outer lines of the old city. It then was the capital 
of the kingdom of Malacca. This town was taken in 1252 
by a king of Java, and the residence of the king was trans- 
ferred to the town of Malacca, which was then founded. 
After that event the town seems gradually to'have decayed, 
and the country to have been abandoned; for when the 
British, after having restored the town of Malacca to the 
Dutch in 1816, wished to form a settlement on the shores 
of the Strait of Malacca or its neighbourhood, that they 
might not be entirely excluded from the commerce of the 
Indian Archipelago by the Dutch, they found on their 
arrival at Singapore that the population of the whole island 
did not exceed 150 individuals, as already stated. It was 
then a part of the kingdom of Johore. which had been so 
reducea by internal discord, that some of the superior 
officers had become independent. One of them, the Tu- 
raungong, or chief justice, had got possession of the island 
of Singapore and the adjacent country, and from him the 
British obtained, in 1819, permission to build a factory on 
the south shore of the island. Soon afterwards a person 
who had some claim to the throne of Johore came to the 
British settlement and received a small pension. From this 
person, who was afterwards king of Johore, and theTumun- 
gong, the British obtained, in 1824, the sovereignty and 
fee-simple of the island, as well as of all the seas, straits, 
and islands, for the sum of 60,000 Spanish dollars, and an 
annuity of 24,000 Spanish dollars for their natural lives. 
In 1826 Singapore was placed under the provincial govern- 
ment of the Straits Settlement, which is fixed on the island 
of Penang. 

(Crawfurd's Journal of an Embassy to the Courts o/Siam 
and Cochin China; Finlayson's Missiott to Siam and Hub; 
Moor's Notices qf the Indian Archipelago, &c. ; Newbold's 
Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlemente 
in the Straits of Malacca,) 

SINIGAGLIA. [Pesaro et Urbinc] 

SINKING FUND. [National Debt.] 

SINO'PE, or SINUB. [Paphlaoonia.] 

SINTOC, or SIN DOC, sometimes written Syndoc, is 
the bark of a species of Cinnampmum, which has bee' 
I called C. Sintoc by Blume, who says^ii^is a tree 80 feet ' 

S I o 


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height, indigenoug ifi tha primeval forests of Java. It U in 
flattish pieoea, of a warm spiey taste, but is seldom seen in 
this country. It resembles the Calilawan bark, called clove- 
bark by some, which is called kuUelawan by the natives of 
Java, and is the produce of a nearly-allied species, the Cin- 
namomum Calilawan of Blume, which grows in similar 
situations with the former, and of which the bark is used as 
a spice, and its essential oil is employed as a medicine and 
as a perfume by the Javanese. 

SIOUX INDIANS, one of the most numerous and 
powerful of the native tribes within the territories of the 
United States of North America, They inhabit a large tract 
between 4$" and 49** N. lat. and 90" 30' and 99** 30' W. Jong., 
comprehending nearly the whole of the country between 
the Mississippi on the east and the Missouri on the 
west, north of 42" 30' N. lat, or the present territory 
of Iowa. They also occupy a large tract of the territory 
of Wisconsin on the east of the Mississippi, extending 
along the river from Fort Crawford on the south to the 
St. Croix river, and the whole country west of the last- 
mentioned river as far north as Lake Spirit, and westward 
to the eastern banks of the Mississippi, In these parts their 
country borders on that of tlie A)gonquins, who occupy the 
tract west of Lake Superior, but along the banks of the 
Red River of Lake Winnipeg the Sioux claim the whole 
tract to the boundary-line of the United States {49" N. lat.). 
On the banks of the Missouri they are found near Fort 
Mandan on the north (47^ 30'), and at the mouth of the 
Soldiers* River (42") on the south, and it is stated that they 
hunt in the country west of the Missouri between 43" and 
47" N. lat. The southern boundary of their country may be 
marked bv a line drawn from the oMNith of Soldiers* River 
to Fort Crawford. 

The Sioux Indians eall themselves Dacotas/ but in their 
external relations thi^ assume the nameof Ochente Sh^koan 
(the nation of the seven fires or councils), a name which re- 
fers to a division into seven great tribes, of which they were 
formerly composed. The French Canadians divide them into 
Gens du Lac and Gens du Large. The former once lived about 
Spirit Lake, and are now principally found along the banks 
of the Mississippi^ They hve in villages, and have begun to 
apply themselves to the cuUivation of the ground. The 
Gens du Large, under which name the greater number of 
the tribes are eompr^ended, rove about in the prairies be* 
tween the Mississippi and Missouri, and live almost exclu- 
sively by the chase. On these prairies the buffalo is found 
in uncommon numbers, and probably there ii no part of 
North America in which this animal is ao plentiful. Henoe 
the means of subsistence are very abundant, and the nation 
of the Dacotas is more numerous than any other in sueh 
high latitudes. It is stated thai the Dacotas themselves 
compose a population of 2^.000 individuals, and that there 
are above 7000 warrions. The Assiniboines, who live north 
of the Dacotas, within the territories of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, formerly constituted an integral portion of the 
Dacotas, but separated from them in consequence of a 
q^jarrel, whence they are named, by the Dacotas, Hoka 
(the revolted). The Cbippewas name them Asaiaihoines 
or Stone Boines, and the Dacota they call Boines. This 
branch of the Dacota Indians is stated to be no less nu- 
merous than the Dacotas themselves. 

The language of these two tribes differs from that of their 
neighbours, yet some distinctions of the nature of dialects 
appear to preveul in some words as spoken by the roving In- 
dians and by the Dacotas. They believe in the existence of 
a Supreme Being, and a great number of subordinate beings, 
whose powers and attributes vary much. The Supreme 
Being is called Wahkan Tanka, or Great Spirit, and they con- 
sider him as the Creator of all things, and as the ruler and 
disposer of the universe; they bold him to be the source of all 
good and the cause of no evil. The next spirit in respect to 
power is the Wahkan Sheeha, or Evil Spirit, whose influence 
IS exclusively exerted in doing evil. The third divinity is 
the thunder, whose residence mey fix in the west, and some 
believe that it dwells on the summit of the Rocky Mountains, 
because in this country all thunder-stprms come from the 
west. The thunder is considered the spirit of war. They 
offer sacrifices to these three powers, anci these sacrifices are 
accompanied with prayers, but not with dancea. 

To rise early, to be inured to fatigue, to hunt skilfully, to 
undergo hunger without repining, are the only points to 
whieh the Dacotas think k important to attena in .the 
education of their children. 

The Dacotas who live along the Mississippi and St. Peter's 
river raise maize, and they also cultivate beans, pumpkins, 
and other vegetables. But these agriculturists constitute 
only a small portion of the tribe : by far the larger part oo- 
cupv themselves with hunting wild animals, especially the 
buffalo. The other animals which abound in their country 
are beavers, otters, martens, minxes, musk-rats, lynxes, 
wolverines, elks, moose deer, bears, and wolves. As the 
wild animals are so abundant in their country, the Dacotas 
are not obliged to live in small societies, but they generally 
live in camps consisting of eighty or a hundred lodges, each 
lodge containing several families. Sometimes there are 
above three hundred warriors in one encampment. 

(Lewis and Clarke*s TraveU up ike Missouri, ^c, ; and 
Keating's Narrative of an Eon)eaition to the Source qf the 
St. Peter* s River, ^c, under the command qf Major Long.) 

SIPHNO, called also Siphanto and Sifanno (by (^rpao- 
chi, hole del Mondo), an island in the Archipelago, form- 
ing one of the group called the Cyclades. Tlie original name 
was Merope ; it was called Siphnus from a personage of that 
name. Jt was colonised bv lonians fh>m Athens. (Herodot., 
viii. 48.) In the reign of Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, 
about 520 b.c^ the inhabitants were very flourishing in con* 
seauence of their gold and silver mines, and, according to He- 
roaotus(iii. 57), they were the most wealthy of the islanders. 
They had a deposit at Delphi of the tenth of the produce of 
the mines. Some exiles, who were expelled from Samoa by 
Polycrates [Samos], invaded Siphnus about this f ime, and 
levied a contribution of 100 talents. The Siphn^ans were 
among the iew inhabitants of the Archipelago who resisted 
the Persian claim of earth and water, and they contributed 
one small ship of war at the battle of Salamis. (Herod., viii. 
48.) Their mines were not afterwards so valuable (Demos- 
thenes, irept (rvvr<S(£(uc). Pausanias (x., 11) says that after 
a time they ceased to send treasure to Delphi, and that in 
consequence the sea broke in on their mines and destroyed 
them. Siphnus is very little noticed by antient authors. 
From Stephanos Byzantinus, Hesychius, and Suidas wa 
learn that the natives were of dissolute manners, insomuch 
that to do like a Siphnian {^upvidZnv) was a term of re- 
proach. In the work of Constantino Porphyrogennetus 
^ De Thematibus,* Siphnus is in the theme of Hellas, and 
in the Synecdemus of Hierocles it forms part of the Pro^ 
yincia Insularum. 

In the reign of Henry L. Latin emperor of Constan- 
tinople, Marco Sanado, the first duke of Naxos, conquered 
the island and made it part of his dominions. It passed 
from him into the hands of the Grozzadini family, who held 
it till it was wrested from them bv Barbarossa, after the cap- 
ture of Rhodes in the time of fioliman II. It was. in eom- 
mon with the neighbouring islands, partially ])rotected from 
the oppressions of the Turks by the Venetians; and Tourne- 
fort ( Voyage du Levant) mentions that about 50 years be- 
fore his visit to the place, so little was the power of the 
Porte there, that the inhabitants, assisted by a Proven^ 
corsair^ expelled the Tvrks who had hoen sent there to work 
the lead -mines. 

Siphnus is between 36"* 50' and 37' ID' N. lat., and in 25** 
10' £. long. : it is situated to the south-east of Serpho, north- 
east of Milo, and south-west of Pare, lying immediately oppo- 
site Antiparo. It is of an oblong form, narrower at the north 
than at the southern extremity. Pliny reckons it at about 
28 Roman miles in circumference, and Carpacchi (Isole 
del Mondo) at 40. Toumefort mentions five ports, which 
were much frequented about 50 years before his visit there: 
Faro*Vathy, KUriani, Kironisso, and Kastron, of which Kas- 
iron is on the east. Faro and Kitriani on the south, and 
Vat by on the west side. Another on the east side, A^ia 
Sosti> is marked in the map attached to Fiedler's ' Reise 
durch Griechenland,* j841. Toumefort gives the names of 
five villages, Artimone, Stavril, Catavati, Xambela, and 
Petali; and of four convents of caloyers, Brici or La Fon- 
taine. StomongouU St. Chrysostome, and St. H6lie. 

Fiedler mentions only two towns : Kastron, on a strong and 
rocky hill overlooking the sea, which is the residence of the 
governor; and Stawri, the Stavril of Toumefort. in the 
centre of the island. Siphnus is in the pashalik of Nakscha. 
The bishop is also bishop of Milo. The population in the 
time of Toumefort was about 5000 ; they were taxed in the 
year 1700 at 4000 crowns of French money. The lands are 
chiefly laid out in vineyards ; the wine is not so good as that 
of the neighbouring islands. The chief trade is in silk, 
figs, honey, wax, sesame, and cotton stuffs, which are oele« 

S I P 


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brated for their quality: the inhabitants import the raw ma- 
terial. There are very few sheep, horses, or homed qattle. 
The climate is good, and the inhabitants lonf^-lived. 

SiphnUs was celebrated among the antients for a sort of 
stone mentioned by Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxxvi, 22), of which 
drinkinff-cups were made, which was Easily carved, and har- 
dened afterwards by boiUng oil. This was a species of tale, 
according to Fiedler, who gives fhrther particulars relating 
to the geology of the island. Tournefort was shown the 
situation of one gold-mine, but could hot discover the en- 
trance. Fiedler gives an account of one near Agia Sosti. 

The antiquities of the island are fbw. On the south side, 
at Porto Plati Gallo, are the remains of an old Grreek town. 
Tournefort speaks of a temple sacred to Pan near the 
castle, which is also noticed by Garpacchi, and of several 
tnurble sarcophagi with good sculpture. There are also 
Greek inscriptions, which are given by him and Fiedler. 
The Greek coins of Siphnus are very numerous : they are 
of gold, silver, and copper. The types on them are the 
liead of Apollo (there was a town called Apollonia in Siph- 
nus, according to Slephanus Byr., *Airo\>Mvla), the Chi- 
micra, head ofBacchus, and a dove with wings spread. The 
coins struck under the etnperors have Pallas on the reverse. 
K&stron is a castle built apparentlv when the Venetians Arst 
occupied the island. Various buildings bear the arms of the 
Oozzadini family, three of whom were still living there in 
the time of Tournefort 

SIPHON (vifuv), a tube of pipe. This machine, which 
nas been described in the article Hydraulics, was pro- 
bably invented in the second century B.C., by Hero of 
Alexandria, who, in the ' Spiritalia,' or Pneumatics, men- 
tions its employment for the purpose of conveying water 
from one valley to another over the intervening ground. 

In order that a fluid may issue ttom that branch of a 
siphon which is on the exterior surfstce of the vessel con- 
taming it, it is necessary, as has bedn stated in the article 
above mentioned, that the extremity of the branch should 
be below the sudlce of the fluid in the Vessel ; but it may 
be observed that there is an exception to the rule when the 
interior diameter of that branch is very small ; for example, 
when it is less than 1-1 0th of an inch, the interior diameter 
of the branch in the vessel being considerably greater. For 
if such a fluid as water or wine be introduced into a bent 
tube having one branch only very small, and the open ends 
be uppermost, the top of the fluid in the more slender 
branch will, by the effect of capillary attraction, stand 
higher than the top of that in the other branch. It would 
follow therefore, inat if the bent tube were inverted, and 
the orifice of its larger branch were placed under the sur- 
face of the fluid in a vessel, the fluid would begin to issue 
from the other branch, though the orifice of the latter were 
a little above the level of that surface. 

The effect of a siphon may he produced by capillaiy 
attraction alone ; for if a piece of cotton cloth have one of 
its extremities in a vessel of water, and part of it be made 
to hang over the edge of the vessel, the water will be at- 
tracted along the threads of the cloth, and will descend 
from thence in drops, provided the extremity of the part 
thus hanging over be below the surface of the water in the 

The phenomena presented hy springs of water are ex- 
plained by supposing that the rain which is absorbed in the 
earth occasionally finds its way by small channels to some 
interior cavity, and from thence bv other channels, which 
may be considered as natural sipnons, to an orifice on a 
lower level at the surface of the ground. At this orifice it 
issues in a stream of water, which continues to flow till the 
surface of the water in the cavity has descended below the 
tops of the vertical bends in the channels : the water then 
ceases to flow till the rains again raise the water in the 
cavity above those bends. But it sometimes happens that 
a spring, without ceasing to flow, discharges fMeriodically 
jgreater and smaller Quantities of water in given times ; and 
this is accounted for by supposing the existence of two cavi- 
ties either unconnected or communicating with one another 
\f small channels. The channels leading from one of these 
cavities to the point of effiux are supposed to be below the level 
of the water in both cavities, so that the water flows through 
tbem continually ; but if the channels from the other have 
vertical bends, so that they act as siphons, and at the same 
time these channels carry off the water in them faster than 
it can flow firom the first cavity to the second, it will be onlv 
when tba water m the latter cavity is above the level of all 

such bends that a discharge will take place from thence. 
As the water in that cavity may only attain the necessary 
height in consequence of periodical fklls of rain, it will fol- 
low that corresponding increases in the total quantity of 
water discharged can only then take place. 

For the amusement of young persons, several philoso- 
phical toys have been constructed, in which the effects are 
produced by means of concealed siphons. The siphon is 
sometimes placed within a figure in the middle or on the 
ed^e of a cup, and sometimes between its exterior and in- 
terior sides. Such are Tantalus*s Cup and the siphon 

SIPHONA'RI A. [^EMiiWfLLimANs, vol. xxi., p. 21 8.1 


SIPHO'NIA, a genus of planU of the natural family of 
Euphorbiaces, consisting of two species, but one may be 
only a variety of the other. This is celebrated as being the 
tree which yields the large quantities of caoutchouc, called 

Cahuchu by the native Americans, annually imported from 
Para in South America. The genus has been named Si- 
phonia, from the Greek word iiphon (trt^utv) a tube, from the 
purposes to which caoutchouc is applied; but it was origi 
nally called Hevea by Aublet, and the name was changed 
by Richard f^om its similarity to Evea, The species, or 
South American caoutchouc, was named S. Cahuehu from 
its Indian name Cahuchu. The same plant was first called 
Jatropha etastica by the younger Linnsus: so that it is 
known and referred to by three names, and m some works 
these are considered to indicate distinct plants. Aublet 
has figured the plant, and Jussieu the detoils of iu in- 

Siphoma elasHea is a tree fifty to sixtv feet in height, 
common in the fbrests of Guiana and Brazil, and which has 
been introduced into the West Indies. Condamiue fire- 
quently mentions it In his voyage down the Amazon. 
Caoutchouc [Caoittchouc] is the milky juice of the plant 
which exudes on incisions being made, and solidifies on ex- 
posure to the air. Aublet states that a deep incision is 
first made into the wood near the bottom of the tree, 
another is then made longitudinallv from the upper parts 
of the tree down to the first lateral and oblique incision, 
others are also made alonr the stem, which terminate in 
the longitudinal one, and the milky juice which exudes Arom 
all is collected in a vessel placed at the original incision. He 
also states that the nuts are edible, anu Mr. Morney says 
that a caterpillar, which spins a tough coarse kind of silk, 
feeds on the leaves. 

SIPHONITERA, M. D'Orbignys name for an ordet 
of testaceous Mollusks, consisting of the families Spirulida?, 
NautiUdUe, AmmonititUe, and PeritteHida, according to the 
arrangement of M. Rang. The latter fkmily comprises the 
genera Ichtkyoiarcolites and Belemnitet. 

SIPHONOBRANCHIA'TA, M. De Bhiinvnie's name 
for the first order of his first subclass of Mollusks, Para- 
cephaiophora dioica. He describes the Siphonobronchiata 
as possessiiiji; organs of respiration constantly formed of one 
or two pectmiform ffranchi€B, situated obliquely on the an- 
terior part of the back, and continued in a cavity, the supe- 
rior wall of which is provided with a tubiform canal more 
or less elongated and attached to the columella ; and ar- 
ranges under the order the following fkmilies: — Siphono- 
STOMATA ; ENTOMOsTOikATA ; and Angyostomatcu 

The Angvostomata are described as differing very little 
from the otner families as far as the animal is concerned, 
and as possessing a ver^ large subveniral foot, which can be 
folded together longiludinaUy for the purpose of being 
withdrawn into the shell. 

The aperture of the shell of the fomily is described as 
being more or less notched anteriorl;^, generally very nar^ 
row, but always much longer than it is wide, and the colu- 
mella as being straight or nearly straight. 

The operculum is rudimentary ib a certain number of 
genera, and entirely null In others. 

The ^^^a arranged under the Anffvosiomata are Strom- 
bus, Conus, Terebeltum, OHva, AncStaria, Mitra, Voluta, 
Marginella, Peribolus, Cypraa, and Ovula, 

SIPHO^OPS, Vagler's name for a genus of CaKJili- 

The first suborder of the Batrachians, the Pcromeles of 
MM. Dum&ril and Bibron, consists but of one family, the 
Ophiosomes (snake-bodied Batrachians) or Caedliotdtans. 
Iiieir round elongated form, without either tail or ^et, ap- 
proximates so closely to that of the sernent^ that tb» 

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rreat^r huttiber oT authors have arranged tbetia iti the order 
Ophidians, acknowledging at the same time the anomalies 
which they present, and observing that they ought to form 
a very distinct group. {Skepents. vol. xxi., p. 281.] 

The characters which lead to the classification of these 
reptiles into one family, and to their separation from all 
others, are, 1st, a body extremely extended in length, and 
of a cylindrical shape ; 2nd, the absence of limbs or lateral 
appendages proper for locomotion ; 3rd, a skin naked in ap* 
pearance and viscous, but concealing between the circular 
folds which it forms many rows or rings of flat, delicate, 
imbricated scales, with free and rounded borders, resem- 

Scales of Cvcllia albiventrii. 

*^ltngCfkoseof tlie greater part of the fishes ; 4th, the rounded 
orifice, af their cloaca situated below, very near the posterior 
extremity of the body, which is sometimes truncated, as it 
were,.and rounded ; sometimes obtusely pointed, as in the 
genus Typhlops ; 5th, their head, as in all the Batrachians, 
18 articulated to the spine by means of two distinct and sepa- 
rate condyles ; 6th, their lower jaw moves upon the cranium 
without any separate articular bone, and the two branches 
which form it are short and very solidly soldered together 
towards the symphysis of the chin. 

In the Serpents the occipital bone presents, below the 
vertebral hole, a single articular eminence, or condyle ; and 
the structure and disposition of the jaws will be remem- 
'bered by those who have referred to the article Serpents. 
'The brevity of the jaws, and their construction in the Cseci- 
lioidians, reduce the aperture of their mouth to a very small 
< diameter. 

The bodies of the vertebrsB of the Csecilioidians are doubly 
^excavated into cones, instead of being concave before and 
«^M)nvex behind. Their tongue is large, papillose, fixed by 
•its borders upon the gums in the concavity of the jaw, and 
snot protractile, nor forked, nor susceptible of entering into a 
^sheath. The disposition and structure of their teeth are 
moticed in the article Serpents and more fully detailed in 

JProfessor Owen observes that in the extinct family of the 

iiabyruithodonts [Salamandroides], the Balrachian type of 

w^nieation was modified so as to lead directly from that 

order to tjie highest form of reptiles, viz. the loricate or 

crocodilian Saurians ; that some of the existing edentulous 

genera of the BufonideB [FroqsJ connect the Batrachian 

with the ChelotUan order, and that the family founded 

upon the Linnean genus CcBcilia forms the transition to 

the ophidian reptiles. ' The characters,' says the Professor, 

' which retain the Ccedlice in the Batrachian order are gene- 

jrally known, and may be briefly enumerated as the double 

.occipital condyle, the biconcave vertebrcD, the smooth mu- 

. cous integument with minute and concealed scales, and the 

t branchial apertures retained by the young some time after 

V their birth. In the fixed tympanic pedicle, and the anchy- 

; losed symphysis of the lower jaw, the Ceeciliie are also far 

I removed from the typical ophidian structures ; but the teeth, 

in their length, slenderness, sharp points, wide intervals, 

;, and diminished number, begin to exhibit the characters of 

.the dental system of the serpent tribe.' {Odontography.) 

The characters above set forth show the connection which 
ithese reptiles have with the Batrachians; but there is one 
striking feature, metamorphosis, which is not yet quite satis- 
factorily made out. Muller indeed states that he had ob- 
;served young C^ccilice whose neck was furnished with small 
^branchial fringes, as will be hereafter more particularly 

The departure in a degree of the Ctecilioidians from the 
"Batrachians is marked by the presence of small scales ; by 
ribs which are forked at their vertebral extremity, andmucn 
more distinct than in the genus Pleurodeles ; by the ab- 
sence of a sternum ; and especially by the form and struc- 
ture of the mouth, the aperture of which is small, the lower 
jaw being shorter than the upper, and the teeth long, sharp, 
and generally curved backwards. 

The CcBcilioidians resemble many species of the osseous 
fishes of the division of the MurtenicUs in the form and 
structure of the skeleton, the articulation of the jaws, the 
mode of implantation of the teeth, &c ; but the mode of 
junction of the head with the spine by means of two con- 

dyles, the presence of lungs and nostrils which open dis- 
tinctly within the cavity of the mouth, and the entire ab- 
sence of branchisB, remove these animals from that class. 

Skeleton. — The cranium presents above a single vaulted 
piece, in which no trace of orbits is perceptible. The lower 
jaw is not articulated with the skull by an intermediate 
bonoi as in the birds, lizards, and serpents, hut nearly as it 
is in the mammals, without however there being the 
slightest trace of a zygomatic bone. The branches of the 
lower jaw are joined anteriorly by a true suture, as in the 

Professor Owen states that the teeth are implanted in a sin- 
gle row upon the maxillary, intermaxillary, and palatine bones, 
the upper jaw being thus provided with two semi-elliptical 
and sub-concentric series ; that there are also two rows of 
equal-sized teeth on the premandibular bones of the lower 
jaw in certain species : the Ceecilta, he remarks, is the 
last example in the ascending survey which he has taken 
of the dental system of this disposition of teeth, which was 
so common in the class of fishes. 

* There are,' writes the Professor, * twenty teeth in the an- 
terior or outer premandibular row in the lumbricoid and 
white-bellied Ccedlicet and ten or twelve of much smaller 
size in the second row. There are twenty teeth in the outer 
row of the upper jaw, of which six are supported by the 
intermaxillaries, and sixteen in the inner or palatine row. 
All these teeth are long, slender, acute, and slightly recurved. 
In the rostrated Ccectlia the first two teeth of the maxil- 
lary and premandibular series are longer and stronger than 
the rest : they are succeeded by small and recurved teeth ; 
the median margins of the palatal bones are bristled with 
small teeth ; the second row in the lower jaw is repre- 
sented by two small recurved teeth on the internal border 
of the premandibular bones. In the modification of the 
dental system presented by this species may be perceived a 
retention of the Batrachian type. The ^nnulated CsBcilia 
(Siphonops annulatus) has the maxillary and palatine teeth 
strong, pointed, and slightly recurved. In the glutinous 
and two-banded Ccecilice (Epicritmi), the teeth are slender, 
acute, and more inclined backwards, thus approaching 
nearer to the ophidian type ; in the latter species {Epicrium 
— Rhinatrema—bivittatum) the palatal series, instead of 
ranging concentrically with the outer row, is chevron- shaped 
with the angle turned forwards and rounded off. The teeth 
of the Ciffcilia are sub-transparent ; their intimate struc- 
ture corresponds with that of the frog's tooth ; but their 
mode of implantation resembles that of the teeth of the 
Labyrinthodonts, the base being anchylosed to the parietes 
of a sh allow alveol us.* ( Odon tograpky. ) 

In the junction of the vertebrae there is an entire differ- 
ence from that of the lizards and serpents, and a perfect 
approximation to that of the perennibranchiate batrachians 
and fishes. All the bodies of the verlebree are hollowed, 
both before and behind, by tunnel-shaped cavities, in which 
ligamentous fibres are implanted ; they are not really arti- 
culated, but placed one upon the other. Their superior 
spinous processes are like those of the Amphisba&nce and 
those in the neck of birds, in other words, depressed so as to 
present only a slight carina. Each body of a vertebra is 
furnished below with an apophysis curved backwards, and 
forked forwards for the reception of the eminence of the 
preceding vertebra. On the sides is seen a small projection, 
on which one of the bifurcations of the rib is applied, for the 
other and longer fork rests upon an inferior eminence. The 
ribs are short, straight, directed backwards, and triangular, 
forked as in the birds, and united to the vertebrn very nearly 
in the same manner. * 

Respiratory System. — In Ccecilia lumbricotdea the rudi- 
ment of a lung only has been observed ; and Meyer, who 
made this observation, and recognised also scales under the 
folds of the skin, conceives that these animals are species 
between the two orders of reptiles which he indicates under 
the name of Ophisaurians on account of tb« existence of 
the ribs and the presence of the single lung. Muller an- 
nounced the existence of branchial holes in a young Ctecilia 
(hypocyanea)jpveserved in the Museum of Natural History 
at Leyden. He noticed an aperture of the size of a line on 
each side of the neck, at some lines' distance from the ex- 
tremity of the buccal slit. This aperture was much wider 
than it was deep, situated in the yellow stripe which exists 
on the sides. The edge of the hole was rough (dpre), and 
in the interior were observed black fringes, ^hich appeared 

S I P 


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to be fixed to the horns of the 09 hyrndes, or branchial arcs ; 
but they did not project beyond the external orifices. The 
holes themselves are in free communication with the buccal 
cavity. It must be remembered that this observation was 
made without dissection. The specimen is four inches and 
a half in length, whilst an adult individual, which showed 
no trace of holes, was more than a foot long. 

GenercUion.—Mviyer thinks that he observed two intro- 
mittent organs in the Ctecili<s, See further the remarks at 
the end of this article. 

Systematic Arrangement. 

The position assigned to the Ca>cilioidians will be found 
in the articles Reptiles and Serpents. We will only here 
add that Miiller proposes for them the name of Gymmphids^ 
his first order of naked amphibians. The second order con- 
isists of the Deroiremes, the third of the Proteidians^ the 
fourth of the SalamandrineM, and the fifth of the BcUra- 
chians, Tschudi arranges the Ceedlioidians between the 
Pipas and Salamanders, adopting the three genera of Wag- 
ler, who placed them between the AmphisbeBfus and the 

Geographical DistribuHon qf the Suborder. — ^America, 
Asia, and Africa. 

Genera. — Ceecilia, Siphonops, Epicrium, Rhinatrema. 

Generic Character, — Head cylindrical; muzzle project- 
ing. Maxillary and palatine teeth short, strong, conical, and 
slightly curved. Tongue velvety or cellulose, most fre- 
quently offering two hemispherical convexities correspond- 
ing to the internal orifices of the nostrils. Eyes distinct or 
not distinct through the skin. A fosset or false nostril 
below each nostril. (D. and 13.) 

Head of Cascttia lambricoidea. 

a, tean iu profile : h, mouih open, to show the tongue, the teeth, apd the in* 
tertial orifices of the nustrils. (Dum. and Bib.) 

Geographical Distribution qf the Gentts.—Of the four 
species, one is Asiatic, one African, and two American. 

Example. Ceecilia tumbricoidea. 

Deseription. — The longest and most slender of the whole 
family, its length being more than ninety times the diameter 
of its body measured towards the middle. MM. Dum6ril 
and Bibron stato that individuals fifty-three centimetres 
long have the thickness of a stout goose-quill ; cylindrical ; 
its body however being rather smaller in its last part than 
its first, excepting at the extremity, where it is always a 
little convex. The muzzle is wide and rounded ; the maxil- 
lary and palatine teeth are rather long, sharp, a little sessile 
backwards, and separated from each other. The tongue 
adheres to all parts in the concavity formed by the submax- 
illary branches; its surface exhibits small vermiculiform 
folds and furrows, and there are two hemispherical convex- 
ities, corresponding to the internal orifices of the nostrils, 
which are great and oval. The external nostrils are two very 
small lobes situated on each side of the end of the muzzle, 
under which are seen two very small apertures, upon a por- 
tion of the border of each of which there seems to be a 
small tentacle. MM. Dum^ril and Bibron were unable to 
perceive the eyes through the skin, which is perfectly smooth 
over the whole head; that which envelopes the body is 
scarcely marked with circular folds, except at the posterior 
extremity, that is to say, at about the twenty-seoondth of 
the length of the body, where there are from twelve to 
fifteen. When these folds are raised, large but delicate 
scales arp discovered, bearing much resemblance to those 
of the carp, forming one or two verticillations, in the com- 
position of which they show themselves to be very distinctly 
imbricated. The vent is situated under the terminal ex- 
tremity of the body, which is rounded. The colour is of a 
brownish or olive tint. 

Locality, — Surinam. 
P. Cm No. 1365, 

Siphonops. (Wagler.) 

Generic Character.— Head and 6oay cylindrical ; muzzle 
short; maxillary and palatine teeth strong, pointed, and a 
little recurved ; tongue large, entire, adhering on all sides, 
with a surface hollowed into small vermiculiform sinkings. 
Eyes distinct through the skin. A fosset or false nostril in 
front of and a little below each eye. 

MM. Dum6ril and Bibron remark that the species of this 
genus generally have the muzzle shorter than the Ccecilicp, 
which gives their mouth the air of opening less under the 
head. The fossets or false nostrils ate placed not under the 
muzzle, but under the eyes, a little more or less forward. 
The skin which covers the eye is sufficiently transparent to 
enable the observer to see that organ through. The border 
of their nostrils and false nostrils are without the least ru- 
diment of a tentacle. Their teeth resemble those of the 
Cteciliee ; but their tongue, whose surface is furrowed with 
small vermiculiform sinkings, has no hemispherical protu- 

Geographical Distribution of the Genus, — Two species 
only are known, both American. 

Example, Siphonops annulatus (Cascilia annulata, 

2)^^rip/to;i.— Muzzle very short, very thick, very much 
rounded, hardly less than the back of the head. Nostrils 
opening on the sides of the muzzle, entirely at the end, and 
a little upward. False nostrils placed below each eye, and 
very slightly forward. Diameter of the body a sixteenth or 
seventeenth of its total length : it is rather strong, and per- 
fectly cylindrical, of the same size throughout its extent. 
There are from eighty-six to ninety annular folds, slightly 
and equally separated from each other ; these cease a little 
in front of the vent, so that the skin of the terminal extre- 
mity of the body, which is rounded, offers no wrinkles. 

MM. Dum6ril and Bibron state that in no individual 
could they discover scales in the thickness of the skin, where 
they probably exist, as in the other CeeciliiSy but doubtless 
much smaller and more difficult of exposure, on account of 
the extremely close tissue, which renders it as it were cori- 
aceous. Colour olive or bluish-ash, but, in all, the circular 
folds have a white tint. 

Locality. — Cayenne and Surinam. 

1, Siphonops annntatiu very much reduced, a, hend aod neck aeon in 
profile ; 6i muuth open, to show the tongue, the teeth, and the internal orifleus 
of the nostrils ; e, terminal extremity of its body seen below. CDum. and 

Epicrium. (Wagler. Ichthyophis, Fitzing.) 
Generic Character, — Head depressed, elongated ; muzzle 
obtuse ; maxillary and palatine teeth of loose texture (effi- 
Ides), sharp, and couched backwards. Tongue entire, with 
a velvety surface ; eyes distinct through the skin, a fosset 
(with a tentaculated border?) below the eye, near the border 
of the upper lip. Body subfusiform, with numerous circular 
folds close-set one against the other. (Dum. and Bibr.) 

Example, Epicrium glutinosum; Ceecilia glutinosa^ 
Linn. : the only species known. 

Description.'-The diameter of the body taken near the 
middle is the twenty^seeond or twenty-third part of the total 
length. There are about three hundred and twenty-five 
folds, rather uniformly approximated. Those which occupy 
the two first thirds of the length of the trunk do not com- 
pletely surround it, that is to say, they do not descend so as 
to meet under the belly. These same folds of the two fir^ 
thirds of the length at the trunk are remarkable for breal 

Yqi, XXII.-H 

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ing on & point of their circumference, so as to form, each of 
them, a very open chevron, the summit of which, directed 
/br^ards, is found placed on the medio-longitudinal line of 
the back. The other folds of the body, those, naihely, which 
surround the last third of it, form complete rings. The 
scales which these folds hide are small* numerous, delicate, 
transparent, subcircular, and offering on their superior sur- 
face a small figure in relief, representing a net with quadri- 
lateral meshes. A yellowish band extends to the risht and 
left all along the body, from the muzzle to the anal extre- 
mity : above and below the tint is slate-colour. 

Locality. — ^Java and Ceylon. 

Rhinatrema. (Dum. and Bibr.) 

Generic Character. — Head depressed, elongated ; muzzle 
obtuse; maxillary and palatine teeth of loose structure 
(effil6es), sharp, and couched backwards. Tongue entire, 
of a velvety surface. Eyes distinct through the skin. No 
fossets, neither under the muzzle nor below the eyes. Body 
subfusiform, with numerous circular folds. 

Example, Rhinatrema bivittatum ; decilia bivittata, 
Auct. : the only species. 

Description.— Hesid a little elongated and slightly de- 
pressed, bearing some resemblance in form to that of eertain 
Ophidians, particularly of the Coronelleff, The teeth very 
loosely constructed (effil6es), and very much couched back- 
wards ; the second row above, instead of forming a curved 
line like the first, makes an angle rounded at its summit. 
The diameter of the middle of the trunk is one twenty-sixth 
of the total length of the body, round which there are three 
hundred and forty perfectly annulilbrm folds. There exists 
a small conical tail. The folds of the skin may be easily 
raised by a point ; and a great number of circular transparent 
scales, with a surface relieved by projecting lines, forming a 
sort of net There is a large yellow band on each side of 
the body; the submaxillary branches, whose border is 
brown, are of the colour of the lateral bands, as well as the 
margin of the cloaca, and a small longitudinal stripe upon 
the tail. 

Locality. — Cayenne ? 

Rhinatrema bivittatum. a, its scales. 

MM. Dumdril and Bibron terminate their account of the 
CiTciliie with the following information. 

M. Leperieur, during his stay at Cayenne, having procured 
a living Cceciliat which he placed in a vessel filled with 
water, he saw it bring forth, in the space of some days, from 
five to seven young, perfectly similar to their mother. Upon 
this MM. Dum^ril and Bibron observe that the decilia, in 
spite of their bearing a greater resemblance to the Batra- 
chians than to the other reptiles, must be ovoviviparous. 
The fecundation of their germs must be effected in the 
interior of their body ; and their metamorphoses must take 
place in the body of their mother, as in the case of the 
Black Salamander of the Alps. [Cbcilians.] 

SIPHONOSTO'MATA, M. de Biainville's name for hit 
first family of Siphonobranchiata. 

The forms comprised under this family are principally to 
be found under the extensive genus Murex of Linnaeus. 
All the known animals belonging to it are carnivorous and 
marine, and all are furnished with a homy operculum. 
The Siphonostomata are thus subdivided by M. de Blain- 

* No persistent bourrelet on the right lip, 

PleuTotoma. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal f 

Shell fusiform, slightly rugose, with a turrioulated spire ; 
aperture oval, small, terminated by a straight canal more or 
less long. The right lip trenchant and more or less incised. 

Operculum horny. 

A. Species in which the incision is a little behind the 
middle of the lip, and the tube of considerable length. 

Example, Pleurotoma Babylonia. 

Description. — ^The shell fusiform-turreted, transversely 
carinated and belted, white, with black-spotted belts, the 
spots quadrate ; whorls convex ; tube or canal rather long. 

Xoca/t7y.-*The Bast Indian Seas and the Moluccas. 

Pleurotoma Babylonia. ' 

B. Species in \i^ich the incision is entirely against the 
spire, and whose tube is short. (Genus Clavatula, 

Example, Pkurotoma auriculifera. 

neuiotoma aariculifera. 

This genus has been taken on different bottoms at depths 
varying from eight to sixteen fathoms. 

Lamarck characterises 23 living species of Pleurotoma^ 
and 30 fossil, the latter mostly from Grignon. Defrance 
makes the number of fossil species 95. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described in addition 36 living 
species collected by Mr. Cuming, M. Deshayes one, and 
Dr.Turton one. (Synopsis Testaceorum; ZooL Proc., &c) 
M. Deshayes in his tables makes the number of living spe- 
cies 71, and the number of fossil (tertiarv) 150. Of these 
he records PL Cordierit Caumarmondi, Vulpecula, craticu- 
lata, and a new species as both living and fossil (tertiary). 
In Europe the principal localities for the fossils are the 
calcaire grossier. the London clay, the contexnporary beds 
near Bordeaux, and the Subapennine beds. Dr. Mantell 
notes an imperfect Pleurotoma \n the blue clay of Brackles- 
ham. Mr. Lea has described and figured eleven fossil spe- 
cies from the new tertiary at Claiborne, Alabama. Professor 
Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison notice three species, priscai})^ 
/usiformis, and spinosa, from the Gosau deposit and its 
equivalents in the Alps ; and Mr. Murchison records two 
species, Pleurotoma articulata and PI, corallii, in the Silu- 
rian rocks. (Silurian System.) 

Rostellaria. (Lam.) 
This genus, in our opinion, belongs to the StrombidAv 
under which article it will be descril^l/ ^^-^ '*^rS "^^ 


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S 1^ 

, Fusus. (Lara.) 

Generic Character, — Animal not differing much from 
that of Murex, 

Shell fusiform, ofr«n ventricose in the tnfddle, rugose, 
thick, and with a very elevated spire ; canal very straight 
and elongated ; aperture oval ; right lip trenchant, the left 

Operculum horny 

Animal of Fiuas. a, operculain. 

A. Turriculate or suhturriculate, hut not umbilicated 

Example, Emis Colus {Murex Colus, Linn.). 

Description.'-BheW fusiform, narrow, transversely fur- 
rowed, white, the apex and base rufous; whorls convex, 
nodiilously carinated in the middle ; canal long and slender ; 
the lip sulcated within, and denticulate on the margin. 

Locality. — ^The East Indian Ocean. 

Foitu Coins. 

B. Species subturriculated and umbilicated. (Genus Zo- 
tiru9, De Montf.) 

Example, Fumsjiloms. 

X>Mcrtp<ion.— Shell fusiform-turreted, thick, knotty, but 
smooth to the touch, whitish yellow girt with numerous 
orange-red lines ; whorls knotty above, the knots hemi- 
spherical ; the aperture white ; the lip striated within. 

Zoca/i/y.— The seas of New Holland. 

C. Sabturriculate species, with the oaual notched at the 

Example, FUms articulatus, 

De9crtption,She\\ fusiform-turreted, very delicately stri- 
ated transversely, shining, saffron-coloured or violaceous- 
coBrulescent, girt with articulated bay lines; lip sulcated 
within; columella with one plait above; canal short and 

D. Species with the whorls of the spire rounded and 

Example, Fusm Itlandicus, 

Dfftfcrtp/iofi.— Shell fusiform-turreted, ventricose below, 
not knobbed, transversely striated, white, the whorls con- 
vex ; the lip thin, smooth within ; the canal rather short 
and subrecurved. 

Locality, —The seas of Iceland. 

E. Muricoid species. 
Example, Fums murieeus. 

F. BuccinoYd species. 
Example, Funts buccineus. 

Fu9i have been found on bottoms of mud, sandy mud, 
Mtd sand, at depths ranging from the surface to eleven 


Lamarck records 37 living species qt p 
nearly all from France, and principally CJ^*V?^^ ^^ ^^ssi^ 
franco makes the number of the latter 70.rciv^"^"^^- ^e- 
analogues from Grignon, and one from the Pla\^til!Jv ^^^ 

M. Deshayes in his tables gives sixty-seven as v\ij* 
ber of Hving species of Fusus, and 1 1 1 as that of Ih Jf^T 
species (tertiary): of these he records FUsi cratieuUxt^ 
rosiratuSf strigosus, lignarius, sinistrorsus, Tareniinui^ 
antiquus, brevicauda, carinatus, despectus, and Peruvian 
nus, both living and fossil (tertiary). Dr. Mantell notes 
one species (longnevus) from the blue clay at Brack lesham. 
Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison enumerate six spe- 
cies from the Grosau deposit and its equivalents in the Alps. 
Dr. Fitton notes Fiisi clathratus, quadratus, rigidus, rusti- 
cuSy and an indistinct species in the strata below the chalk. 
{Observations on the Strata between the Chalk and Oolite, 
&c., in Geol. Trans,, 2nd series, vol. iv.) Mr. Lea records 
sixteen new species from the tertiary beds at Claiborne, 
Alabama, and one from Maryland. {Contributions to Geo- 

Pyrula. (Lam.) 

Generic Character, 

Shell pyriform, in consequence of the lowness of the 
spire ; the canal conical and very long or moderate^ some- 
tiroes slightly notched ; aperture oval, rather large ; colu- 
mella smooth and bent ; right lip trenchant. 

Operculum horny. 

A. Subfusiform species; the spire being slightly ele- 

Example, Pyrula carnaHa, {Pyrula Vespertilio,Lfim.; 
Fusus carnarius. Mart. ; Murex Vespertilio, Gm.) 

Description —HheW subpyriform, thick, ponderous, mu- 
Heated anteriorly, of a rufous-bay colour ; the last whorl 
crowned above with compressed tubercles ; spire rather pro- 
minent; the sutures simple; canal sulcated and subumbi- 

Locality. — East Indian Ocean. 

Pyrula eanurU. 

B. Species with a long and rather narrow tube; sp're 
very short. 

Example, Pyrula Spirillus. 

Description. — Shell ventricose anteriorly, the canal very 
long, delicately striated transversely, white, spotted with 
saffron-colour; body-whorl abbreviated, carinated in the 
middle, flattened above, tuberculated below the middle; 
spire very much depressed, its apex mamilliferous. 

Loco/t7y.— East Indian Ocean. CJoasts of Tranquebar. 

C. Species with a long and rather narrow tube, but sinis- 
trorsal or left-handed, and with the indication of a 
plait on the columella or pillar. (Grenus Fulgur, De 

Example, Pyrula perversa, 

Description.^She\\ sinistrorsal, pyriform, very ventri- 
cose, smooth, yellowish-white, ornamented with broad rufo- 
fuscous longitudinal lines; the last whorl crowned above 
with tubercles; the upper whorls tuberculiferoua at the 
base : the canal or tube rather long and striated. 

Locality.— The Antilles. Bay of Campeaehy. 

D. Species more ventricose and delicate. 0|rTT/> 

' Liiyiiiz,t;u uy ^^^ " v^ fJ^ mT L v^ 

S I P 


S I P 

Example, Pyrula Picua. 

Descri'ption.Sheli fig-shaped, delicately decussated, 
ccerulescen t'grey ; sprinkled with variegated bay or violet 
spots * transverse stris the largest and most crowded ; the 
spire 'shorty convex, mucronated at the centre; mouth 
ccerulesceut* violaceous generally. 

Zoco/tVy.— The East Indian Ocean. The Moluccas. 

Fyrala Ficiw. 

£. Ventricose species, with a short tul e ; aperture very 
large and wide, sensibly notched. 

Example, Pyrula Melongena, 

7>Mcri/>^ion.— Shell pyriform, turgidly ventricose, cccru- 
lescent, glaucous, or rurous, banded with white ; the whorls 
channelled at the sutures; the last sometimes unarmed, 
but more frequently rauricated, with various sharp tuber- 
cles ; spire short, acute ; aperture smooth and white. 

LocaliUj, — ^West Indian Seas ; Antilles. 

F. Species still shorter; aperture very wide; the right 
lip subalated. 

Example, Pt/mla abbreviata. 

DescripUon.^Shell suhpyriform, very ventricose, rather 
rough, transversely sulcated, cinerescent- white ; the spire 
rather prominent ; the canal short, widely umbilicated ; 
iDuricutatedon the back with subechinate elevated furrows ; 
outer lip striated within, and fls margin denticulated. 

Pyridee have been found on mud, sandy mud, and sand, 
at depths ranging from the surface to nine fathoms. 

The number of living species recorded by Lamarck is 
twenty-eight. M. Deshayes has described one more (P. 
fulvd), and a variety of P. Fespertilio, Lam. Lamarck re- 
cords six fossil species, four from Grignon and Courtagnon, 
one from Fames, and one from Houdan. Defrance notices 
twelve, three of which, from the Plaisantin, he considers as 
analogous, and other three from the neighbourhood of Bor- 
deaux, analogues also. M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes 
the number of living Pyrulce thirty-one, and the number of 
fossil (tertiary) twenty-one ; of these last he indicates Py- 
rul€e reticulata, Ficus, MelongenOy and Spirillta, as being 
found both living and fossil (tertiary). Dr. Mantell records 
two species, bulbifomds f and lavigata, from the blue clay 
of Bracklesham in Sussex, and one from the arenaceous 
limestone of Bognor. Dr. Fitton records three, Brightii, 
depressa, and Smithii f, from the strata below the chalk 
(gault of Kent). Mr. Lea records three, Pyrula cancellata, 
elegantissima, and Smithiu from the tertiary beds at Clai- 
borne, Alabama. 

Fasciolaria. (Lem.) 

Generic Character, 

Anhnal of Fasciolaria. a, operculam. 

Shell fusiform, not vejry thick, rather convex in the mid- 
dle, with a moderate spire; aperture oval; canal rather 
long, sometimes slightly bent; right lip trenchant, often 
wrinkled internally; columellar lip with some very oblique 

OpfTculum homy. 

A. Fusiform, hut not tuberculous species. 

Example, Fasciolaria Tulipa, 

Description,— SheW fusiform, ventricose in the middle, 
unarmed, smooth, sometimes orange-rufous, sometimes 
marbled with white and bay, girt with transverse browp 
lines unequally congregated ; whorls very convex ; sutures 
fimbriated at the margin ; tube siilcatcd; outer lip white 
and striated within. 

Xoco/i/y.— West Indian Seas; the Antilles. 

Faiclolaria Tullpa. witU the operculum la tito. 

B. Fusiform and tuberculous species. 
Example, Fasciolaria Trapezium. 

Description, — Shell fusiform, ventricose, tuberculiferous, 
rather smooth, white or rufescent, girt with rufous lines ; 
the tubercles conical, subcompressed, and in a single series 
in the middle of the whorls ; columella reddish-yellow ; outer 
lip elegantly striated within, the strife red. 

Locality,— The East Indian Ocean. 

C. Tuberculated and turriculated species. 

Example, Fasciolaria JUamentosa, 

Description,She\\ elongated, fusiform, turreted, trans- 
versely sulcated, white, painted with longitudinal orange- 
red stripes ; middle of the whorls subangulated, and the 
whorls themselves crowned with short and compressed 
tubercles; the canal rather long; the outer lip striated 

Locality, — The East Indian Seas. 

FasciolariiBhBye been found on muddy bottoms, at depths 
ranging from the surface to seven fathoms. 

I^marck rs^cords eight living species. Mr. Broderip has 
described one (granosa) brought by Mr. Cuming from 
Panama. M. de Blainville states that seven fossil species 
are known. M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes the number 
of living Faseiolariee seven only, and the numl^r of fossil 
(tertiary) speeies five. Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Mur- 
chison rccdtd one species {Fasciolaria elongata) in the 
Grosau deposit and its equivalents in the Eastern Alps. Mr. 
Lea notices two, Fasciolaria plicata and elevata, in the 
Caibome tertiary, Alabama. 

Turbinella. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal imperfectly known. 

Shell ordinarily turbinated, but also sometimes turricu- 
lated, rugous, thick; spire rather variable in form ; aperture 
elongated, terminated by a straight canal, often sufficiently 

Turbi^iella Rapa« 

S I P 


S I P 

short; the left lip nearly straight and formed by a callosity 
hiding the columella, which has two or three unequal, 
nearly transverse plaits ; right lip entire and trenchant. 

A. Fusiform and nearly smooth species. 
Example, Turbinella Bapa. 
Descnption.^SheW submsiform, ventricose in the middle, 

thick, very ponderous, unarmed, white ; the whorls above 
covering the base of the preceding one ; canal rather short ; 
columella subquadriplicated. 
Xoca/f ^.— The East Indian Ocean. 

B. Turbinaceous and spiny species. 
Example, Turbinella Sholymus, 

Deserfpion. — Shell subfusiform, ventricose in the middle, 
tuberculated, pale yellow; spire conical, tuberculato-nodose ; 
the last whorl crowned above with great tubercles ; canal 
transversely sulcated; the columella orange-coloured and 

Locality,~'The East Indian Ocean. 

C. Turriculated, subfusiform species. 
Example, Turbinella Jnfundimdum, 

Description. — Shell fusiform-turreted, narrow, many- 
ribbed, transversely sulcated, the ribs longitudinal and 
thick, the furrows smooth and red, and the interstices yel- 
low ; canal perforated, the aperture white. 

Turbinellee have been found on bottoms of sandy mud, 
at depths varying from the surface to eighteen fathoms. 

Lamarck records 23 living species, all from the seas of 
warm climates. Mr. Broderip describes three more brought 
by Mr. Cuming from the Galapagos Islands, Elizabeth 
Island, and the Caracas. M. de Blainville observes that 
when he wrote (1825) no fossils had l>een found. M. Rang 
fl829) states that there are fossil species. M. Deshayes, in 
his tables, makes the number of living species 32 and the 
number of fossil (tertiary) 3. 

* * A persistent bourrelet on the right lip. 

Columbella. (Lam.) 

Generic Character, — Animal incompletely known. 

Shell thick, turbinated, with a short obtuse spjre ; aper- 
ture narrow, elongated, terminated by a very short canal 
slightly notched, narrowed by a convexity at the internal 
side of the right lip and the plaits of the columella. 

Operculum horny, very small. 

Example, Columbella mercatoria. 

Description. — Shell ovate- turbinated, transversely sul- 
cated, white, painted with small, rufo-fuscous, transverse, 
subfasciculated lines, sometimes banded; outer lip denticu- 
lated within. 

Locality.^The Atlantic Ocean. 

ColoiBbella mercatoria. 

Cohtmbellie have been found on bottoms of sandy mud 
and mud at depths ranging from the surface to sixteen 

Lamarck describes eighteen species, all from the seas of 
warm climates. M. de Blainville acknowledges that this 
genus would perhaps be better placed among the opercu- 
lated Angyostomata, or narrow-mouthed testaceous gastro- 
pods. M. Rang however arranges it between Triton and 
TurbineUa, Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described thirty-nine 
additional species brought home by Mr. Cuming. De- 
france notices one fossil species. M. Deshayes, in his 
tables, makes the number of living species thirty-three and 
of fossil (tertiary) four. M. de Blainville remarks that the 
Columbella avara of Say has not the character of the 
thickened right lip. 

Tnton. (Lam.) 

Generic Character, — Animal a good deal resembling that 

Shell oval, with the spire and canal straight and moderate ; 
ordinarily rugose, furnisned with few variQcs, which are scat- 
tered and arranged longitudinally ; aperture suboval, elon- 
gated, terminated- by a short open canal ; the oolumellar lip 
less excavated than the right, and covered by a callosity. 

Operculum homy and inclined to ovaL 

Animal of Triton. 
a. operculum. 

A. Comparatively smooth species, with cordons slighlly 
or not at all marked, with the exception of that of the 
right lip. 

Example, Triton variegatus, the marine trumpet or 
Triton's shell. 

Description.-^SheW elongated-conical, trumpet-shaped, 
ventricose below, girt with very obtuse smooth ribs, white, 
elegantly variegated with red and bay ; the sutures crisped at 
the margin ; the aperture red ; the columella wrinkled with 
white and with a smgle plait above ; the edge of the outer 
lip spotted with black, the spots bidentated with white. 

Locality,— The seas of the West Indies and the Asiatic 
seas, especially those of the torrid zone. 

Triton Voriegatas. 

B. Species more tuberculous, or spiny, whose aperture is 
more open, and terminated by a more or less ascending 
canal. (Genus Lotorium of De Montfort.) 

Example, Triton Lotorium. 

Xtejfcr«/)/ton.— Shell fusiform-turreted, distorted below, 
very much tuberculated, transversely rugous, and striated, 
rufous ; the whorls above angulate-tuberculated ; canal tor- 
tuous, the extremity recurved, the aperture trigono-elon- 
gated and white ; the outer lip toothed within. 

Locality, — East Indian Ocean. 

C. Species with a shorter spire, always very tuberculor 
most frequently umbilicated, a sinus at the poster 

S [ P 


S I P 

junction of the two lips. (Genus Aquillus, Do Mont- 

Example, Triton cutaceus. 

Descr%piion,Sht\\ ovate» ventricose-depressed, cingu- 
lated, tuberculato-nodose, yellow-rufescent ; the belts rather 
prominent, separated by a furrow ; the whorls above angu- 
lato-tuberculate, rather flattened above ; canal short, umbili- 
cated ; the outer lip notched within. 

Locality. — ^The Atlantic Ocean. 

D. Species like those of section C, but whose aperture is 
closely narrowed by a callosity and irregular teeth. 
(Genus Persona^ De Montf.) 

Example, Triton Anus, the Grimace of collectors. 

Description, — Shell ovate, ventricose-gibbous, distorted, 
flattened beneath ; nodulous above, subcancellated, white, 
spotted with rufous ; the aperture narrowed, sinuous, irregu- 
lar, ringent ; the lip very much toothed ; the canal short and 

Locality, — The East Indian Seas. 

Tritons have been found on various bottoms at depths 
ranging from the surface to thirty fathoms. 

The number of living species recorded by Lamarck 
amounts to fifty-one. Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described 
eight additional species, and Mr. Broderip the same num- 
ber brought home by Mr. Cuming. Lamarck describes 
three fossil species, all from Grignon. M. de Blainville states 
that one of the species has its analogue. Defrance makes 
the number of fossil species ten, one from the Plaisantin, 
an analogue according to Brocchi. M. Deshayes in his 
tables, published before the descriptions of Mr. Sowerby and 
Mr. Broderip, makes the number of living species of Triton 
43 and of fossil (tertiary) 25. Of these last, he records 
Tritones nodiferua, Lamias, Scrobiculator, succinctus, clath- 
ratus, and unijilosus as both living and fossil (tertiary). 
Struthiolaria. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. 

Shell oval, the spire elevated, the aperture oval and 
wide ; canal very short, verv much notched ; right lip sinu- 
ous, not toothed, furnished with a bourrelet ; columellar 
border callous, extended ; a sinus at the posterior union of 
the two lips. 

Operculum horny. 

Example, Struthiolaria nodulosa. 

Deicrtption. — Shell ovate-conical, thick, transversely 
striated, white, painted with undulated, longitudinal, saf- 
fron-coloured flame-like lines; whorls angulated above, 
flattened on the upper side, nodulous at the angle ; the 
sutures simple, the outer lip luteo-rufescent within. 
Localiltf.— The seas of Wew Zealand. 

Lamarck records two living species. M. Deshayes, in his 
tables, also makes the number of living species two ; and 
he records one fossil (tertiary), with a query, from Paris. 
Ranella. (Lam.) 
Generic Character. 

Shell oval or oblong, depressed, having only two varices 
situated laterally ; aperture oval ; canal short, and a sinus 
at the union of the two lips, backwards. 

A. Non-umbilicated species. (Genus Bi(/b, Do Montf.) 
Example, Ranella granulata. 

Description. — Shell ovate- acute, girt with close-set granu- 
««^^/STeih«tri8B, pale saffron colour, zoned with fulvoui; colu- 
/ mella sulcated ; outer lip thick and toothed. 

Locality,'— The East Indian Ocean. 

B. umbilicated species. 
Example, Ranella foliata. 

verse, subgranulated, low ridges, the interstices between 
which are longitudinally striated; the whorls armed with 
one row of sharp tubercles, the middle of which are the 
longest, the other ridges of the bofly whorl obsoletely tuber- 
culated here and there ; the columellar lip expansive and 
foliated, and the margin of the outer lip expanded and thin ; 
the aperture ovate, very strongly and thickly fiirrowed, of a 
rich orange-colour, and terminating above in a deep foliated 
sinus, which extends beyond the varix. (Brod.) 

Locali ty. ^The Mauritius. 

Ranellce have been taken on different bottoms at depths 
varving from the surface to eleven fathoms. 

iLamarck describes fifteen living species. M. Deshaves 
has described another; and Mr. Broderip nine new species, 
eight of which were brought home by Mr. Cuming. M. de 
Blainville states that there is but one fossil species, but 
allows that Defrance admits five, three of which, firom 
Italy, are identical. M. Deshayes, in his tables, gives the 
number of living species as nineteen, and of fossil (tertiary) 
as eight : of these last he records Ranella gigantea, gra- 
nulata, pygmera, and tuberosa, as living and fossil (ter- 

Murex. (Linn.) 

Generic Character, ^Animal furnished with two long and 
approximated tentacles ; mouth without jaws, but armed 
with hooked denticles in lieu of a tongue ; foot rounded, 
generally rather short; mantle large, often ornamented 
with fringes on the right side only ; branchise fbrmed of 
two uneaual pectinations; anus on the right side in the 
branchial cavity ; orifice of the oviduct on the right side at 
the entrance of the same cavity; orifice of the deferent 
canal at the end of the exciting organ, on the right side of 
the neck. 

fifAtf//.— Oval, oblong, more or less elevated on the spiral 
side, or prolonged forwards ; external surface always inter- 
rupted by rows of varices in the form of spires or ramifica- 
tions, or simply tubercles, generally arranged in regular and 
constant order; aperture oval, terminated anteriorly by a 
straight canal, which is more or less elongated and closed ; 
right lip often plaited or wrinkled; columellar lip often 

Operculum homy. 

Ranella follata. 

Desenption. — Shall ovate-conical, ventricote, not oom- 
prMted» of a flesh or pale rote*ooloaT ; with freqaent traaft- 

Animal of Miixex. 
o, opercalum. 

A. Species with a very long and spiny tube. {Thorny 

Woodcocks of collectors.) 
. Example., Murex Tribulus, Linn. (Murex tenuitpinat 

Description. — Shell ventricose anteriorlv, the tube very 
long, elegantly spired throughout its lengtn, the spirea set 
in triple order, each row at regular intervals, greyish or 
purplish grey ; the spires veiy long, thin, rather closely set. 
and somewhat hooked ; body of the shell transversely sul- 
cated and Btriated; the spire prominent. 

Locality.^-^The Indian Ocean ; Moluccas. 

This is the Venus's Comb of collectors, and when perfect 
is a most delicate and striking shell. 

B. Species with a very long tube and without spines. 

(Genus Brontes, De Montf.) 

Example, Murex Haustellum (Snipers or Woodcocks head 
of collectors). 

Description. — Shell anteriorly ventricose, naked, scarcely 
armed, fulvous inclining to red, lineated with bay ; body of 
the shell rounded and furnished with three or more ribs 
between the varices ; the tube verj long and slender ; tho 
spire ahori ; month ronndiab^ red. ' ^^ ^ ^^ 



S I P 

Manx Tribulus (Common Thoniy Woodcock ; Mures mlipina, Lam.)*! 

Locaiity, the East Indian Ocean ; Moluccas. 

Mures Uaustellum. 

C. Species M^ith tbree elevated, flattened, and ccmpa- 
ratively thin varices. 
Exanaple. — Murex acanthopterus. 
Description, — Shell oblong, fusiform, trialated, trans- 
' versely sulcated and striated, white ; the alse membrana- 
ceous ; whorls angulated ; aperture ovate-rounded. 
Locaiity.—'EdLSi Indian Seas. 

Mucex re^iuf, 

D. Species with three ramified varices. (Genus Chico- 

rem, De Montf.; 
f Example, Murex adusius. 

Description. — Shell abbreviate-fusiform, suboval, vcntri- 
cose, thick, with three rows of frond-like ramifications, 
transversely sulcated, black ; the fronds short, curved and 
dentate-muricated ; the tubercle of the interstices very 
large ; aperture small, roundish, white. 
Locality, — East Indian Ocean. 

E. Species which have a greater number of varices ; 
the tube nearly closed. 

Example, Murex regius. 

No description can convey an adequate idea of the splen- 
did colouring of this species when it is in fine condition ; 
the form is given below. 

Locality, — The western coast of Central and South 

F. Subturriculated species. 
Example, Murex lyratus, 

DescHption.—^Shell Aisiform-turreted,thin, multifariously 
varicose, horny-fulvous ; the varices thin and lamelliform ; 
the interstices smooth ; the whorls convex ; the tube short 

G. Subturriculated species; the tube closed; a tube 

pierced towards the posterior extremity of the 
right side, and persistent upon the whorls of the 
spire. (Genus Typhis, De Montf.) 

Example, Murex pungens, fossil. 

H. Species more globular ; the spire and canal shorter, 
very open ; the aperture rather wide, 

Example, Murex mttUinus, 

Description. — Shell ovate-oblong, ventricose, somewhat 
rough, with seven rows of varices, which are obtuse, asperu- 
late, and r uddv ; the interstices white ; tube naiTow, some- 
what acute ; tne aperture white ; the lip toothed internally 

I. Species which have an oblique fola very much anterioi 
to the collumella, and an umbilicus. (Genus PAo#, De 

Murices have been found on different bottoms at depths 
ranging from five to twenty-five fathoms; and species of 
Typhis on sandy mud at depths varying from six to eleven 

Lamarck records 66 recent and 15 fossil species, most^ from 
Grignon. To the recent species are to be added 26 Murices 
described by Mr. Broderip from specimens brought home 
by Mr. Cuming, and 5 of Typhis (recent), also described by 
Mr. Broderip. 

M. de Blainville remarks that among the fossil species of 
France there is no true analogue ; but he adds that Defrance, 
who admits 50 fossil species, counts 30 analogues from the 
Plaisanlin, after Brocchi. 

M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes the number of recent 
species of Murex (apparently including Typhis) 75, a num- 
ber much below the mark, and gives 89 as the number of 
fossil species (tertiary). Of these last he records the fol- 
lowing as having been found both living and fossil (tertiary) : 
— comutus, Brandaris, irunculus, erinaceus, trtpierus, 
cristatus, flsiulosus, tubifer, a new species, elongatus, an- 
gularis, saxatilis (var.), another new species, Lasseignei, 
and a third new species. 

Dr. Mantell records one species (argutus) from the blue 
clay of Brackleshain (Sussex) ; and another {Smithii) from 
the arenaceous limestone of Bognor. Professor Phillips 
names one (Haccanensis) from the coralline oolite of York- 
shire. Dr. Fitton records one (Calcar) from the gault of 
Kent and Blackdown ; and Mr. Lea one from the Claiborne 
tertiary, Alabama. 

The Entomostomata and Siphonostomata may be con- 
sidered as the two great tribes of carnivorous gastropods or 
trachelipods appointed to keep down the undue increase of 
the CoNCHiFERA and herbivorous gastropods, whose shells 
the majority of those carnivorous testaeeans penetrate by 
means of an organ which makes a hole as truly round as if 
it had been cut by an auger, and then feed on the juices of 
the included animal. 

Dr. Buckland notices this habit with a view to the con- 
dition of the testaceous inhabitants of the earlier seas of our 
planet with his wonted felicity. • Most collectors,' says the 
Professor, * have seen upon the sea-shore numbers of dead 
shells, in which small circular holes have been bored by the 
predaceous tribes, for the purpose of feeding upon the bodies 
of the animals contained within them: similar holes occur 
in many fossil shells of the tertiary strata, wherein the shells 
of carnivorous trachelipods also abound; but perforations Vil' 

S I R 


S I R 

this kind are extremely rare in the fossil shells of any older 
formation. In the green-sand and oolite they have heen 
noticed only in those few cases where they are accompanied 
hy the shells of equally rare carnivorous moUusks ; and in 
the lias and slrala below it,* there are neither perforations, 
nor any shells having the notched mouth peculiar to perfo- 
rating carnivorous species. It should seem from these 
facts that, in the economy of submarine life, the great 
family of carnivorous trachelipods performed the same 
necessary office during the tertiary period which is allotted 
to them in the present ocean. We have further evidence 
to show that in times anterior to and during the deposition 
of the chalk, the same important functions were consigned 
to other carnivorous mollusks, viz. the testaceous cephalo- 
pods: these are of comparatively rare occurrence in the 
tertiary strata and in our modem seas ; but throughout the 
secondary and transition formations, where carnivorous tra- 
chelipods are either wholly wanting or extremely scarce, 
we find abundant remains of carnivorous cephalopods, con- 
sisting of the chambered shells of nautili and ammonites, 
and many kindred extinct genera of polythalamous shells 
of extraordinary beauty. The molluscous inhabitants of all 
these chambered shells probably possessed the voracious 
habits of the modern cuttle-fish ; and by feeding like them 
upon young testacea and Crustacea, restricted the excessive 
increase of animal life at the bottom of the more antient 
seas. Their sudden and nearly total disappearance at the 
commencement of the tertiary era would have caused a 
blank in the '* police of nature," allowing the herbivorous 
tribes to increase to an excess that would ultimately have 
been destructive of marine vegetation, as well as of them- 
selves, had they not been replaced by a different order of 
carnivorous creatures, destined to perform in another man- 
ner the office which the inhabitants of the ammonites and 
various extinct genera of chambered shells then ceased to 
discharge. From that time onwards we have evidence of 
the abundance of carnivorous trachelipods, and we see good 
reason to adopt the conclusion of Mr. Dillwyn, that in the 
formation above the chalk the vast and sudden decrease of 
one predaceous tribe has been provided for by the creation 
of many new genera and species possessed of similar ap- 
petencies, and yet formed for obtaining their prey by habits 
entirely different from those of the cephalopods. The design 
of the Creator seems at all tiroes to have been to fill the 
waters of the seas and cover the surface of the earth with 
the greatest possible amount of organised beings enjoying 
life ; and the same expedient of adapting the vegetable 
kingdom to become the basis of the life of animals, and of 
xnuUiplying largely the amount of animal existence by the 
addition of camivora to the herbivora, appears to have 
prevailed from the first commencement of organic life to 
the present hour.' {Bridgewater Treatise,) 

Sl'RACUSE. [Syracuse.] 

SIRE'DON, Wagler's name for the Axolotl. Since 
that article was written, further information has been ob- 
tained relative to the structure of this genus of perenui- 
branchiate Batrachians. The form and character of the 
teeth, as given by Profei^sor Owen, will be found in the ar- 
ticle Salamandrida, vol. XX., p. 328, and we avail ourselves 
of this opportunity to introduce a reduced copy of the figure 
of the animal, lately published by MM. Dum6ril and Bib- 
ron, to whose excellent work on Reptiles we refer for the 
latest particulars known. 

Siredoa lecn in profile ; a, mouth seen in front, open to ihow the teeth. 

We shall confine ourselves in this article to an account of 
its organization, as observed by Cuvier, so that the reader 

* Carnivoroni gastropods occur in the Silurian rocki ; and the long tube of 
the SiphimostorMUa b equally characteristic of camiyoroQS habiti with tlw 
ttftXch of the Entoptottomata, 

may have some notion of its relationship to the other percn 
nibranchiate Batrachians. 

Cuvier then remarks that the Axolotl approacli^s nearly 
to the Salamander, and especially to its larva. The cranium 
of the Axolotl is indeed more depressed; its sphenoid bone 
wider and flatter; the bones of the nose proportionally 
smaller ; the ascending apophyses of the intermaxillary bones 
longer and narrower; but, especially, in lieu of those large 
and fixed bones which Cuvier calls vomers or palatines, 
there are two oblong plates detached from the cranium be- 
set with teeth in quincuncial order, and continuing them- 
selves with the pterygoids, which reach them because tbey 
are longer than in the Salamander^ and which also carry 
teeth in front on their external edge. Behind, these ptery- 
goids are widened, without always articulating themselves 
to the sphenoid, as in the Salamander of the Alleghanies. 
[Salamandridtb, vol. XX., p. 332.] The space between the 
orbital and the petrous bone is also more considerable than 
in the Salamanders. The lower jaw has a regular dental 
portion forming the symphysis and the greatest part of the 
external surface, and armed all along its superior edge 
with small, fine, and pointed teeth; an articular portion, 
which doubles the posterior part of the internal surface of 
the preceding, forms the posterior angle and carries the 
articular tubercle; lastly, there is a true opercular bone, 
long and delicate, covering at the internal surface the in- 
terval of the two preceding, but furnished throughout with 
very small pointed teeth arranged in quincuncial order. 
And this is the structure which we find in the Siren, with 
this difference, that the dental portion in the latter has no 
true teeth, which are only seen on the opercular bone. 

In all the Axolotls that Cuvier examined, the branchial 
apparatus was cartilaginous. It consisted of two suspensory 
branches, or anterior horns, affixed to the cranium under the 
fenestra rotunda, carrying an unequal piece, to which two 
lateral branches were attached on each side : the first carried 
the first arch of the branchisD ; the second, the three others. 
The first of these arches had dentilations on its posterior 
border ; the two intermediate ones, on both their borders. 
Under the unequal piece was one which went backward, 
and whose extremity was bifurcated. 

When Cuvier wrote this description (in the Ossemens 
Fbssiles\ he thought that this animal was the larva of some 
unknown Salamander ; but in his last edition of the Rigne 
Animal he corrected this conjecture, and placed it where all 
zoolofsists now place it, among the Batrachians. 

SIREN (Zoology), a genus of Perennibranchiate Batra- 

Generic Character. — Form elongated, nearly like that of 
the eels ; branchial tufts three on each side ; no posterior 
feet, nor any vestige of a pelvis ; head depressed ; gape of the 
mouth not wide ; muzzle obtuse ; eye very small ; the ear 
concealed; lower jaw armed with a horny sheath and 
several rows of small teeth; the unper jaw toothless; but 
numerous small, pointed, retroverted teeth occur on the pala- 
tal region. [SALAMANDRiDiS, vol. XX., p. 328.] 

Dr. Garden appears to be the first who called attention to 
this form, whion is declared by Cuvier to be one of the 
most remarkable of the class of Reptiles, and indeed of the 
whole animal kingdom, from the anomalies of its organiza- 
tion, and its apparent relationship with different families, 
and even classe.<«. Dr. Garden (1765-1766) sent a descrip- 
tion of this reptile toLinneeus and Ellis, and the former, re- 
lying upon Dr. Garden's assurance that the Siren did not 
change its form, established an additional order for it in his 
class Amphibia, with the name of Meantes, 

Pallas, Hermann, Schneider, and Lac6p^e however saw, 
as Cuvier remarks, nothing more in the Siren than the 
larva of some large unknown Salamander ; whilst Camper^ 
followed by Gmelin, went so far as to give it a place among 
the fishes. The latter arranges it at the end of the Eels*, 
under the name of Mureena Siren. These differences of 
opinion sufficiently show the doubts which arose on the ex 
amination of this extraordinary form. 

Cuvier, in 1807, satisfactorily established, in a memoir 
read to the Institute of France, and inserted in the 1st vol. 
of the ' Zoological Observations of Humboldt,' that whatever 
changes it might undergo, the Siren was a reptile sui ge- 
neris, which never could have hind feet, and whose whole 
bony framework differed essentially from tHat of the Sala- 
manders ; that there was no probability that it ever changed 
its form or lost its branchia ; and that the Siren is conse- 
quently a true amphibian, whicliijrQftpires^^ai^ill throughout 

s I n 


S I R 

its life* either in the water by means of branchio, or in the 
air by means of longs. This eoneluBion rested upon that 
solid basts whtdi has given soch value— a value oaily be- 
coming more-appreciatml— to the views of this great zoolo- 
gtsr,--his personal observations made on the osteology and 
splanchnology of the animal. 

Dr. Garden had, in his eorrespondenee with Linnsus 
and Ellis, come to the same conclusion fW>m other evi- 
' dence. Dr. Garden had observed the animal from the length 
of four inches to that of three feet and a half; he &ad 
satufled himself that in the whole province there was not, 
with the exception of the alligator, any Saurian or Sala- 
mander which exceeded six or seven inches in length, and 
be had convinced himself that it was oviparous, and that it 
propagated without losing its branchise. 

In 1766 Hunter, as we shall presently see, declared the 
Siren to be a complete fbrm, on the most satisfiictory evi- 
dence : the specimens dissected by him were brought ttom 
South Osrolina in 1758. 

That the Siren is a perfect animal belcmging to the pe- 
rennibranchiate batracbians is now admitted by all soo- 
logists. Cuvier indeed remarks {Rigne Animal), that 
the branchio of Siren intermedia and Siren striata have 
been regarded as not particimtting in their respiration, and 
that in consequence Mr. J. £. Gray has formed them into 
the genus P^eudobranchut. Cuvier however adds, that it 
is, nevertheless, not difficult to see on their lower surfkce 
folds and a vascular apparatus, the use of which does not 
appear doubtful to him ; and that M. Leeonte has satisfac- 
torily demonstrated that both these species, as well as Siren 
lacertina, are perfect animals. 

Cuvier remarks that the Siren should be judged of not 
aAer Amphiuma, but from itself. He accordingly procured 
some sirens, and saw an osteology so finished and so firm, 
that it was impossible to believe that they were not adult 
The branchio of these individuals were perfectly entire, 
and their lungs completely developed, and rich in well- 
filled vessels, r^o doubt therefbre existed in his mind that 
the animals used both. 

He observes, that it had been objected that it would be 
impossible for these animals to respire air without ribs or 
diaphragm ; and without the power possessed by the tor- 
toises and frogs to cause it to enter by the nostrils, in order 
that, so to speak, it might be swallowed, because the nostrils 
of the Sirens do not lead into the mouth, and Uie branchial 
apertures must let it escape. But his own observations made 
upon well-preserved individuals showed Cuvier that the nos- 
trils in the siren do communicate with the mouth by a hole 
eierced, as in the Prottme, between the lip and the palatal 
one which carries the teeth. The membranous opercula 
of their branchies are muscular internally, and capable of 
bermeticallv sealing the apertures ; then it is very easy for 
the siren, by dilating its throat, to introduce the air into 
the mouth, and to &rce it afterwards, by contracting the 
throat, into its larynx. Even without this structure of the 
nostrils, the animal could produce the same effect by open- 
ing its lips a little : a theory which Cuvier applies to the Pro- 
teu8 as well as the Siren, 

The simultaneous existence, observes the same author, of 
a larynx and a trachea with a branchial apparatus not only 
permanent, but perfectly ossified in many of its parts, is 
also worthy of especial attention, and proves, as is evident 
in the frogs and salamanders, that the branchial apparatus 
is no otlMr than a more complicated os hvoides, and not 
a combination of pieces proceeding from the sternum and 
larynx. He adds, that it is to the salamanders that the 
airens approach most nearly by the structure of the head, 
although neiUier the (^neral form nor the proportions of 
the parts have so near similarity. 

Having thus given a general view of the conformation of 
this extraordinary animal, we proceed to a sketch of the 
details of its 


Slike^tffofi.— The ^tM of the siren is narrowed in front by 
reason of the excessive reduction of the maxillary b<HMS, 
which consist only of a very small osseous point Behind 
there is a strong occipital crest on the parietal and petrous 
bones. The pieces which form the lower jaw, instead of 
being transverse like the branches of a cross, are directed 
obliquely forwards. The parietal bones occupy the greatest 
portion of the upper part of the cranium. They have each 
m front a point, expanding so as to lodge between them 
the posterior part of the principal frontal bones, which have 
P. C No. 1366. 

each a groove for the lodgment of tbe posterior point of two 
slender l)ones, which proceed beside each other to the end 
of the muxsle. At their sides are attached two other bones, 
which are slender and pointed backwards, and which de- 
scend and widen far in order to raise the anterior edge ot 
the jaw. Cuvier takes the first for the nasal bones, and the 
others for intermaxillary bones. These last are toothless, 
but their edge is trenchant, and fbmisbed, when the animal 
is alive or well preserved, as well as the edges of the lower 
jaw, with a sheath which is nearly horny, is easily detached 
from the s^um, and has its analogue in the tadpoles of the 
frogs. [Salamanuuojb, vol. xx., p. 328.] Between them, 
at the end of the osseous mussle, is an aperture, but not 
that of the nostrils. In the recent animal it is dosed, and 
the nostril is pierced on each side on the outside of the in- 
termaxillary bone. In the crocodile the intermaxillary ad* 
heres to the external side of the nasal bone, and all the 
reptiles, except the crocodile, have the nostril on the out- 
side of tho ascending apophyjtis of the intermaxillary bone ; 
but the peculiarity in the Siren is, that the intermaxillary 
ascending to the irontal bone entirely separates the nasal 
bone from the frame of the external nostril. The maxillary 
bone excludes the nasal in the same way in the chameleon. 
A very small bone, suspended in the flesh t^low the'exler- 
nal nostril, and without any tooth, is the sole perceptible 
vestige of the maxillary bone. The cavity of the nostril is 
oove^ below with a simple ligamentous membrane* The 
internal nostril is situated on each side, near the commis- 
sure of the lips, between the lip and the palatine teeth. All 
the lower part of the cranium and the face is composed of 
a large and wide sphenmd, which extends from the occipital 
hole to the intermaxillaries. The sides of the omnium, in 
the orbital region and the ftonx of the temporal bone, are 
dosed by a single bone, in which are pierced, forward, the 
olfactory aperture; fkrther back, the optic hole, and an- 
other for the first branch of the fifth pair, and probably ibr 
the small nerves of the eye. The inferior surface of this 
lateral bone forms part of the palate at the sides ef the 
snhenoid bone. It is plain that it perlbrms the functions of 
the orbital part of the sphenoid bonj9^ or what has been 
called the anterior sphenoid, and that it fulfils in part those 
of the ethmoid. Between it and the petrous bone is a great 
membranous space, in which is pierced the hole for the rest 
of the fifth pair of nerves. The petrous bone and the lateral 
occipital bone are perfectly distinct It is in the uetrous 
bone only that the fenestra ovalis is pierced, or ratner cut 
out, but the lower part of its f^me is, nevertheless, com- 
pleted by the lateral occipital and the sphenoid. Its aper- 
ture, which is large, is directed a little downwards. In 
the fresh state it is closed by a cartilaginous plate si- 
milar to that in the Salamander. There is only a single 
tvmpanic bone fitted obliquely by its posterior stem on 
the superior surface of the petrous bone, and enlarging be- 
low nearly like a trumpet, in order to furnish a large facet 
to the lower jaw. Cuvier found neither mastoidian, ptery- 
goTdian, jug^l, superior ocdpital, nor basilary bone, and he 
remarks that the occurrence of the two last is impossible, 
when the position of the suture, which separates the lateral 
occipital bones, is considered. To the palate, under the an- 
terior and lateral part of the sphenoid and orbital bones, are 
fitted two delicate plates beset with hooked teeth. They 
may be taken for the vestiges of vomers and of palatines, or, 
if it be preferred, of palatines and pterygoidians ; but Cu- 
vier did not find sufficiently marked characters to warrant 
giving them those names. Ihe first, which is the largest, 
has six or seven oblique ro\fs of pointed teeth, making a 
kind of wool-card. Those of the mtddie have each twelve 
teeth; the anterior and posterior ones have less. The 
seeond plate has four rows of similar teetb» ea^h row con- 
sisting of from five to six. 

The lower jaw of the Siren is composed of four bones on 
eaoh side ; one of which forms the symphysis and the trench- 
ant border of the jaw, which it invests extemdly up to near 
its posterior extremity. One cannot, Cuvier observes, avoid 
taking it for the analogue of the dental portion, but it is not 
the portion which carries the teeth, and it has only its 
trenchant edee invested in the fresh animal with a horny 
covering,"analogous to that which forms the edge opposed 
to the upper jaw. The posterior extremity of this Uench* 
ant edge, more elevated than the rest of the border of the 
bone, serves for the ^oconoTd apophysis. The second bone 
forms the greatest portion of the internal surface and thf 
posterior angle, and carries, 9!ow% the third, which is th« 

Vol. XXIL— I 

S I R 


S I H 

attleulaf tubercle. Th« fourth is a delicate and tiirtow 
ItmiDa ivbich tierfornift the offioe of (he opereuUr hone, and 
DovtrrSf oti I he iittemal sorfkoe, a vacate j left batwaen the 
two flrsl. The whole of this hone i« beeet with gtnall 
pointed teeth disfxYsed qoincuncially like those of the palatal 

The 0$ hy(Mdes of the Siren Is Hd o« hycffdea of the larta 
of a Salamander or of the Asiolotl, bat tery mueh onified 
in many of its parts. Ttie suspensory branch or anterior 
horn iM a bone stouter and longer than the humerus, dilated 
at iu two ends, narrowed in its middle, and suspended to 
the eranium by a lij^ament The first unequal pieoe is also 
a very hard bone dilated anteriorly, compressed posteriorly, 
and narrotc^d in its middle. The second unequal piece is a 
pedicle, which is divided behind into many radiating apo- 

Khysen: the whole of this, again, is very bony, and the two 
iteral branches are equally so. The first, which is the 
stoutest, carries the first arch of the branchiae ; the second, 
\irhieh is more slender, carries the three others. These 
gill^arches are not ossified, but always remain cariilagitlous, 
as in the Axolotl, and are, like those of the Axolotl, denti- 
lated. They are united by ligaments at their external ex- 
tremity, which a ligatnent attaches also to tlie root of the 
anterior horn. • The same pieces, or very nearly the same, 
mav be seen in the Proteus, 

The shouldet-blade of the Siren is slender, nearly cylin- 
drical, narrowed in its middle, and aufnuented, on the spinal 
side, by a cartilaginous lamina. The clavicle and the 
e&racfMS are represented by two cartilaginous lobes, one 
directed ibrwards, the other much wider, proceeding upon 
the breast and crossing upon that of the oppoerte side. In 
the exterutil border of this coraco¥d cartilage, near and a 
little behind the Articular fossa, is a bony semilunar lamina 
which is the sole representative of the bony ooracc^'d s but 
there is nothing similar fbr the elavicle. The humerue 
oompressed laterally ibove, f#om befbre backwards below, 
and narrowed in its ihiddle, has its extremities cartiloginous. 
It is the same wilh the two bones of the fbrearm, both 
rather slender, and the internal bone or radius widened 
below. The bones of the carpu9 remain oartiUiginous. 

Each of the four flnget$ has a metaearpian and two 
phalanges only. 

Vi Alreatad, and 110 ^ranehM go to tsnninate on the articular 
posterior apophysis. Their very Wide transverse apophysos 
are cotnposed of two kaminis vnited at their posterk>r bdrd«r 
up to ttieir common point; the upper, which is oblique, 
coming from below the anterior articular apophysis and 
from &I0W the neighbouring part of the lateral erest, tha 
lower coining from the sides of the body, to whirh it ad- 
heres by a borisontal line. The body below is alsd Cotn^ 
pressed into a sharp ridge (ar^e). 

In the vertebra which carry the ribe, the upper lamina 
of the transverse apophysis is but little marked, and ihe 
point is stout and divided into two lobes for the two tubercles 
of the rib, as in the salamanders. CuVi^r only found eight of 
these Vestiges of ribs on each side, commencing frohi the 
second vertebra. The two last have the head simple. At 
the tail, the transverse apophyses, which hava already be- 
come rather small, promptly disappear: the articular apo- 
physes diminish also by degcses. The body of the tertehca 
takes a very compressed form, and gives below two small 
laminss, which intercept a oanal for the vessels^ like the 
chevron bones in the lisards. 

A ut etto i u st tto aef Mur AafatPi of «no liawaps. a. docMl f«rWb«i tSa* 
iMhiadj 6, Um Hunt Mon befbre. 

Thefe is nd veitige of a pelvis, noif at aiiy post^idr exft«^ 
mity, eit)]er osseous or cartilaginous. 
' Covi^ did not find in a large individual more than forty- 
thr^ tertebraf in the tratik and fbrtyfout in the tail? m% 
the individual which he described in 1897 hsd three mote. 
These v^rti^t^, all perfectly ossified ahd complete, do tiot 
restsmblein his ofnniofi those of any of the reptiles ef which 
in^ had previously treated, nor indeed of ftny other animal 
Th^ir bodies have their twd artlctflar faces hollow and united 
ny a cartBage m the torn of tf double con^, as in the ishes. 
TEiefr articular apophyses are horfaootal, tfnd the posterior 
apophyses of one vert^ra he on the anterior apophyses t4 
the other. A horizontal erest on each side goes from the 
anterior to the posterior, tn lieu ef a spifioos apophysis, 
they hkve a vertical crest* whtoh st hslf Ms length beeottef 

BbUm tksMM or atisa iMsertiaiu 
Reepirai^ry OtgnrtsJ^Jdtm Hunter in 17M gave thefbl- 
lowrng aocumte And interesting desc^iptioH of the tWo*fbld 
respirttfk)r7 spparMus of (be Siren :-^' On the posterior and 
laMrSl parts of the mouth are three «penhigs on oskA ^e ; 
these are similar to the slits of the gills it flsh» but the par- 
ti(i6ifs do not resemble gills on their outer e*dges, fof fhdy 
have not the edttib41ke structure. Above and close t^fhe 
extremity of each of these opevings, externally^ ^ many 

})rocesses arise, the anterior the Smallest^ rhe posterior the 
ongest ; their interior and infertor edges atxd extremity aire 
serrated^ or farmed iMto fimbria : these preeettes Ibid down 
and cover the slits externally, and would seem to ttnSwev the 
purposes of the oomb-like part of the gill in fish. At 
the root of the toitgtie, nearly as far baefe as these openings 
reach, the traehea begins^ much in the same mahnar as in 
birds. It passes bsckwards abofe the heart, snd Oiera 
divkles into two branchesi oto going Co each tobe of tbw 
hmgs. The lungs are two long bags, one en eitoh s'da; 
which begin just Miind the heart, an4 pass back throi^ 
tlie whole length of the abdomen, nearly as far as the anus* 
They are largest in the middle, and bofteyeonibed en their 
mterhal sutrfiee thrsugh theh* whek length.' {Phil. Tixmei, 

S I R 


S I R 

In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgepiu m Iion- 
don this part of the organisation it vaU illustrated. No. 
1062 presents a Siren ItumrtiHa, with the ventral pariates of 
the abdomen removed, together with all the viscera* except 
the lungs, which have been distended with spirit. These 
commence immediately below the pericardium, a»d extend 
almost to the anus* A bristle is passed through the traohea, 
and the laryngeal orifice is exposed by the removal of the 
oranium. The branchiss are external, three on each aide, 
and suspended to hut cartilaginous arohes ef the hyoul bone. 
The three internal branchial apertures ef the left side may 
be seen. No. 1063 exhibits the right side of the head of a 
lareer specimen of Siren laeerHna, shotripg the braaofaial 
arches and gills of that eide. The first and iburth branchial 
arches are fised, the iatermediate ones only being free. 
Their concave margins are provided, as in many fishes, with 
small pointed processes, wkich look into one another and 
defend the branchial passages. The gills inemase in sixe 
fhmi the first to the third, whioh is suspended to both the 
third and iburth arehes. They are subdivided aod fim- 
briated infenorly, where the suribee is OMSt vascular i the 
branchial arteries may foe seen injected on the oenvax side 
of the cartilaginous arches. The origin and subsequent 
reunion of the branchial vessels to form the aorta are shown 
in the prepi^ion No. 914 (from whioh the present n«s 
taken); noticed below. No. 1064 is a poiEtioQ of the lungs of 
the same Stren, laid open to show tne ramlfieatiens of the 
pulmonary artery, which fona a vaseukr network upon the 
internal surface of this simple respiratory bag. (Caiabgue, 
vol. li.) 

Circuhting Syetem.-^idhit Hunter desoribes (1766) the 
heart of the siren as consisting of one anrioleand ventriele. 
' What answers/ says Hunter, * to the infirior vena cava, 
passes forwards above, but in a sulous of the liver, and opens 
into a hag similar to the perieardium ; this bag snnounds 
the heart and aorta as the perieardium doea in pther ani- 
mals ; fh>m this there is an opening into a vnin whieh lies 
above, and upon the left of the auriole, which vein seems to 
receive the blopd from the lungs, niHs, and head. Is nna*> 
logoos to the superior vena cava, ana opena into the auricle 
which is upon the left ventriele* The aorta goes out, passr 
ing for a little way in a loose spiral turn, then hecomes 
straight, where it seems to be muscular: at this part tlie 
branches go off, between which there is a rising within the 
area of the aorta like a bird's tongue, with ita tip tum(Ml 
towards the heart. This account of the ven» oavrn opening 
into the cavity of the pericardium may appear incredible; 
and it mi^ht be supposed that, in the natural state of the 
parts, there is a canal of communication going from one 
cava to the other, which being broken or nipt through in the 
act of catching or killing the animal, would give the ap* 
pearance above described. I can only say that the appear* 
ances were what have been described in three diffiirent sab- 
jects which I have dissected, and in all of them the pericar* 
dium was foil of coagulated blood. But beaides the small* 
ness of the subjects, it may be observed that they had been 
long preserved in spirits, whieh made them more unfit ibr 
anatomical inquiries. They had been in my poseeesion above 
seven vears.' (PML Trans,, Ivi.) 

In the Museum of the College of Surgeons the prepara^ 
tion Na 919 shows the anterior part of the body of ti Siren 
icteertina. The ventral parietes nave been Hmoved, toge* 
ther with the pericardium, to show the heart mJtte. It is 
of an elongated form, and consists of a large fimbriated 
auricle, divided internally into two chambers, and of a flat- 
tened oblong ventricle, giving off a single artery, whieh, 
after a half-spiral twist, dilates into an elongated fleshy 
bulbus arteriosus. The blood from the body passes into a 
large membranous sinus formed by ^e union of the two 
anterior vensB cavm with the large posterior cava.. The latter 
vessel pours its blood into the sinus by two oriftcea on either 
side a septum, which extends forwaras as for as the open>> 
ings of the anterior cavm, where it tetminatea in a free 
semilunar margin ; the sinus is then continued forwards, 
and terminates in the - chamber analogoua to the righf au- 
ricle. White bristles pass from the poaterior cava t^ren^h 
the sinus on either side the septum into the anterior oavai^ 
A black bristle is passed through the rieht pulmqnary. vein 
Into the trunk common to the two, whieh traverses but does 
not communicate with the sinus proper to tho Veina of the 
body, and terminates in the chamber analogoua to ^hnleft 
- The bttlbtts atterioans It kid open, to 6how the vaL> 

vular pretnberanco which prqjects into it from the dorsal 
aspji^t. On tl^e opposite side of the preparation the cra- 
nium fU)d upper jaw are removed to show the apertures 
leading from the mquth to the lunin and gills, the simul- 
teneous existence qf which through life forms the chief cha- 
raoteristio of this tribe of truly amphibious reptiles. No. 913 
is the heoJ't of e Siren. The auricle, consisting of two 
chambers^ appears a^ one cavity externally It is remark- 
able for its large sixe, iu weak parietes, and the number of 
fimbriated follicular processes which it sends off, and 
which gives it afi appearance similar to the branchial 
divisions of the vena cava in the cephalopoda. The 
ventricle js here seen to be slightly bifid at the apex. 
The artery is membn^nous at iu commencement. The bulb 
is here laid open to show the internal valvular pttyeotion. 
No. 913 A presente the heart and pericardium of a Siren 
IqceriinOf prepared to show the internal structure of the 
aiirieles and ventricle. White bristles pass from the veins of 
the body into the right auricle, and black ones through the 
pulmonary veins ipto the left auricle. This is much smaller 
than the right auriole, corresponding to the quantity of 
blood wh^h it receives. The pulmonary veins unite into a 
common trunk, whi<$h sfiem^ to pass through the great sinus 
of the veins of the body, but it adheres to the parietes of 
tba( sinus by ils pgsterior surf^oa. Here professor Owen 
rom^rks that it isprobablv this remark able structure which led 
Huutoff to suppose that the sinus w^s Pfirt of the pericardium^ 
and (bat the venie Qavs^ opened into it. The Professpr then 
quotes Hunter's desoripiiont sboye given, and a^ds, with 
truth, that aU anatomi#t§ since Hunt^r^s tim^ have con* 
ourred in asoribingPMtpne^ujriple to the heart of theSiieo. 
and that Cuvier regards this simply atruoture of the central 
organ ftf theciinnlatiw Mo^nnpon to ^ne Ba^i^hian order 
of reptiles. The outward, foro) of the auricle, qhsfrves Mr* 
Owon. natqrally suggeste #uch %n idea, and it is only in 
^vour^blo specimepsthat the tnio structure, i^ it is shown 
in this preparation (ma4e by him), pan be mfuloont. The 
ventricle is connected to the perici^rdium, not on)y by the 
coliecUon o( th^ iierous l^yer from tlie bulbus vteriosus, but 
bj a duplicature of the same naembrane, which passes from 
the lower third of the posterior edge of the ventricle, and 
inclosof the eoronary vein ; this vein is ooutinued from the 

Siox of the ventriele to the sinus. The muscular parietes of 
e ventricle are about a line in thickne^, and of a loose 
fascicular strupture. The cavity is partially divided by a 
rudimentary septuip, which extends from the apex half 
way towards the b^e of the ventricle, and there terminates 
In a ooacave edgo directed towards the oripee uf the artery. 
The whole inner surface is reticulated by decussating carness 
oolumnss* one pf whioh has been detached from its con* 
neciion to the septum, whioh intervenes to the two auri* 
ouliMr apertures, and which support^ the valvular structure 
that oloses them from within. The artery and bulbus ar- 
teriosAis aro laid open, showing in the latter tho remarkable 
valvular projection described by Hunter. In conclusion. 
Professor Oven rem^ks that th? voxels op the back part 
of tho talc which supporu the preparation, arOf the innev 
ones, |he pulmonary arteries, tne outer ones, the jugular 
veins or anterior oavm. No. 9 14 is |he anterior part of the 
body of a large Siren laceriiwik prepared \o show the heart 
and prinoipal vessels injocted. The fimbriated structure 
and magnitude of the auricles are well seen when thus 
distendod, and they then advance forwards on both sides of 
th4 ventricle and bulbi so as almost to oncompass those 
parta The two divisions of the venous sinus may be 
observed below the ventricle, wi(h tho termination of the 
Qoffonarv vein and the atta^bnioAt of ^hf ventricle to the 
sinus. Behind the ventricle appear two auporior cavaa which 
terminate at the sidea of tho s inn^ Th^ portions of the 
lungs whi(di remain 99% laid opon te show their roticulate 
atruetare, and tho rehitive nositions of the pulmonary 
arteries and veins : white hristlea are placed in the former, 
and black ones in tho lateral vewalf. On the left aid? of 
the prepaoation* the origin of. tha pulmonary artery, fr^ 
the posterigr branchial arch, is sfeiown. The remainder of 
the branchial vessels, with tho exception of small branches 
to the head* are ooUeetad into one trunk, which linit^ with 
tho corresponding vessels of the opposite side ^> form the 
aorte or s^temio artery* Tho tongue, the interior of the 
air tube, the internal Wanchial aperture, apd the hranchia 
of tho loft side* the eye and nostril, and structure of tho 
integument are also &vourahly displayed in this preparationi 
[PftoTBva and PnoTom*^^ > 


S I R 


S I R 

We now proceed to lay befbre our readers sach otker pre- 
parations in this noble collection as illustrate the circulating 
system in animals approximating to the perennibranohiate 
batrachians, so that the student may compare this part of 
their organization with that of the Siren. 

No. 9 1 5 shows the anterior part of the body of an Amphi- 
T7MA MmpA. means, (harden), prepared to show the heart 
and great vessels in situ. Professor Owen states that the 
blood is returned from the body, as in the preceding species, 
jy two anterior vence cavsB, and one large posterior cava, 
which form by their union a membranous sinus. The 
auricles or venous chambers of the heart are proportionately 
smaller and less fimbriated, and are situated more to the 
left and superior part of the ventricle. The ventricle is 
connected to the pericardium at iti apex, and gives off from 
its opposite extremity a single artery, which, after a half- 
spiral turn, dilates into a large bulb, which is broader and 
shorter than in Siren lacertina, and is grooved externally. 
The two pulmonary arteries are given off from the posterior 
part of the extremity of the bulb, which then divides into 
two branches, each of which again subdivides on the side of 
the (Bsophagus. As there are no external gills, so there 
are no lateral branches sent off fVom the branchial arteries ; 
but these, after winding round the arches of the hyoYd bone, 
terminate in a single trunk on either side, and form by 
their union the aorta, which is seeUf injected, behind the 

Sharynx. On the left side of this preparation the internal 
ranch ial aperture is preserved, and on the right side the 
branchial arches of the hyoid bone are shown. The lungs 
are laid open so as to display their reticulate and longitudi- 
nally plicate structure, and the relative positions of the pul- 
monary arteries and veins. 

Proibssor Owen further observes that this preparation is 
figured by Rusooni (Amoure dee Salcmandres Aquatiquee, 
pr. v., fig. 8) as a portion of the adult Siren lacertina^ which 
ne supposes to have lost the external branchiie, and to have 
acquired the posterior extremities in a manner analogous to 
the salamanders ; and that Rusconi endeavours to invalidate 
the opinion which Hunter, after an extensive and minute 
comparison of their entire structure, had formed of the 
specific difference of the Amphiuma and Siren^ as well from 
each other as from the Kattewagoe or Menopoma of Harlan. 
The manuscript alluded to by Rusconi, and which contains 
detailed accounts of the anatomy of Amphiuma and Me- 
nopoma, as well as of the Siren, is given entire in the de- 
scription of the plates illustrative of the 2nd vol. of the 
Museum Catalogue, where (plates xxiii. and xxiv.) the cir- 
culating and respiratory organs of the 'Chuab Chisstannah, 
or Crawfish-eater, or Kattewagoe' {Menopoma AUegha- 
niensis, Harlan [Salamandrida, vol. xx., p. 332], are 
beautifully displayed ; and Professor Owen remarks that 
the conclusions as to the distinctions of these amphibia to 
which Hunter arrived, have been subsequentlv confirmed by 
a similar series of investigations instituted by Cuvier, and 
above noticed. 

No. 916 of the same museum exhibits the lower jaw, 
tongue, fauces, with part of the abdominal viscera, and the 
heart in iitu of Menopoma Alleghanienm, The greater 
part of the pericardium has been removed. The ventricle 
is of a flattened triangular form, resembling that of osseous 
fishes: the auricles are smaller in proportion than in the 
Siren, and are situated wholly to the left of the ventricle. 
The veins of the body terminate in a membranous sinus 
situated below the auricles. The aorta, after making a spiral 
turn to the left side, dilates into a large bulb which gives off 
four vessels on each side. The first or posterior pair are 
the smallest, and ramify on the CBsophagus and lungs ; but 
they are not distinctly shown in this preparation. The 
second and third pairs are the largest : they are seen passing 
outwards, and winding round the arches of the hyoid bone. 
The two branches unite on each side, and, after sending off 
small arteries to the head, converge on the posterior part 
of the cBsophagus, and unite to form the descending aorta. 
The fourth small pair of arteries pass outwards, and wind over 
the anterior part of the first hyoi'dian arch : they send off 
in this course some small arteries to the head, and ultimately 
unite with a cephalie branch given off from the united trunk 
of the third and second branchial arteries. The right lung 
is here preserved, and a black bristle is inserted into it from 
the traeliea. White bristles are placed in the right branchial 
aperture, which is left entire, showing the aMence in this 
Ibrm, as in Amphiuma, of external gills* On the left side 
the branchial arches of the hyoid bone are preserved. Be- 

sides the parts concerned in the circulatory and respiratory 
functions, the stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, and 
spleen are well shown in this preparation. No. 917 exhibits 
the heart, pericardium, and trachea of the last-noticed 
species. Here the ventricle is laid open to show the loose, 
fasciculate, muscular structure, whidi» as in the Tesiiuio 
Indica, occupies the whole of its cavity. The bulb of the 
aorta is laid open to show the two rows of semilunar valves, 
three in each row, and the origins of the branchial arteries. 
The preparation is suspended by the pericardium, behind 
which is the flattened air-tube, in which distinct cartilagi- 
nous rings inay be seen. {Catalogue, vol. ii.) 

Generative Syeiem^—'So. 2695 exhibits the posterior part 
of a Siren lacerUna, with the ventral parietes of the abdo- 
minal cavity removed to display the female organs of gene- 
ration. The ovaria are seen as two irrM;ular elongated 
bodies, situated on each side of the root of the mesentery, 
and bearing impressions of the convolutions of the mtestines. 
They contain innumerable minute ovisacs of a grevish 
colour, with a few others of a larger size, and of a very dark 
colour. The oviducts are external to the ovaria, and are 
attached to the sides of the spine, each by a broad duplica- 
ture of peritoneum : they commence anteriorly bv a simple, 
elongated, slit-Uke aperture, without fimbriated margin^ 
and are immediately (tisposed in about twenty parallel trans- 
verse folds, which gradually diminish, and finally cease ^ut 
three inches from the cloaca, where the oviducts open 
behind the rectum upon small prominences : bristles are 
placed in these outlets. The contracted allantoTd bladder 
IS seen anterior to the rectum : the posterior extremity of 
the kidney extends behind the oviducts, a short way beyond 
the cloaca. No* 2696 shows the anterior extremity of the 
oviducts and lifver of a Siren. The oviducts ace much 
attenuated at their commencement, but soon increase in size, 
and become thicker in their parietes. {CaUdogue, vol. iL) 

No preparation of the male organs of the Siren appears 
to exist in the College Museum ; but there are two illustra- 
tive of those of AmpMumadisA Menopoma^ which we proceed 
to lay before our readers. 

No. 2397 is the posterior moiety of an Amphiuma {Am- 
phiuma didadylum), with the abdominal cavity laid open* 
and exposing to view the termination of the intestinal canal, 
supported by its broad and simple mesentery, the termina- 
tion of the right lung, the long allantoVd bladder attached 
by a duplicature of the peritoneum to the mesial line of the 
abdomen, and the testes with their adipose appendages: 
the latter may be observed projecting on each side of the 
root of the mesentery ; and behind them are the testes, 
elongated, subcylindrical, ash-coloured bodies, taperin£ at 
both extremities : the vasa deferentia descend in the u>rm 
of white ligamentous tubes, and finally open into the pos- 
terior part of the termination of the rectum, which is laid 
open. The renal organs are almost concealed by the parts 
above described: they have been injected. No. 2938 
exhibits Uie male organs, kidneys, allantoid bladder, and 
large intestine of the Menopome {MenopofnaAlleghanienns^ 
The tastes in this subject are less elongated, and of a more 
compact oval, thus indicating a further stage of advance- 
ment above Uie class of fishes. The efferent vessels leave 
the testis at a longitudinal groove at their posterior and 
internal surfaces, at the line of reflection of the supporting 
processes of peritoneum, and on each side unite to form a 
vas deferens, which descends along the edge of a process of 
peritoneum external to the kidneys, and finally opens into 
the termination of the rectum, as in the Amphiume. The 
kidneys are opake white bodies, which, beginning by small 
extremities near the lower end of the testes, slightly enlarge 
as they descend to the cloaca. The injected aorta occupies 
their posterior interspace, and there bends off the arteries 
for the hinder extremities. {Catalogue, voL ii.) 

Siren lacertina grows to the length of three feet : its 
colour is blackish. The feet have four toes, and the tail ia 
compressed into an obtuse fin. 

This Siren inhabits the marshy grounds of Carolina, espe- 
cially those where rice is cultivated. It lives in the mud, 
from whence it makes excursions, sometimes on land and 
sometimes in the water. From the swampy places by the 
sides of pools and under the overhanging trunks of old 
trees where it is found, it was called by the inhabitants 
' the Mud Iguana.* Garden was of opinion that it feeds 
on serpents, and thai it uttered a cry similar to that of a 
youn^ duck; but Barton contests these statements. Its 
food IS generally believed to consist of earth-wormsi insects* 

8 I R 



There is now (Sept^ 1841) a line lively speeitnen in 
the parrot-house in the garden of the Zoological Society in 
the Regent's Park. It is kept in a vessel of pond-water 
^ith a deep hottom of mud, in which it hides itself, and is 
twenty inches long, as large as the wrist of a stout child 
of six months old, and very eel-like in its movements and 
appearance. About a dozen and a half of earth-worms are 
supplied to it as food every other day. 

Siren Mtriata is blackish, with two longitudinal yellow 
atripes on each side ; has only three toes on each foot, and 
is about nine inches in length. 

Siren ttrwia. 
m, liead and anterior part teen in profile, tbowinf the bnuichiai aad fbot. 

Whilst the article was passing through the press, Pro- 
fessor Owen was so good as to send the following highly in- 
teresting observations on the blood-globules of the Siren for 
insertion in this work : — 

'Among the important generalizations whicl^ the nu- 
merous observations of recent microscopical anatomists 
have enabled the physiologist to establisn respecting the 
form and size of the blcMd-dises in different classes of 
animala, the most interesting seems to be that which Pro- 
fessor Wagner has enunciated respecting the relation of 
the magnitude of the blood-disc to the persistence of the 
hranohiai apparatus in the Batracbian order of reptiles on 
the occasion of his description of the blood-discs of the /Vo- 
teue angutnue. 

The absolute size of these particles in that perenni- 
branehiate reptile, in which they may be distinguished by 
the naked eye, renders them peculiarly adapted for minute 
investigations into the structure of the nucleus and capsule 
of the blood*disc : but the value of the relation between 
their size and the persistency of the external gills must 
depend upon the correspondence of other perennibranchiate 
reptiles with the Proteus in this respect. The superior size 
of the blood-discs of the newts to those of the land-sala- 
manders and tailless Batrachians has been confirmed by 
Professor van der Hoeven's observations on the blood-discs 
of the gigantic newt of Japan (Sieboldtia, Salamandrida, 
vol. XX.. pp. 331, 332), of which a fine spedmen has been 
for several years kept alive at Leyden ; and I have been 
able to add another instance of the still greater relative 
size of the blood-discs in the perennibranchiate reptiles 
by the examination of those of the largest existing species of 
that family, the Siren Mcertina, of which a specimen 
twenty inches in length is now (October 15th) living at the 
Zoological Gardens. The blood was obtained fW>m one of 
the external gilU, and immediately subjected to examination. 
The blood-discs preseiittd the elliptical form which hitherto 
without exception has been found to prevail among the air- 
breathing oviparous vertebrated animals: the ellipse was not 
quite regular in all the blood-diKcs ; several were sub-ovate, 
a few slightly reniform and thicker at the more convex 
side: all were as compressed, or discshaped, as in other 
Batrachians, with the nucleus slightly projecting from each 
ol the flattened surfaces. 

'The nucleus did not partake in the 'same degree with 
these varieties of form, but maintained a more regular ellip« 
tical form ; the varieties in question appearing to depend on 
pressure acting upon the capsule and the coloured fluid 
surrounding the nucleus. Yet when the ellipse of the 
blood-disc was, as it happened in a few cases to be, longer 
and narrower than the average, the form of the nucleus pi-e- 
sented a similar modification of size. 

'The following is a table of the avera^ of many admea- 
surements of these blood-discs, made with the screw micro- 
meter* : — 

EnglUh inch. 

' Long diameter .... 1 -450th 
Short diameter . . . l-850th to 1-870th 
Long diameter of nucleus . . 1-lOOOth 
Short diameter of ditto . . . I -2000th 
Thickness of ditto .... l-3800th 
(as viewed edgeways covered by the capsule). 

' The nucleus was circumscribed by a double line, the 
outer one more regular than the inner one, which appeared 
erenated. This appearance was due to the structure of tbe^ 
nucleus, or the contents of the nucleolar capsule, which 
was indicated by the outer line. These contents con* 
sisted, in every blood-disc examined, of a number of mo- 
derately bright spherical nucleoli, sufficiently distinct to 
be counted, when viewed by a Powell's 1-1 0th inch ob- 
jective, with the eye-piece, magnifyinz 700 linear dia- 
meters: the ordinary number of nucleoli seen in one 
plane or focus being from twenty to thirty, the total 
number was of course much greater. The facility as 
well as certainty of the demonstration of such a structure in 
a good microscope of the present day will be readily ad- 
mitted when it is remembered that the nucleus of the 
blood-disc of the Siren is three times the size of the entire 
human blood- disc. These tuberoulate nuclei, when re- 
moved from the capsule, were colourless ; the component 
granules or cells have a high refracting power: viewed in 
situ they present a tinze of colour lighter than that of the 
surrounding fluid, and dependent upon the thin layer of that 
fluid interposed between the nucleus and the capsule. 

'The external capsule of the blood-disc is smooth, mode- 
rately resisting, elastic, as was easily seen by the flattening 
of the parts of two blood-discs that might come in contact, 
and the recovery of form when they were floated apart. 

* As the fluid contenU of the blood- disc in part evaporated 
during the process of desiccation, the capsule fell into folds 
in the interspace between the nucleus and the outer con- 
tour, these folds generally taking the direction of straight 
lines, three to seven in number, radiating flrom the 
nucleus.* (R. Owen, Sept. 25, 1841.) 


BloodHliies of Man and Slron, dnim by tne easnen Inddn tinder a SMgni* 
fying power of 7^ Unear dimeusions. 

a. Human bluod-disca; a\ ditto viewed edgewlM; b, Siren'i blood-diaci 
F, ditto viewed edgewiae; e, fMda of eztemu capaale, produced by deticcar 
tton; d,captu]aoranol0tti; e, BodeoU. 

SIRENS (Sf ip^ycc) are described in the ' Odyssey' as two 
maidens who sat bv the sea and so charmed with their 
music all who sailed by, that they remained on the spot till 
thev died. Ulysses, by the direction of Circe, had himself 
tiea to the mast, and stopped the ears of his companions 
with wax, by which means he was able to hear their music, 
and escape from its influence. (Orf., xii. 39, &c., 169.) Tlie 

• ' 1 WM ii.debled to Mr. Stokes (britb^nietofjUif o&e^^ached to bis ad 
mirable mftnoMope br Foir«tt* 



9 I R 


^hit^ of UlyMoi^, wU); hinself |i«d tp tbQ mastf it frequently 
represented on gem». and other woiK^ of antient vl. (See 
Dictionary qf Greek au4 Roman AntiqmUes, p. 58.) The 
number of the Sirens wau afterwarcU increased to three, 
and various names were given to them hy difTereot writers. 
They were usually caU^4 tlie daughters pf Melpomene and 
AcbelouB (ApoUod*. i' 3, i 4), and were represented by art* 
ists with the feathers and wings of birds (compare Ovidi 
MeL, V, ^23, &c.) They were urged by Hera to oontend 
with the Muses, who conquered tbem* and tore off tbeir 
wings. (Paus.,ix. 34. $ 2.) 

SlRHIND. a district of northern Hindustan, which ex- 
tends from 29° 27' to 31** N. lat., and firom 73'' 88' to 77** 
38' B. long. The northern boundary is formed bv the 
Sutlej, and the Jumna forms a part of the eastern boun- 
dary. The principal river is the Oagur. Most of the other 
rivers are affluents of the Gagur. Sirhind constitutes a por- 
tion of what are ealled the Hill States, and is inhabited 
by the Sikhs. [Hindustan?, p. 233.] The town of Sirhind, 
from which the district derives iti name, though formerly a 
place of importance* m now Ultle ^Uc? thaa a heap of ruin^, 
Siai, VITTOIllO, born at Parma in 1625, became fk 
priest, and afterwards went to Paris^ where he found fa vomr 
with Louis X1V„ who appointed him his almoner and his- 
topio^iipher. Siri wroie a journal in Italian, entitled * Mur- 
rurio Politico,' which he continued for many years, and as 
Ijauls actotl for a long period the principal part on the 
political stage of Europe Jjo waa flattered at having by him 
a writer who contribiitcd to spread his fame in a foreign 
language, Siri howuver was not a fulsome flaUcrer, an4 
although he often prnised Louis, he did not always ipare his 
ministers and other nowerful men of that and the precetltng 
reign, and ihia freedom passed unheeded chiclly from the 
4;ircumitanceof his writing in a language foreign to FraticOf 
aid which was nat undt^ reload by the people in funeral* 
Besiiles the* Mercuric PoUtico/ the collection of which col^' 
hUU of (IfEccii thick volumes, Siri wrote another Journali 
etiuiled 'Memerie Recondite,* which fills eight volumes, 
Le CI ere iBihliotheque Choisie, vol. iv*, p. 138) observes 
thiit both thc^e wurbs cDuUin a vait uuniber of valuahla 
authentic docutaenls. The geueral »iyle of the writer vs haw- 
ever proline and heavy. Sin died at Paris, in ]6&a. .Cor- 
niani, Secoli tkilti Lelieratura Ualianu,) 

SIRrCIUS, a native of Rome, succeeded Damaius I. as 
hishi^p of tliat city, 4.D.384, under the reign of Valentinian 
IL Wo have stHt^ral Itslters by him written la various 
rh arches an matters hoth of dogma and of di:ioipUne, 8om0 
of them are h\ condemnation of the Priscillianisls, Pona* 
tisU, and other her'^^i<^*; ^ue lb dirouled to Ai^vciuiij bi»hop 
of Thessalonica, on matters of jurisdiction ; another to Hi- 
merius, bishop of Tarracona. which is one of the oldest 
instances of a bishop of Rome sending mandates to other 
churches to be received as ecclesiastical laws. Siricius is 
also one of the first bishops of Rome who wrote concerning 
the celibacy of the clergy. He directed that a priest who 
married a second wife after the death of the first should be 
expelled from his office. (Platina, Lives of the Popes; 
Dupin, Nouvelle Biblioth^que, Vie d$ Sirice,) The council 
of Nicsea had already decreed that all clerks who had been 
married before they took orders, should be allowed to retain 
their wives according to the antient tradition of the church, 
but that priests and deacons should not marry after their 
ordination, Siricius died a.d. 398. 

SI'RIUS and PRO'CYON (Scipeoc and Dpojc^wv). the 
Greek names of the bright stars in the constellations of the 
Great and Little Dog [Canis Major and Minor]. These 
are Orion's dogs, according to some, and those of minor 
personages, according to others : the whole of their mythic 
explanations form a strong proof, in addition to those already 
noticed, that the constellations are not Greek in their 
origin. In a passage of Hosiod he has been supposed 
to speak of the sun under the name of 8irius; and 
Hesychtus defines the word to mean both ^he sun and 
the dog-star. Dr. Hutton informs ua that the Egyptians 
'called the Nile Siris, and hence their Osiris,' which 
he has copied from Sir John Hill, who derives Sirius 
from Siris, but does not say where he got his informa- 
tion : probably from some writer of his own calibre. The 
Egyptians called tho dogsti^r Sothis [Sothiac Period^ 
and from its heliacal rising had warning that the overflow 
of the Nile was about to commence. Now the overflow of 
the Nile follows the summer solstice; whereas, by the pre- 
cession of the equinoxes, the heliacal rising of Sirws is now 

about the tenth of AA|g«s|. Thi^ hAvml rising is a v«nr 
indefinite phenomenon, and will serve any system; by it 
Bailly, from Bainbridge*s calculations, was able to carry 
haek the settlement of Kgypt 280P years before Chri^i: 
while Newton, by a reckoning made ou the same principle^ 
made many antient events seem later ihm was ^neriJly 

The greatest heats of summer generally follow thesumaiflr 
solstice, and in the Mediterranean latitudes, and in aotient 
times, it was observed that the unhealthy and oppr«aai¥« 
period coincided with the heliacal rising of the dog-aiar. 
Wo say the dog-star, without specifying whether it was 
Sirius or Procyon ; it is uncertain which it was, and may 
have been both, for the heliacal risings do not differ by 
many days. The star itself was in Latin canicula^ which 
should seem to apply to the lesser dog, and Horace says — 

' Iftm Profyou tar\% 
Et ttella vesoni LaMit [to. Regulap] 
Sole die* referente liccos.' 

Pliny supports the same meaning of canioula, agd per- 
haps Hvginus ; also the framers of the Alphonsine Tables, 
and Bede and Kepler, among the older moderns : while Qer- 
manicus and Julius Firmieos. with Apian, Magini, ArifoU, 
H. Stephens, and Petavius, among the moderns, contend 
for Sirius, which is the more common opinion. All ai)U- 
quity attributed an eiul influence to the star ; and thou|^b 
Geminui among the antients, and Fetaviua among the mo- 
derns, thought that the effects were to be attributed to tbe 
sun alone, they had hardly any followers until the fall of 
judicial astrology. Even at this day. when the heats of the 
latter part of the summer are excessive, we are gravely told 
that we are in (he dog-days ; and the almanacs, in which an 
absurdity has the lives of a cat, persist to this very year in 
informing us that the dog-days begin on the 3rd of July, 
and end on the I Uh of August. Now as the heliacal rising 
of Sirius takes place about ibe very end of this period, it is 
clear that the cart has got before the horse, or the mischief 
before the dog. Moreover it is notorious that in our island 
the oppressive heats of the summer, during which dogs are 
apt to run mad (which is whait many people think the name 
arises from, as indeed it was antieotly recorded among the 
ejects of the star)* generally fall about the middle or end 
of August. The real oUssioid dog-days are the twenty days 
preceding and the twenty days following the heliaeal 
rising of whichever star it was* Sirius or Prooyon. It is per- 
fectly useless to retain this period : surely these dogs have 
had their day. 

SIHMONP, JACQUESL was born at Riom, in Fraaee. 
October Q9t 1{>59. Having completed his studies at tlie 
^esuils' college at Billom, the first which that Society had 
in France, he adopted the rule of St. Ignatius, and prepared 
hims?lf> by a diligent study of the antient languages, for 
fulfilling the duties of a teacher^ When he had finished his 
noviciate, his superiors required him to come to Paris as ato» 
fessor of rhetorip, in which city he remained till JfSe. when 
he repaired to Rome, on the invitation of thePdve Aqua* 
viva, General of the society of Jesuits^ who ehose Sirmond 
as his secretary. In this employment he oontinued siileen 
years, durieg which he examined diligently the. manuienpts 
in the Vatican library, as well as the issoriptions and other 
remains of antiquity, of whioh Rome possessed such an 
abundant supply. 

In 1^08 the r^re Sirmond returned to Paris, and soo« 
afterwards eommenced a visitation of the libraries and 
archives of the convents, and wm thereby enabled to save 
from destruction a great number of documents of the 
highest value for the history of the middle ages. Sirmond's 
first publication was the ' Opuscules' of Qeoffroi, abb^ dt 
VendOme, in 1610; from wnioh time he continued to add 
to his reputation by other publicatrans almost every year. 
Pope Urban Yll. invited him te return to Rome, but Louis 
XIII. retained him in France, and in 1687 made blm bis 

The P4ie Sirmond, having left the conri on the death of 
Louis XIIl. in 1643, recommenced his literary labours, 
whioh had been somewhat interrupted by attention to the 
duties of his late dignified office, and continued with un- 
abated ardour to occupy himself in the same way till his 
death, Ootobev 7, 1651, when he was 92 yeavs of age. 

Birroood's ' Ouvrages' were oellected and published in 
1696, in 5 vols, folia. The first three Tolumes eonUin the 
' Opuscules' of those Fathers and other ecelesiastfioal writon 
which had been publi^^, Jg^ §j^i|^4^^rij^H^^ sad 



^ I s 

notes; the fbar^'volut^e toxii^ni fafe DU^erllitiotis ; and 
the ttfth volumd eotilains the workA of Theodore Siudite. 
This edition of Sirmond*^ Works i% b^ the P^te lA B&ame, 
and is preceded by it Lifb of Sir^nond by the editor, his 
Fonenl Oration by Henri de Yalois. and a list of Sirmoiid's 
Wdrks ill tnAnuscj^ibt a« i^ll as pHnted. In this edition 
are included the Works of £nnodius bishop of Fitia, ot 
Siddnids Apdtinaris. of fiogenius bishop of Toledo, the 
Chtt)tiide$ of Idatius and MaHseHinus, the Collections ot 
Anastasios the Librarian, the Capitularies of Chtirles^le^ 
Ohnuve and his suceessot^ the #ot-ks of 8t« Avit, of Th^o^ 
dutfihe bishop of Otieanit, &o. Father Sirmond |mblished 
other eetlesiastical liters besides those included in the 
above edition, among wiiich are * L'Histoire de Reims,' bv 
Flodoard. the * Letlrei de Pierre de Oelles,' the • CEuvres'' 
of RadbeH; of Tbeodoret, of Hincmar atchbishop of Reims, 
&c. Sirmond published also a Collection of the Councils at 
France, ' Concilia Antiqua QalHo/ Peris, 1629, fbtio. 

iBingraphie Vhhenetle.) 

SIROCCO. [Wind.] 

SISIWNIUS. a Syrien by birth, succeeded John Vlt. 
as Inshop of Rome, a.d. 707, and died twenty days after his 
election. He was sticeeeded by Constantino. 

StSON, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order Umbellif^rts. It possesses the folbwing^ 
charactertt :— cal)rx obsolete ; petals broadly 6bcOrdaie. deeply 
notched, and curved with an infteted point; styles tert 
short: fruit orate, laterelly compressed; catpels with 
five flUlbrm e^ilal ridges, df which the lateral ones are 
marghtal; fnterstioes with single, shoi't, cfub-shtiped Hiim: 
aeed gibbous; conteit, plane fti ff ont ; utritersal and partial 
iarotucre of fbw leave*. 

Several species were fbrmfetlv referred X6 ihh genus whidh 
are now placed under vat-ious genera. The only species thiit 
i* now decidedly referred to SK^on is the 8. Amofnurh^ hedge 
bastard stone parsley. It ts & native 6f Prtuice. Sicily, Italy, 
Greece, and Gfeat Britain. It is not Unfrequent In this 
Oountry, especially in chalk soils in rather moist ground, 
under hedges. &c. It is known by its erect, terete, pani- 
eulately branehed stem ; pinnate kave^, the letter leaflets 
rather toothed and lobed, tipper ones cut into narrow seg- 
ments. The fiowera are cream-coToured. The greet) plant 
when bruised has 6 peculiarly nauseous ftnell, something 
like that 0t bugs. The seeds itre pungent and aromatic, 
and trere fbrffierly celebrated as d diuretic, but are how little 

SISSOO, ft tree well known throughout the Bengal pre- 
sidency, and highly valued on account of its timber, it is 
common chieHy \ti the forests and beds of rivers which ex- 
tend all along the foot ot the Himalayas up to 30** N. tat 
The trnnk Is generally more or less erooked. lofty, and 
often from three to four feet in diameter. The branches 
are UumerOttl ftna spreading ^ the leaved pinnate, with 6 
alternate roundish acute leattets, ifhich m>m their small 
size and drooping imttire ^ve the tree a very light and 
elegant appearance. 

The Sissoo yields the Bengftl shipbuilders their crooked 
timbers and knees. Dr. Roxburgh deseribeft it as being 
tolerably lijght, remarkably strong, but not so durable at 
could be wished ; the colour is light greyish- brown, with 
dark veins: he says that upon the whole he searcely knows 
any other tree more deserving of attention, from its rapid 

S>wth in almost every soil, its beaiKy, an^ uses. Captain 
ker, in his * Experiments on the Elasticity and Strength 
of Indiftn Timbers,' deeoribes the Sissoe ^n structure some- 
what resembling the ftnet species of teak, hut as being 
tougher and tdore etasftic, and as employed by the natives 
for nouse furniture, beams, cheeks, spokes, naves and fel- 
lies of wheels, keels and frames of boac^, blocks, and print- 
ing-presses It is uaivet^Uy employed both by Europeans 
and ndtlved of the north-ire*ft provincesr where strength is 

The $is80o beleng^ to a genus Dalbergia, t^hich abounds 
in Valuable timber-trees, as 2>. latifoUa, which is usually 
called Btaok Wood- tree by the English, and of which the 
wood is exported as ft kind ef ebonVi sometimes also 
called Black Rose-wood. It is one of the largest timber- 
trees of India, being 16 ffeet in circumference, with the 
wood of a greenish-black colour, with Hghteiscoloured veins 
running in various directions, and admitting a fine polish, 
and therefbre mu({h admired as furniture-wood. Captain 
Baker found it, like the Sissoo, fthte to sustam a weight o^ 
19C0 potinda; i^heti teak broke with 1 128 lbs S. I>aiber- 

g'a Ocigeinensis, fbund in central India, is tiltohighl) vftlnet! 
f'ir timber: the pillars of Sindia*s palace at Ougein are 
made of it. 

SISTERON, the chief town of ah arTondissement in the 
departmentofBassesAlpes in France, on the right b ink of the 
Daranoe, at the junction of the Buech. 4df miles from Parid 
by Lyon, Grenoble, and Gap. Sisteroh was known to the Ro* 
tnansby the name of Segustero {Itinerarium Antoninini, and 
PeuHngef Table) or the town of the Segesterii (NoHtfa Pro- 
viPdarum), afterwards altered intu Segesterium, Sistericum, 
and Sisteron. It is not known to what people it belbnged. In 
the sixth century it became the seat of a bishopric, and was 
the object of attack in the ninth century to the Saracens and 
the Hungarians. The toi^nsmetl embraced the Huguenot 
party in the relij^ious contests ot the sixteeiith century. The 
Catholics in consequence attacked the town and took it, a.d. 
1562 ; but it Was afterwards retaken by Lesdigui^res. The 
town is calculated to be 479 metres, of 1570 feet, above tho 
level of the sea. It is situated at the fbot of a rock, upon 
which is an old citadel, and is surrounded bv an em^ 
battled wall flanked with towers, but is commanded by the 
sorrounding heights, so as to be little defensible in modcn.' 
Yt-arfare. There are two bridges, one of a single arch ovet 
the Durance, the other over the Buech. The ex-cftthedral 
has a Une altar-piece by Vanloo; Hiero are two other 
churches, an hospital, and a prison. The population in 
1831 was 3&37 ibr the town, or 442^ for the Whole com- 
mune. The townsmen manufacture hats, leather, and pot- 
tery i there are lime< kilns ; and trade is carried on in almonds, 
Wool, oil, and truffles j there are ten yearly fairs. The sur- 
rounding country produces a great Quantity of wahmts 
and almonds, and some good wine. Urns, \1Bes, Ifttnps, 
ntedals, and other Roman antiquities have been dtig up 

SISTRUM, a musical instrument of percussion, of the 
highest antiquity, constructed of brass, and shaped like 
the f^ame ana handle of a racket, the head part of which 
had three, and sometime^ four, horizontal bar^ placed 
loosely on it, which were tuned, most probably, by some 
scale, ftnd allowed te play freely, so that when the instru* 
ment Wa$ shaken, piercing, ringing sounds must have been 
produced. Some writers have confounded the sistrum with 
the cymbals, though the instruments could have had nothing 
in common etcept their harsh ihetallic sounds. 

SiSY'MBRIUM (from Survfifipiov), the name of a 
Mnus of plants belonging to the natdral drdei* Cruciferm, 
It )5ossesses a roundish siliijUe Mated Upon a torus ; two 
«ti$(mas, somewhat distinct, or connate into a head ; ta\y:t 
equal at the base; ovate or oblong seeds; tlat, incumbent, 
sometimes oblioue cotyledons ; 8tamen$ ndt toothed. The 
6pecie6 are mostly perennial or annual liei-bs, with yellow 
or white flowery and leaves very vslridble oh the same 
plant. About fifty-eight species are enumerated, but com- 
paratively few of these are Cultivated. Tho genus however 
belongs to an order that possesses no ii\)Url6us plants, and 
a few of the species are well known on account of their 

5. ojldnarunh Common Hedge-Mustard, has muricato 
pilose leaves, a pilose stem, and subolate pods pressed (o tho 
rachis. It is a native of Europe, and grows in waste places 
and way-sides, among rubbish, and along the sides 6f walls. 
It is plentiful in Britain, and also the no^th of Africa. The 
whole plant is warm and acrid, and is Often cultivated for 
use as a pot-herb. It is eaten by Sheep and goats ; hni 
cows, horses, and swine refuse it. In medicine it wai for- 
merly much used as an expectorant in chronic coughs and 
asthma. It was also recommended in ulcerations of the 
mouth and throat. The stimulant properties of (his and 
other plants belonging to the order would make them un- 
doubtedly valuable remedies in many diseases in the absence 
of other means, but in modern medicine tnore J^owerful and 
certain remedies haVe thrown into disuse many agents for- 
merly highly valued. 

S, Irio, London Rocket or Broftd leaved Hedge-Mustard : 
tftem and leave's smooth ; leaves runoinate ; lobes tootlied ) 
pod erect. It is a native of Waste places throughout Europe, 
but esoecially about London. It ift said to have entirely 
covered the ground in the following spring of the great firo 
of London in 1666. The former species is also remarkable 
for appearing on the ground where fires have existed. In 
6uch cases the ashes of the tires constitute a nutriment pe- 
culiarly adapted for the growth aiul development of these 
plants. The whole ef tUis (lant possesses the hot bitinn 

S I T 

chaEaeter of tbe mustard. Several varieties have been re- 

8. Sophia^ Five-leaved Hedce-Mustard, or Flixweed: 
leaves doubly pinnatifid, slightly hairy; lobes linear or 
oval; pedicels four times longer than the calyx; nttals 
shorter. It grows on dry banks, waste ground, dung- 
hills, and among rubbish in most parts of Europe. It is 
frequent in Great Britain. It has derived its name of flix- 
weed and that of ' wisdom of surgeons ' from its supposed 
power of controlling diarrhoea, dysentery, &c. Whatever 
may have been its former reputation, it is now almost 
entirely fallen into disuse. 

8. mil^foUunh MillfoiMeaved Flixweed: leaves some- 
what tripinnate, hoarv ; lobules blunt, small ; stems shrubby ; 
petals larger Uian the calyx. A native of Teneriflfe, on the 
rocks in the lower parts of the island. It is a small branched 
shrub, with corymbose flowers. It is a greenhouse species, 
growing well in a rich lieht soil ; and young cuttings will 
readily root under a hana-glass when placed in a sheltered 

S. sirictusimum. Spear-leaved Hedge-Mustard : leaves 
lanceolate, stalked, toothed, pubescent. It has intensely 
yellow flowers, with pods two inches long ; the stem is erect, 
and branching at the top. It is a hardy perennial, adapted 
for shrubberies, and may be easily increased by division of 
the root 

This genus at one time incKided that now known under 
the name of Nasturtium. The latter was originally sepa- 
rated by Brown, and is principallv distinguished by the 
position of the cotyledons, a point of primary importance in 
the whole order of Brassicacess. In Sisymbrium the cotyle- 
dons are folded with their back upon the radicle, whilst in 
Nasturtium their edges are presented to it ; in the former 
the cotyledons are said to be incumbent, in the latter accum-. 

A well known species of Nasturtium is the N officinale, 
formerly Sisymbrium Nasturtium^ the common water-cress. 
In addition to the characters of the genus, this plant is 
known princinally by the form of its leaves. The leaf is 
composed of from 5 to 7 leaflets, which are arranged oppo- 
site each other on a common petiole with a terminal leatiet 
The leaflets are somewhat heart-shaped and slightly waved 
and toothed ; they are succulent, and their surface is smooth. 
The terminal leaflet is always largest The upper leaves do 
not separate into distinct leaflets, being pmnatifid with 
narrow segments. The petiole of the leaf does not in any 
manner embrace the stem. The flowers are white, and the 
pods, when ripe, are about an inch long. This plant is a 
native of rivulets throughout the world, and is very plentiful 
in Great Britain. It has a warm agreeable flavour, and has 
long been one of the most popular plants as a salad. It 
was formerly much used in meaicine as a diuretic and anti- 
scorbutic, but its great consumption now is as an article of 
diet As it frequently grows amongst plants that are not 
wholesome, and that bear to it a general resemblance, it 
would be well for every one to be acquainted with its charac- 
ters. The plant most frequently mistaken for it, <)specially 
when out of flower, is the fool's water- cress. lSiuk.j From 
this it may be always distin^ished, and in fact from all 
other UmbellifersD, by the petioles of the leaves nuc forming 
a sheath round the stem. 

The water-cress is cultivated to a very great extent in the 
neighbourhood of London. The plants are placed out in 
rows in the bed of a clear stream in the direction of the 
current and all that is required for their successful growth 
IS replanting occasionally and keeping the plants clear of 
mud and weeds; sandy and gravelly bottoms are best 
* Some market-gardeners who can command only a small 
stream of water, grow the water-cress in beds sunk about 
two feet in a retentive soil, with a very gentle slope from 
one end to the other. Then, according to the slope and 
leng^ of the bed, dams are made six inches high across it, 
at intervals, so that when these dams are full, the water 
may rise not less than three inches on all the plants in- 
cluded in each. The water, being turned on, will circulate 
from dam to dam, and the plants, if not allowed to run to 
flower, will afford abundance of young tops in all but the 
winter months.' (G. Don.) Water-cresses grown in this way 
have not so fine a flavour as those from natural streams. 

SITKHA is the name of the most important of the 
Russian settlements on the west coast of North America, 
*hough its proper name is New Arkhanghelsk. This place lies 
in 67** 2! 50" N. lat. and 136* 18' W. long., and is built on 

64 SIT 

one of the group of islands which received from VancouTer 
the name of King George IIL's Archipelago. The outward 
coast of this extensive group had been seen before by Cook 
in his third voyage, who called a very elevated island, whicb 
had the appearance of a cape. Mount Edgecombe, but be 
afterwards suspected that it was an island. The sjMice between 
this small island of Edgecombe and the larger island which 
lies east of it forms the harbour of the settlement WhenVan- 
couver surveyed this coast, he thought that the outward coast. 
which extends from Chatham Sound on the south (56*' N. lat) 
to Cross Sound (58** N. lat) on the north, constituted one large 
island, which he called King George III.'s Island ; but it 
was afterwards ascertained that it was divided by a narrow 
strait into two islands, and since that time the northern 
island has been called by the native name of Sitkha. while 
the southern has received the name of Baranoff Island, in 
honour of the founder of the Russian settlement On the 
last-mentioned island BaranoS built a small fort in 1799, 
which was destroyed in 1802 by the natives of the tribe of 
the Koloshes. But in 1804 Baranoff'expelled them from tbe 
strait which constitutes the harbour of New ArkhaneheUk, 
and founded in the vicinity of one of their villages the pre- 
sent town. The harbour, which Vancouver named Noitblk 
Sound, but which is now better known as the Bay of 
Sitkha, is spacious and uie, and offers excellent anchorage 
n)pposite the settlement The pUice itself is surrounded by 
a wooden wall, and enclosed by mountains of considerable 
elevation, which are almost covered with forests, in which 
excellent timber is found. Shipbuilding constitutes tbe 
most important of the branches of industry, and all the 
vessels of the American Company are now built at this 
place, since sbip-building has been discontinued at Okhotsk. 
New Arkhanghelsk is the centre of the administration of 
the Russian territories in America, over which the American 
Company exercises sovereign powers, nearlv in the same way 
as the Hudson's Bay Companyover a much more extensive 
portion of North America. The collecting of furs is tbe 
exclusive object of both companies, and New Arkhanghelsk 
may be compared with Fort York, which lies nearly under 
the same latitude on the eastern coast of America. But 
New Arkhanghelsk is larger : its population in 1833 amounted 
to 847 individuals, of whom 406 were Europeans, and 307 
descendants of Europeans and naHve women, and 134 only 
Aleutes and Koloshes. New Arkhanghelsk has also a 
much greater commerce by sea, and the vessels of the Com- 
pany visit California, whence they import grain and salt and 
dried meat; and the Sandwich Islands, where they obtain 
salt for curing their fish. The number of vessels employed 
by tlie Company in this commerce and in the transport of 
the furs which have been collected in the different smaller 
settlements amounts to twelve ; their tonnage is stated not 
to exceed (1833) 1565 tons. 

"Wrangell continued to make meteorological observations 
during his stay at New Arkhanghelsk (1833 and 1835), and 
Baer has taken advantage of his work to compare the di* 
mate of Nain on the coast of Labrador with that of Sitkha. 
The result is contained in the following table, which ex- 
presses the mean temperature of the seasons and of the 
year :— 

New Arkhaoghelfk. Nam. 

Winter (Dec— Feb.) -f34 • 74 - 1 • 26 

Spring (March— May) 42'28 +22*38 

Summer (June — Aug.) 56*30 45*62 

Autumn (Sept ^Nov.) 47*89 36*60 

Annual mean temper. •{- 45 * 30 +25*50 

Thus it appears that the mean annual temperature of 
these two places, situated respectively on the eastern and 
western coasts of North America, differs nearly 20 degrees 
of Fahrenheit; in winter the difference amounts to 36 
degrees, and in summer to nearly 11^ degrees. But though 
these observations prove the ereat superiority of the western 
coast of North America over tne eastern in respect to climate, 
a comparison between Sitkha and Bergen in Norway shows 
that the western coast of the old continent is much more 
favoured by nature. For though Bergen is 3 degrees and 
20 minutes nearer the pole, the mean temperature of the 
winter is +36% of the sprmg +45% of the summer +58% and 
of the autumn +48% ana the mean annual temperature 
nearly 47% The climate of the last-mentioned place may 
also in other respects be compared with that of Sitkha, es- 
pecially in regard to humidity. Sitkha however is cer 
tainly more humid; %jiiint^i$28 there occurred 120 ^s 

81 V 



in which rain fbll without interrupiioii, and 180 days in 
which showers were frequent, so that only 66 days were 
free from rain. Snow is frequent during three or four 
months, but it does not lie long on the ground. It is oonsi- 
dered rare if the frost continues for ten days together. 
It is to this great degree of humidity that the failure of 
all attempts to cultivate grain is attributed ; for there are 
many other places in which it suceeeds, and in which the 
mean temperature of summer is from 8'' to 10^ lower. The 
prevailing winds are fh>m the south*east and the south-west 
Thunder-storms oocur only in November and December, 
and never in summer. 

(Langsdorf 's Voyages and TraveU in various parts qf 
the World; Lutkes Voyage autourdu Monde; and Wran- 
gel's StaiistiscAe und Ethnograpkische NaehHehfen iiber 
die Russischen Besiizungen an der Nordwestkuste von 

SITKOPF. [Japan.] 

SITTA. [Nuthatch.] 


SIUM, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order UmbelliferoD. The calyx possesses 5 teeth or 
is obsolete ; petals obcordate with an inflexed point, or entire 
and ovate; fruit laterally compressed or contracted, and 
subdidymous, crowned with the reflexed styles with their 
deproMed bases ; carpels with 5 equal, filiform, rather obtuse 
ridges, of which the lateral ones are marginal ; interstices 
with one or many vitta; seed subterete. The universal 
involucre varies; the partial one is composed of many 

5. Sisarum, Skirret, is the best-known plant of this 
genus. The root is composed of fascicles of fusiform tubers; 
stem terete; leaves pinnate, upper ones temate, leaflets 
ovato-lanceolate, acute, serrated; involucre of 5 reflexed 
leaves ; commissure, according to Koch, with 4 vittee. It 
has white flowers. The tubers of the root are about the 
size of the finger, and were formerly greatly esteemed in 
cookery, but are now gone much into disuse. The French 
call this plant CherviSf the (Germans Zueker^wurzel, and in 
the north of Scotland, where it is much eaten when cooked, 
it is called crummock. When eaten, the tubers are boiled 
and served up with butter, forming, according to an old 
writer, * the sweetest, whitest,. and most pleasant of roots.* 

The Skirret is a native of China, and is reputed to possess 
in that country peculiar medicinal virtues. Sir J. E. Smith 
observes that the Chinese have long been in the habit of 
sending this root to Japan as the true Ginseng of Tartary, 
or Pdnax qmnquefdia of linnseus, a plant possessing very 
difl*ercnt properties. 

The Skirret may be proptigated by seeds and offshoots. 
The seeds should be sown in the months of March and 
April, in small drills eight inches apart, in an open space of 
lightish ground. When the plants are one or two inches 
high, they should be thinned, and they may be used as they 
attain size till August, September, or October. Plants of 
the last year will always afford offsets, which may be broken 
off the old roots and planted in rows. For procuring seed 
the plants should be left till the following autumn. 

5. nodiflorunh Fool's Water-cress, or procumbent Water- 
parsnip, possesses a rooting, procumbent, striated stem; 
pinnate leaves, oblong equally serrated leaflets; umbels 
sessile, opposite the leaves. It is a native of Europe, in 
ditches and rivulets, and is common in Great Britain. A 
small and large variety are recorded, the one not attaining 
more than three or four inches in height, the other as many 
feet. It was formerly admitted into the * London Pharma- 
copoBia,' on account of its efficacy in cutaneotis diseases 
and scrofula. Dr. Withering has recorded his opinion in 
its favour* and related a remarkable case in which benefit 
was derived from its use. He administered three or four 
ounces of the juice in milk daily. This plant has often been 
represented as very poisonous ; but if thus much of the juice 
can be taken with impunity, it can hardly be verv active. 
This, with some other species of Sium, has been placed by 
Koch under a new genus, Helosciadium. The principal dif- 
ference consists in the number of vitto found in the inter- 
stices of the carpels ; Stum having several vittae* Ueloscia^ 
dium only one. 

There are many other species of Sium, four of which are 
British, but none of them are cultivated for their beauty or 
applied to any particular uses. 

SiVA, the personification of the destroying principle, 
forms ^th the two other gods. Brahma and Vishnu, the 
P.C. No. 1367. 

Trimflrti, or triad, of the Hindus ; and although, in allusion 
to his ofl&ce as destroyer, he is classed third, yet he is gene« 
rally allowed to occupy the second plaoe among the Hindu 
deities, or even (aooording to Kindersley) the first, as his 
supremacy appears to have obtained more g^eral assent 
than that of Vishnu. Indeed the worship of Siva is ao pre* 
dominant, that Brahma, who is the only one of the three 
mentioned by Menu, and who seems to have enjoyed a 
larger share of adoration in antient times, has now only one 
temple in India, while Mahddeva (a name of Siva) and the 
adventurous Vishnu, whose incarnations attract so much of 
the veneration of the Hindus, are, in fact, the only gods of 
the whole Hindu pantheon who have numerous worship- 
pers. This however is no proof that Siva or Vishnu dates 
firom a later period. The personification of the three divine 
attributes originates, no doubt, with the Vedas, and the 
names of the three gods are mentioned, though rarely, and 
without the least allusion to their pr»-eminence over the 
elemental gods or over each other; but we do not find 
that the twa great sects of India, the Vaishnavas (foUowers 
of Vishnu) and the Saivas (worshippers of Siva) came into 
existence before the seventh or eighth century of our SBra. 
It is therefore to the Pur^nas (the scriptures of the modern 
Hindu religion) that we must ascribe the extension of the 
worship of Siva and the character which now distinguishes 
this god. We cannot however point out the difference be- 
tween the mode of worshipping Siva now and in the time of 
Manu, the Vedas being too little known, and the extracts from 
them, which have been hitherto published, unsatisiactory. 
We must therefore limit ourselves to the description of the 
present popular form of Siva worship, which in all probability 
nad not assumed its actual state before the great Saiva re- 
former, Sankara Acharya, who lived in the eighth or ninth 
century. {Fisknu Parana, pref, p. x.) This opinion is 
supported by the well-foundea assertion that the Saiva faith 
was instituted by Paramata Kalfinala, who is desohbed in 
the ' Sankara Vijaya ' of Ananda Giri as teaching at Be- 
nares, and assuming the insignia that characterize Uie Dan- 
dis, a sect of Saivas of modern times. {As, Res^ xvi. 22.) No 
allusion is made in the Purdnas to the original power of this 
god as destroyer ; that power not being called into exercise 
till after the expiration of twelve millions of years, when 
according to Pauranic accounts, the Kaliyuga will come to a 
close together with the universe; and Mahfideva is rather 
the representative of regeneration than of destruction. In- 
deed the worship of the type which represents him as the 
vivifying principle, the linga (phallus, a smooth black stone 
in the form of a sugar-loaf , with a projection at the base 
h'ke the mouth of a spoon) is spread all over India, and the 
number of worshippers of this image is far greater than the 
worshippers of all the other gods. (Ward, i. 16.) There 
are however a few legends in Hindu mythology in which 
Siva appears as the actor without any reference to the wor- 
ship of the linga. The linga is indeed the only form under 
which Siva is now adored in most parts of India. Accord- 
ing to Professor Wilson (Vishnu Purdna, xliv.), 'There is 
nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity ; it is all mystical 
and spiritual. The linga is twofold, external and internal. 
The ignorant, who need a visible sign, worship Siva through 
'a mark' or 'type,* which is the proper meaning of the 
word ' linga,' of wood or stone ; but the wise look upon this 
outward emblem as nothing, and contemplate in their 
minds the invisible inscrutable type, which is Siva himself. 
Whatever may have been the origin of this form of worship 
in India, the notion upon which it was founded, according 
to the impure fancies of European writers, is not to be read 
even in the Saiva Pur&na.' Indeed the emblems under 
which the Hindus exhibit the elements and operations of 
nature are not indecorous, and the low cylinder of stone^ 
which is meant for the symbol of the creative power* sug- 
gests no suspicion of its original import; and nothing what- 
ever belongs to the worship of the linea, or to the terms in 
which this is mentioned, which has the slightest tendency 
to lead the thoughts from the contemplation of the god to 
an undue consideration of the object by which he is typified. 
The best refutation however of the iigurious suppositions to 
which the accounts of many travellers have eiven rise, will 
be the words which ShuLhimself is supposed to say in the 
Saiva Purtna : ' From the supreme spirit proceed Puru- 
sha (the generating principle), Prakriti (the generative 
nature), and Time; and by them was produced this uni- 
verse, the manifestation of the one god Of all organs 

of sense and intollect the best is mind, which proceeds froH; 




9 IV 

AhanUm;* AJbtt&Ubra, from intelWot; intelleot* from ih« 
supreme beiog, who is in iact Puruibau It is the |urimeval 
ma^e, whose form constitutes this universe, and whose breath 
is tba sjky ; and though incorporeal, that 9)ale am I.' This 
doctrine is pure enough, and the lew aberrations which 
remind one of the orgies practised in honour of Bacchus, 
are not sufficient to justify us in stigmatising it as vile and 

The linga howover is only the type of 8iva as ^ god 
who presides over generation. His other forms are many, and 
they vary in so far as they attribute to him the qualities of 
eceatori preserver, destroyer, and regenerator, and represent 
htm in his various avatdraa (incarnations, eight of which 
are ca\l«i by the eemmon name of Bhairava, and are seve- 
rally termed AsiUto^ Euru, Chandra, Krodha. Unmatta, 
KOpati, Bhisbana, and Sanbdra, all alluding to terrific pro- 
perties of mind or body. He is sometimes seen with two 
handjB, at others with four, eight, or ten, and with five faces; 
lie has a third eye in his fbreh^id, the comers of which are 
perpendicular, which is peculiar to him ; acrescent in his hair, 
or on hiA forehead, encircling the third eye ; he wears ear- 
rings of snakes, and a collar of skulls. MahMeva, when re- 
presented thus, but with one head, has four hands, in one of 
which he holds a p&aa, the use of whioh is to extract the 
souJs out of the bodies of m&ok, when their time is come, and 
is a common attribute of Yama, the god of death (8. Seivi^ 
tryupakhyana, ed. Bopp., p. 25^ a tris'ula b upheld by the 
other, and the two other hands are in a pofiition of benedic- 
tion. As Bhairava (the lord of dread) he is frightful to be* 
hold ; great tusks hurst through his thick lips ; the hair, 
which is stiff and erect, gives his face a dreadful aspect ; the 
fall of the necUace is impeded by numerous snakes which 
twine round his body. This is also the idol which shows him 
as MahdrkAla, or god of time. It is in this character that he 
w supposed to del^ht in bloody sacrifices, and that the Saiva 
Sannylbis (followers of Siva who practise the yosa to the 
highest degree) inflict on themselves the cruelties wbich have 
rendered so conspicuous the temple of Jaggemaut (Jagan- 
nfttha, the lord of the world). [Yoga.] A very minute 
account of the fortitude and self-denial of the deluded Yogis 
is given in Ward's *■ View on the Religion of the Hindus ' 
(i. 19). His consort Sakti, who in her corresponding cha- 
meter is celebrated as the goddess Durgd or Kfilf, partici- 
pates in these horrible sacrifices, and has lately become 
more notorious by the exposure of the homicidal practices 
of the Thugs, who recognise in her their tutelary divinity. 
Siva is also the god of justice. In that character be rides 
a white bull, the symbol of divine justice (Manu, viii. 16X 
and is often seen with the porotfAti (battle-axe) in his hand, 
and the sacred string. On pictures he is often represented 
as if rubbed o\'er with ashes, and with a blue neck ; the 
epithet of Ntlakanta (blue-necked) was given to him in 
commemoration of his having drunk the poison whidi arose 
from the sea, and threatened to destroy mankind. But the 
character in which he is mofe generallv known, and which 
his followers imitate, ia that of the Kapdla-bhrit (skull- 
bearer). Skanda-Pur^M makc» him describe himself in 
the following wor^ :-^' Pfinrat! (his bride) must be foolish 
to prattise so severe a penance in order to obtain me, Rudra 
(one of his 1000 names), a wandering mendicant, a bearer 
of a human skull, a delighter in cemeteries, one ornamented 
with bones and serpents, covered with ashes and with no 
garments but an elephant's skin, riding on a bull, and ac- 
companied by ghosts and goblins.' Now this, except that 
the unearthly beings who follow him are represented by a 
crowd of dirty people, is exactly the description- of a Saiva 
digambara (sky-clad, t^ naked— a kind of religious mendi- 
cants), if, instead of the god's third eye, we add a round dot 
on the nose, made of clay or cow-dune, and a mark on the 
forehead, composed of three curved lines, instead of the 
Chandra (half-moon) which Rudra obtained at the churning 
of the ocean. When asked for the reason why they and their 
god carry a human skull, they refer to the V&mana-Pnr4na : 
' Formerly, when all things moveable and immoveable had 
been destroyed, and nought remained but one vast ocean ^ 
while universal darkness reigned, that lord who is incom- 
prehensible and subject to neither birth nor death reposed 
in slumber on the abyss of the waters for a thousand aivine 
years; but when his night had passed, desirous of creating 
the three worlds, he, investing himself with the quality ^ 

* Litttxally Iha * I- Maker ' is tiie Hindu term for UiA power of Mlf-couscious* 
s«i8, or, wMf ia tm^Ded by.thif. indiriduality; for foxther informatioD see 

impurity, assumed a corporeal form with five heads. Tb^ 
also was produced from the darkness another form* with 
three eyes and twisted focks, and bearing a rosary and tri- 
dent. Brahma next created Ahankdra (self-consciousness}, 
which immediately pervaded both Siva and himself, and 
under its' impression Rudra thus said to Pitfi-Mahft : — '* Say, 
O lord! how camest thou here, and by whom wert thou 
created?** Brahma replied, ** And whence art thou?" and 
instantly caus^ the new-made sky to reverberate with a won* 
drous sound. Sambhu (Siva) was thus subdued, and stood 
with a countenance downcast and humbled, like the moon in 
anjeclipse, and the fifth bead of Brahma thus addressed him 
rendered red-dark with anger at his defeat :—*' I know thee 
well, thou form of darkness I with three ey«B, clothed with 
the four quarters of the sky (t.0. naked), mounted (m a 
bull, the destroyer of the universe." On hearing these 
words Sambhu became incensed with anger, and while he 
viewed the head with the terrible glances of hts world-con- 
suming eye, his five heads, from his wrath, grew white, red, 
f olden, black, and yellow, and fearful to behold. But 
(rahma, on Observing these heads glowing like the sun, 
thus said : — ** Why dost thou agitate thyself and attempt to 
appear powerful ? for, if I choose, I could this instant make 
thy heads become like bubbles of water.*' This beard, Siva, 
inflamed with anger, cut off with the nail of his right hand 
the head of Brahma which had uttered such fierce and 
boasting words ; but when he would have thrown it on the 
ground, it would not, nor ever shall it, fall from his hand.'- 
The beautiful idea which is obscured Iqr the extravaganoea 
of this passage, namely, that the creation in itself involves 
subsequent &struction, need hardly be pointed out In 
neariy all the representations of Siva, the Ganga (Ganges) is 
seen either flowing firom his head or beaming on his head- 
piece. There is an interesting fable which makes it flow 
from Pdrvatfs fingers, but for which we refer our readers to 
Moore's ' Hindu Pantheon* (p. 41). 

The origin of the linga worship is, we find, differently ac- 
counted for in different Purlnas. The * Linga- Purdna,' which 
contains 1 1,000 yenoA{Mackewde Coll^ i. 39), states that the 
primitive linga is a pillar of radiance in which MahSdeva 
is present The appearance of the great fiery linga takes 
r^ace, in the interval of a creation, to separate Vishnu and 
Brahma, who not only dispute the place of supremacy, but 
fight for it, when the linga suddenly springs up, and puts 
ttMim to shame ; after travelbng upwards and downwards 
for a thousand years in each direction, neither of them can 
approach its termination. Unon the linga, the sacred 
monosyllable Om is visible,^ ana the Vedas proceed from it, 
by which Brahma and Vishnu become enlightened, and ac- 
knowledge the superior might and glory of Siva (Vishnu- 
Purdna, xliii.). This legend, by which, in its Tamul version, 
the circumstance of Brahma having neither temple nor wor- 
shippers is accounted for, is given in Kindersley's ' Specimen 
of Hindu My thology' (p. 21). In his travels in search of the 
head of the column, Brahma is said to have found a Cauldairy 
flower which Siva had purposely dront from bis head. He 
entreated it to bear false witness for nim, that he had actu- 
ally found the top of the column. The flower rashly con- 
senting to the fraud, both returned to Siva, and asserting 
the falsehood agreed on, Siva, in his just resentment de- 
creed that Brahma should never receive any external wor- 
ship. A very fanciful story about the linga is given in the 
4th volume of the ' As. Res.,' p. 368 ; and another, which 
Ahb6 Dubois states to be derived from the < Lainga,* but 
which, in fact, is fVom the ' Padma-Pur&na,' may t^ found 
in this author's * Moeurs, &c. des Peuples de I'Inde.' vol. ii., 
p. 417. But the pure^ original, mystical idea, which must 
undoubtedly have been expressed in the Vedas, is poorly 
preserved in the Pur^as, and almost entirely lost in the 
daily worship of the present Hindus, who, although without 
any admixture of obscene thoughts, adore their stone, or the 
image which they make them^ves from the clay of the 
sacred river where they perform their ablutions, in much 
the same way as an African venerates his fetish. Siva, who 
as^ the type of the regenerating principle is alto that of fire, 
which quality is represented by a triangle with the apex 
upwards (A), is the object of a very ludicrous ceremony 
when the heat is great Fearing lest he should set on 
fire the whole world, they put above his idol a basin full of 
water with a small aperture at the bottom, in order that the 
water which drops on him may moderate his ardour. (Du- 
bois, ii., 304.) We need not wonder if the linga worship has 
given rise to sects whose practices are for from admitting 

S I V 


S I V 

snj apology llwre ii, aecordidff to Dnbote ^i. 154), b sect 
called Vira'Saiva, wbo reject altogether the authority of 
the Vedas and the other saered works of the Hindus, who 
deny the distinction of casts, maintaining that the linga 
renders all men equal ; even a Vaisya, who emhraces this 
doctrine, is, in their opinion, equal to a Br^hmana. They 
state that where tlie linga exists, there is ako the throi^e 
of the deity, without distinction of ranks and persons ; and 
that the humble hut of the labourer where this sacred sign 
exists, is much above the sumptuous palace where it is not 
to be found. This doctrine, which is m direct opposition to 
the customs of the Hindus, has never had many followers. 

To continue the account of his adventures : Siva marries 
P^brvatt, and lives with her in the midst of the eternal snows 
of Mount Kail&a. His heaven is however one of the most 
splendid in Hindu mytIiolos;y,and a description of it maybe 
found in Ward's 'View' (i. 30); it is d translation from the 
KrityaTatwa. There also are his two sons; Ganesa, the 
leader of the heavenly choristers, and, as Vigneswara, the 
god of difficulties, whose head is that of an elephant ; and 
Kartikeya, the six- faced god of war. It is there that he 
was thus addressed by Brahma and the other gods : — * I 
know that thou, O Lord, art the eternal Brahm, that seed 
which, being received in the womb of thy Sakti (aptitude to 
conceive), produced this universe ; that thou, united with 
thy Sakti, dost in sport create the universe from thy own 
substance, like the web from the spider.* Here it was that 
he reduced to ashes the 'flowery-bowed mind-bewitcher ' 
K&ma (the god of love), pierced by whose arrows he had 
neglected to avenge the wrong done:to him and his consort by 
his father-in-law Daksba. On the top of Kail^a it is that 
the worshippers of Siva will be admitted to the sports of the 
inhabitants, where Mahddeva invented for the amusement of 
his bride the heavenly dance, to which his faithful attendant 
Nandi plays the musical accompaniment. There lie before 
the door his vehicle, the white bull, and the tiger on which 
his consort rides. Though wanting all the splendours of 
the Swarga (Indra's heaven), the abode of Siva, when drawn 
in the glowing colours of the East, is no less gratifying. 
From thence he is supposed to bless his worshippers, * when, 
with P^rvatt on his knees, he, the lord of the world, on 
whose brow shines the moon throwing its beams over the 
mountain of the north, deigns to allow the Suras and 
Asuras (gods and dwmons) to wear for their frontal orna- 
ment the reflection of the radiance of the nails of his feet, 
and the Grange, rushing from the top of his head, refreshes 
the air of his sacred dwelling' (Kathd SaHt Sdgara). This 
is a favourite subject among the Hindu painters, and we 
must allow that then* conception of it is generally good and 
well executed. 

The religious service is the $ame as that which is used at 
the worship of Siva under his other names. In performing the 
linga-pfija, for that is the Sanscrit name for sacrifice or wor- 
ship, all its various parts are performed in due order. The 
directions for it may be found in the Lainga-Purdna 0- 25), 
translated by Kennedy (p. 306) : — * Having bathed in the 
prescribed manner, enter the place of worship ; and having 
performed three suppressions of breath [Yoga], medi- 
tate on that god who has three eyes, five heads, ten arms, 
and is of the colour of pure crystal, arrayed in costly gar- 
ments, and adorned with all kinds of ornaments : and having 
thus fixed in thy mind the real form of Maheswara, proceed 
to worship him with the proper prayers and hymns. First 
sprinkle the place and utensils of worship with a bunch of 
aarbha dipped in perfumed water, repeating at the same 
time the sacred monosyllable Om, and arrange all the uten- 
sils and other things required in the prescribed order ; then 
in due manner repeating the proper invocations, prayers, 
and hymns, preceded by the sacrea word Om, prepare the 
offerings. For the Padiam, they should consist of Ushiram 
(root of the Andropogon muricatus), sandal and similar 
sweet-smelling woods, &c. Having then with due rites pre- 
pared a seat, invoke with the prescribed prayers the presence 
of Parameswara, and present to him the padictm, the dchafna- 
ntyam, and argyha. Next bathe the linga with perfumed 
waters, the panehagavyam (five produces of the cow), cla- 
rified butler, honey, the juice of the sugar-cane, and, lastly, 
pour over it a pot of pure water consecrated by the requisite 
prayers. Having thus purified it, adorn it with clean gar- 
ments and u sacrificial string, and then oflffer flowers, per- 
fumes, frankincense, lamps, fruits, and different kinds of 
prepared eatables and ornaments. Thus worship the lingam 
with the prescribed offerings, invocations, prayers, and 

hymns, and by ehreumambtiMtihg it, and by prostrating 
thyself before Siva represented under this symbol.' For 
an explanation of the technical terms here employed, we 
refer to Diibow (i. 199). 

iThe Put^nas which the worshippers of Siva are most 
acquainted with, and whksh have more or less of a Saiva 
bias, are the M^tsya, Kaurma, Saiva, I^inga, Skhanda, 
and Agneya, to all of which the term of Ttmasa, or works or 
darkness, is given. The Padma-Purftna contains tho 
thousand names of Siva at length, and is better known thati 
the others. None of them however have yet been published, 
and the reader will have to judge of the general tendency 
of these works fh)m the extracts that we have given. It b 
remarked that they are not so popular as the Pmdnas, which 
contain the narratives of Vishnu's Wonderous deeds, and 
that they have not found their Way into the modem litera- 
ture of India. If therefore the thousand visible manifesta- 
tions of Siva's presence on earth, under as many different 
names, are known to the present Hindus by tradition oifly, 
we shall not be surprisea that they united them all in one 
common typification by means of the linga. There are how- 
ever a few exceptions. A fbrm of Siva which is especially 
worshipped by the lower orders, who consider him as the 
destroyer of children, is known under the name of PancM- 
nana ; it is a misshapen stone, anointed and painted, and 
then placed under trees. Another fbrm which is still pre- 
served IS that of the Kdlttrdya, the god of fbrests. He is 
represented as sitting on a tieer, and carrying a bow and 
arrows. The woodcutters worship him to insure protection 
from wild beasts. These numerous names of Siva have led 
Europeans into a notion contrary to that which induced the 
Hindus to make the linga the general type for all the forms 
of this god ; they naturally enough supposed each of his 
numerous names and pagodas to belong to a distinct and 
separate deity. Hence the erroneous notion about poly- 
theism in India, whilst it is evident, even fh)m the few pas- 
sages we have quoted, that the original monotheism of 
Hindu religion had in the progress of time become pan- 
theism, which is prevalent all over the East. Even at 
present the follower of Siva denies the divinity of Vishnu, 
and vice versd; although both these gods, now repre- 
senting the Supreme Being, were only types of divino 
qualities attributed to the Trimfirti. But the allegory 
eventually acted too strongly on the imagination of the 
people. Brahma, as creator, had finished his work, and 
could not with propriety act any more. Siva therefore and 
Vishnu were destined to do all that fancy could suggest ; 
but still Mahddeva is the only eod to the Saivas. whilst 
Nar^yana is the one chosen by the Vaishnavaa. For this 
we have the express words of the Radha Tantra, which says 
that the form of Arddhanareswara (half man, half woman) 
was assumed by Siva in order to prove that he was the one 
Brahma, in whom both the female and male powers are 
united. (Rolle, i. 15; Bohlen, i. 150.) This notion of the 
animating and recipient principles being united in one, has 
been em^died in the statue termed Arddhanatf ; one half 
of Siva, from head to foot, bears all the ornaments of Pdr- 
vat! or Bh&vant ; the other is exactly the same as that in 
which he is usually exhibited. The Vya^hra (tiger) of 
Kdlt is also seen under the female half of this symbol, and 
the bull Nandi lies at the foot of the man portion of 

Sects of Saivas. — The Dandis are separated into two 
classes. 1, The Dandis proper are the only legitimate re- 
presentatives of the fourth asrama, or mendicant life, into 
which the Hindu is to enter after passing through the pre- 
vious stages of student, householder, and hermit. (Manu, 
vi. 33.) They worship Siva as Bhairava ; the ceremony of 
initiation consists in a small incision being made in the inner 
part of the knee, and in drawing the blood of the novice 
as an acceptable offbring to the god. 2, The Dasndmi 
Dandis admit only Brahmans into their fraternity, and are 
the primitive members of the Dandi order. S^nkara, the 
teacher of the caste, has perpetuated his influence by writ- 
ings, the best of which are his Bh^hyas, or Commentaries 
on the Sfitras (aphorisms) of VySsa, and on the Bhagavad- 
Gtta. They are distinguished by carrying a small dand (or 
wand), whence they derive their name, and a piece of cloth 
dyed with red ochre. They shave their hair and beard : 
wear only a cloth round their loins ; and subsist upon food 
obtained ready dressed from the houses of the Brahmana<^ 
Their principal study is that of the Vedanta works. ( 
Res,, xvii. 169.) 

S I V 


S I V 

I The otbet sects are the Baudroi, Ugra$, Bhdktoi, Jan- 
gamas, PcUupatas, and others, each of wbich wears the linga 
on some part of the dress or person, and are distinguished 
from each other accordingly. This sign is often worn in 
small cases of silver or brass. (Dubois, i. 147.) Their 
occupations are generally similar to those of the Dandis 
(for the principal points in which they diflfer, see Vishnu). 
Their scriptural authorities are the Siva-Gtta, Siva-sanhita, 
Siva-harasya, Rudra Samoha Tantra, and a great number 
of Tantras which are little known. 

Among the sects of Siva there are women who are de- 
voted to the service of their gods, under the name of spouses 
of the gods. They are called linga-vadbvas, and wear the 
stamp of the linga on their thigh. Although known to be 
the concubines of the priests, they enjoy considerable 
respect. (Dubois, i. 1 79.) 

Among the chief places of pilgrimage sacred to Siva, is 
Kasi, or Benares, which contains the finest temple, known 
under the name of the Pagoda of Vis' wes' ware. Chandra 
Sekhara, a mountain near Chittaganga, on which stands a 
temple of Siva, is another place of pilgrimage. The surface 
of a pool of water at this place is said to emit inflammable 
air, from the fire of which pilgrims kindle their burnt offer- 
ings. According to a statement of Ward (ii. 130), Ekam- 
rakanana, a place on the borders of Orissa, contains 6000 
temples. Not less than 70,000 or 80,000 people are said to 
visit this place at the drawing of the car of Jaganndtha, when 
all castes eat together. 

Of the festivals of Siva the chief is that called Siva- 
rdtri. It lasts three days, which are employed in perform- 
ing various rites before the linga, which they wash four 
times. The occasion of this is the Bhavishya-Purilaa.: ' A 
bird-catcher detained in a forest in a dark night climbed a 
Bilwa-tree, under which was an image of the linga; by 
shaking the boughs of the tree the leaves and drops of dew 
fell upon the image ; with which Siva was so much pleased, 
that he declared the worship of the linga on that night 
should be received as an act of unbounded merit.' (Ward, 
ii. 20 ; Dubois, ii. 328 and 530.) This takes place on the 
14th of the increase of the moon in February. For the 
other festivals common to both sects, see Vishnu. The 
Monday is generally consecrated toNandi (Siva's bull), and 
no work is done. 

The shape of the temples of Siva does not differ from 
those of the other gods. The chief entrance into the great 
temple is by a high massive pyramid, the top of which has 
generally the form of a crescent ; it invariably faces the 
east. Beyond the gate there is a large court, at the farther 
extremity of which another gate leads through a pyramid 
of less height, but of the same form. A small yard separates 
it from the temple of the idol. In the middle of it there is 
either a huge bull or a linga carved in stone, raised on a 
pedestal, or put under a canopy supported by four pillars. 
This is the first object of adoration to the visitors, who then 
pass through a low narrow door into the inside of the temple. 
This door is the only passage for light and air, there being 
no windows. A lamp, which burns night and day, gives 
a tolerable light. The interior of the building is gene- 
rally divided into two parts, sometimes into three, the first 
of which is the most spacious, and is destined to receive the 
people ; the second, or the adytum, in which the idol re- 
sides, is much smaller and darker, and generally shut, the 
door being opened only by the officiating priest, who, with 
some of his attendants, has alone the right of entering this 
mysterious place for the purpose of washing the image, and 
dressing and bringing offerings to it. This part is often 
built in the shape of a vault, but it is so low as to make a 
prolonged stay in it rather oppressive. 

Among the trees sacred to Siva the chief are the Vepu 
and the Bilwa, the leaves of which are ofken brought as 
offerings to the god. The first of these trees has to undergo 
the singular ceremony of being married to the Aswata (the 
holy fig-tree) ; the formalities are much the same as those 
which take place at the marriages of the Brfthmanas. Siva 
himself is said to be the stem of the Aswata-tree. of which 
Brahma is the root and Vishnu the branches. Besides the 
Vepu and the Bilwa, there are numberless inanimate objects 
sacred to Siva. 

It has already been mentioned that the bull is the ani- 
mal which enjoys the greatest veneration from the Saivas, 
and to which a day in the week is consecrated. 

The worshippers of Siva are distinguished from the rest 
of the Hindus by burying their dead bodies, instead of burn- 

ing them. The ebsequiei^'are perfortted in the fi>llowing 
manner, if the deceased is a Saiva Sanhyfisi '—The corpse is 
deposited, with its legs crossed, in a large basket made of 
bamboo, which four Br&hmanas carry to the grave, which is 
dug in the neighbourhood of a river or pond. It is about 
six feet deep, and of a circular form. They cover the bottom 
of it with a thick layer of salt, upon which the deceased is 
placed in a sitting position ; the space between him and the 
side^of the ^ve is then filled with salt up to the chin of 
the corpse, with the view of holding up the head so as not 
to allow of its being moved. A great number of cocoa-nuts 
are then thrown against it until the skull is Quite broken, 
when they throw Kilt upon the place so as to tiide entirely 
the fractured head. They then erect over the grave m 
kind of tumulus, an elevation about three feet high, on 
the top of which a lin^ of two feet, made of clay, is placed, 
and immediately consecrated by the mantras (incanta- 
tions) of the Brahmanas, who present to it kindled lamps* 
flowers, incense, bananas, and other offerings. This cere- 
mony is performed with the accompaniment of sacved 
hymns, which are sung by those who are present at the 
burial. At the termination of this discordant concert, a i it 
is termed by Dubois, he who presides at the ceremony goes 
three times round the linga, inclines himself before it, and 
expresses his hope ' that by virtue of the sacrifice oflfered to 
the linga, the deceased may be agreeable to Siva, and that 
being once received by Brahma iparamdtma, the universal 
soul) he may not be obliged to be born again.' During two 
days which follow this ceremony, offerings are brought to 
the linga every morning, and the sacred mantras are re- 
peated. A year afterwards the ceremony is perfiirmed 
again, but with less expense to the family of the de- 

It has been mentioned in the course of this article, that 
nothing indecent occurred at the festivals in honour of Siva, 
or in worshipping his type the sacred linga ; but since so 
much has been said in support of an assertion tending to 
throw doubt upon the strict observance of all the rules of 
decency, and to identify the practices of the linga wor- 
shippers with the phallic ceremonies of the Greeks, it 
seems proper to state what may have occasioned thi^ 

There is indeed in India a sect, which some writers have 
stated to belong to the Saivas, whilst others desoribe them 
as votaries of V ishnu ; others again, and apparently with 
more reason, speak of them a^ independent of either: thoy 
are called Sftktas, and adore the female organ of generation 
under the type of the yoni (pudendum muliebre, a figure 
of stone or wood in the shape of a heart). Their name 
Sdkta is derived from Sakti, which means power, aptitude, 
and is the name of Siva's consort. 

These Sdktas seem to found their religious belief on a pas- 
sage in one of the Upanishads to the Atbarvan-Veda, quoted 
by Windischmann, p. 847 : ' Voluptatem in amplexu foeminss, 
et voluptatem emissionis et voluptatem acquirendi nati fausti, 

aui desiderium patris post mortem ejus adimpleat, et gau- 
ium quod in illo tempore simul proven it, etiam Brahma 
esse qui scit oportet eum meditari de ilia (i^ cum ilia yogam 
inire) ;' and certainly in some of their festivals they com- 
mit great excesses. Dubois, an eye-witness, states ex- 
pressly that they are held in honour of Vishnu (i. 402). 
The ceremony of the Sakti-p<\ja is performed at night with 
more or less secrecy, a minute description of which is given 
by Dubois. We shall content ourselves with observing that 
the least odious of these orgies are those where they limit 
themselves to drinking and eating all that is forbidden them 
by their Sutras, and where men and women violate the most 
sacred rules of decency. This is the only instance where the 
worship of the generating principle has been made the pretext 
for the most revolting orgies, wnere the idea degenerated in 
the same manner as it did in Rome and Greece^ There 
too the principle was the same— a highly philosophical and 
moral idea. The doctrines of the Egyptians laid the founda- 
tion of the Eleusinian mysteries; Isis became Demeter, 
Orus the Bacchus lacchus. That same Isis was the Sakti 
of the Hindus : the notion which this Sanscrit word conveys 
suits exactly the description of the Egyptian goddess by 
Plutarch. According to him Isis was the generative power 
Wvafuc), which lay dormant until Osiris's vivifying prin- 
ciple had reproduced himself by her in his son Horus. The 
same idea was in Plato*s mind when he said that nature was 
composed of three things, and could be represented by a 
triangle. There are still some passages of Greek and Ho- 



S I W 

man writers trhich prove that tbe worship of ibe phallua had 
in other places been as pure as that of the linga. Tacitus, for 
instance {Hist^ ii. 3), describes a linga in the temple of Pa- 
phian Venus without being aware of it; these are his 
words:--' Simulacrum des9 uon effigie humana; oontinuus 
orbis latiore initio tenuem in ambitum, metco modo ex- 
siirgens, et ratio in obscure;* and Rolle, ii. 343, says, 
without mentioniog his authority, 'It was the custom of 
the Greeks to put phalli on the tombs, that the producti- 
vity ef nature, extinct, or rather, stopped for a short time by 
death, might take a new life/ This coincides exactly with 
the ceremony observed by the Saivas at their funerals; it 
does not appear however what kind of imagea were used 
upon this occasion ; but those which Pliny (xix. 4) men- 
tions, and which he calls satyrica signa, must have differed 
flrom those which are described as belonging to the Greeks. 
Another circumstance which is remarkably like the practice 
of the Hindus which we have mentioned, is the custom of 
wearing phalli in small silver cases to protect childrenagainst 
/ascinatioM, as stated by Varro (Ling, LcU^ vi. 5, p. 99, Bip.)* 
Other traces of the linga, as considered by the Hindus, may 
be found in Socrates {Hist Eccl^ 5, 1 7), where he relates that 
at the destruction of a temple of Serapis in Alexandria a 
number of signs were found, the purpose of which was not 
understood; among them there was one in the shape of a 
cross, which the heathens stated to be the symbol of a 
fu turn life. The Christians^ he continues, by the means of this 
cross made a great number of proselytes. Now this cross 
is the same by which we mark the planet Venus ( $ ), and 
which, when first seen, was supposed to mean the key to 
the mysteries. Jablonsky was the first who understood 
its real import, when he expressed himself thus: 'Cruci 
ansatfe sive phallo adeo similis est lingam illud Brahma- 
num ttt ovum ovo similius esse nequeat. 

For the description of the degraded phallic worship we 
must refer to the 2nd vol., pp. 257-274, of the ' Indian An- 
tiquities' of T. Maurice, who traces the origin of the linga 
worship back to Egypt, and gives a faithful paraphrase of 
the account contained in Dtodorus Sieulus, by which he only 
proved how little he knew the Hindu view of the subject. 

The rage for identifying the gods of the Eastern nations 
with those of the West has not spared Siva. He was 
Bacchw, and Saturn, and Pluto; in fact, he was said to be 
almost the entire pantheon of Greeee and Rome and Egypt 
Neither is this to be wondered at, seeing that the Greeks 
and Latins ascribed difflerent attributes to diflferent deities. 
The Hindus have only one to whom to ascribe all attributes^ 
Siva is also, and it appears originally, the representative of 
fire. This element penetrates earth and water, represented 
by Brahma and Vishnu, imparts to them some of its vigour, 
develops their qualities, and brings everything in nature to 
that state of increase, maturity, and p^fection whidi they 
would not attain without it. &it ceasing to act beneficially 
on the created things, they perish : this agent of reproduc- 
tion, when free and visible, consumes the body, the compo- 
sition of which he himself had effected: to this quality he 
owes his title of god of destruction. 

The reader who may wish to see the connection of the 
Hindu gods with those of Greece and Rome will find ample 
materials in the papers which Col. Wilford inserted in the 
earlier volumes of the * Asiatic Researches :' they cannot 
however be implicitly relied on. 

(Vans Kennedy, Researches into Ancient and Hindu 
Mythology ; Ward, View of the Religion, Literature^ <J«. 
of India; Wilson, VUknu Purdna — Oxford Lectures; 
Roll J, Recherehessur Bacchus et les Mysteres ; P. von Boh- 
len. Dm Alte Indim ; Kindersley, Specimen of Hindu Litera- 
ture ; Mooie, Hindu Pantheon ; Asiatic Researches ; Dubois, 
MoBurs, 4«. des Peuples de I *Inde,) 

SIV AS, or SIWAS, a town in Asia Minor, on the north 
bank of the river Kiail-Irm&k, in 39'' 25' N. lat and 36° 
55' E. long. ; 165 geographical miles southwest by west 
from Trebizond, and 87 north-east from Kaisariyeh. It is 
the capital of a pa^dialic which comprehends the whole east- 
ern part of Asia Minor, and which still bears the name of 
Rdro, or Rumiyah, which was applied to the whole Turkish 
empire before its expansion. The valley of the Kizil-Irmak, 
the antient Halys, here spreads out into a l»road and fertile 
plain. The situation being level, with the exception of only 
one small circular elevation in'the south-west, the whole city 
is seen to much advantage when approached Arom the north. 
It is interspersed with trees, without being buried in them, 
like moat of the towns in these parts. The great number 

I of ebiihn^ seen above the ho«ae-top8 indicate that the 
winter is severe ; and the inhabitants affirm that it is as 
cold as at Erz-nlm. The houses are well-built, partly 
tiled, partly flat-roofed, and intermingled with gardens. 
These, with the numerous minarets, give a cheerful aspect 
to the place. The basaars are extensive and well stocked 
with goods, inclndtng many of British manufacture. The 
consumption of Sivas itself and the circumstance of its fur- 
nishing supplies to many places, causes its transit-trade to 
be extensive. Sivas is inhabited by about 6000 families, of 
whom 1000 or 1100 are Armenians, and the rest Moslems. 
The place was once called Cabira, a name that was changed 
to Diopolis by Pomnev, and subsequently to Sebaste. 
Sivas is a corruption of the word Sebaste. It was the theatre 
of the great contest, in 1401 a.d., between Bajaset and Ti- 
itaour, in which the former was defeated. An Armenian his- 
torian states that the town then contained 120,000 souls; 
and that it capitulated to Timour, on condition that thefr 
lives should be spared, which condition he most barbarously 

(Mr. Johnston's Journal^ in the American Missionary 
Herald, Oct 1837; and Mr. Consul Suter's Journal, in 
London Geographical Journal, 1841.) 

SIWAH is the modern name of the oasis in the Sahara, 
which was called by the Greeks and Romans Ammonium, 
Ammonia, or Ammoniaoa, from the celebrated oracle and tem- 
ple of Jupiter Aromon,with whose worship the Greeks be- 
came acquainted through the Cyreno^ans. The town of 
Siwah is in 29** 12' N. lat. and 26** 17' E. long., and is about 
160 English miles from the seacoast, and twelve days 
journey from Cairo. The distances between the temple 
of Ammon and several of the Egyptian towns are stated 
by the antients, thus : from Memphis it was twelve days 
journey (Plin., Hist, Nat., v. 5.) ; from the village of Apis, 
five days* (Strabo, xvii., p. 799); and from Thebes, ten days* 
journey (Herod., iv., 181). The whole oasis is about fif- 
teen geographical miles in length and twehre in breadth ; 
but Diodorus (xvii. 50) says that the length and breadth are 
about 50 stadia, which Would only make a little more than 
five geographical miles. Nearly the whole of the oasis has 
a fruitful soil, and is watered by many springs ef fresh as 
well as of salt water, the latter of which probably arise fVom 
the masses of salt mentioned by Herodotus. The aspect of the 
oasis is that of an undulating country, and in the north it is 
surrounded by high limestone hills. The antients speak of 
three things as remarkable in this oasts: first, a well, called 
the Well of the Sun, of which the water was warm in the 
morning and evening, and cold at mid-day (Herod., iv. 181 ; 
Diodor., xvii. 50 ; Luor., vi. 849, &e. ; Pomp. Mela, i. 8) ; 
secondly, a large palace of the antient kings of the Ammo- 
nians, which was surrounded by a triple wall, and situated 
in the centre of the oasis (Diodor., xvii. 50) ; and thirdly, the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon» which was surrounded by a 
shady grove. Cambyses made an unsuccessful attempt to 
take the Ammonium (Herod., iii., 25) ; and it was visited by 
Alexnmler the Great. [Alexander.] In the reign of the 
Ptolemies and under the Romans the oasis belonged to 
that nomos or province which was called Libya (Ptolem., iv. 
5). In the time of Strabo (xvii., p. 8 13) the oracle was al- 
most entirely neglected. In the middle ages the Arabs 
called this oasis Santariah. 

The Ammonium, during its most flourishing state in an- 
tient times, seems to have been well peopled ; and the in- 
habitants are said to have consisted of three distinct tribes. 
The southern and western parts were inhabited by iUthio- 
pians, the middle part by tno Nasamones^ and the north by 
a nomadic tribe of JLihyans. No town however is mentioned 
in the oasis, but it is stated that its inhabitants lived in 
villages (Diodor., xxvii. 50). The description which Dio 
dorus gives of the beautiful climate of the oasis, and of its 
fertility, especially in fruit, is still applicable to it: nearly 
the whole oasis forms one uninterrupted succession of mea- 
dows, fields, and palm-groves ; and the gardens produce an 
abundance of the most delicious fruits. The water however 
is said to be injurious to camels. 

The present inhabitants consist chiefly of Berbers mixed 
with negroes, and all are very zealous Mohammedans. 
Since the year 1820 they have been subject to the viceroy of 
Egypt, to whom they v^^Ly an annual tribute of 2000 camel- 
loads of dates and 10, ^qO Spanish piasters. Their jealousy 
of foreigners has fru^.-^leA sevetal allerapts of Europeans 
to investigate the itrt^v cS °^ ^^* ^^^^** '^^^ principal place 
in it bears the nani^ J^^^^v«^^^^Vi\x« «)hout 8000 inhabit 

^€ uiyiiiz,t;u uy "^^ ■ v_^ x^^' pt lx^ 

8 I X 



aBta This, u well mUm tefvnl other MMttMrplMM fin 
the oasis, are built upon eminences, and surrounded by 
walls to protect them from hostile inroads. The houses are 
all wretched huts, and the streets narrow and dark. 

Ruins of the antient temole of Ammon, as well as of a 
wall by which it appears to nave been surrounded, are stiU 
visible. The paintings, aoulptures, and hierofflyphics which 
are still preserved on the walls» are copied and described in 
the work of Mlnutoli. There are also ruins of other places, 
especially in the neighbourhood of the modern village of 
Shargioh, which prmibly mark the sites of the antient 
villages. The Wdl of the Sun is also near Shargiah, and 
is still remarkaUe for its varjdng temperature. Catacombs 
cut in the rocks have been discovered in four different parts 
of the oasiSk 

In the year 1820 Baron Minutoli undertook a journey to 
Upper BgypI and the oasis of Siwah ; and some years after, 
his account of it was edited by T5lken, under the title 
'Reise lu dem Tempel des Jupiter Ammon und nach Ober- 
aigypten,' Berlin, 1 824, 4to. This work contains a map of 
the oasis. In 1827 Tolken published a supplemeiit to this 
work, in which he Endeavours to explain the arclueological 
and mythological points which are mentioned in the work 
of Minutoli. 

SIX CLERKS. The office of Six Clerks is an office of 
great antiquity connected with the Court of Chancery, pro- 
probably as antient as the Court itself. The number of 
the Six Clerks was limited to six as long ago as the 1 2th 
Rich. 11. The history of this office illustrates the mischief 
of attempting to regulate the supply of legal services to the 
client. It exhibits an instance of the principles of inter- 
ference and monopoly destroying two successive classes of 
officers, in spite of the strongest support which the law and 
the courts could give to them. 

The Six Clerks were originally the only attorneys of the 
Court. By the common law any person who was impleaded 
in any of the courts of law was i)ound to appear in person, 
unless he obtained the king's warrant, or a writ from Chan- 
cery enabling him to appear by attorney, * by reason whereof,' 
says Lord Coke (1 Irut,, 126), 'there were but few suits.' 
There are many early statutes still in force enacted for the 
purpose of empowering the subject to appoint an attorney. 
The earliest statute is that of Merton (a.d. 1235), whereby 
it is ' provided and granted that every freeman which oweth 
suit to the county, tithing, hundred, and wapentake, or to 
the court of his lord, mav freely make his attorney to do 
those suits for him.' Subsequent Acts extended this pri- 
vilege to other parties and other courts ; but to this day it 
would appear that by the strict law of the land, except so 
far as it has fallen into desuetude, persons in good health, 
in pleas relating to money, are bound to api>ear in person. 
None of these statutes however extended to Courts of 
Equity, but, as fir as appears, every person who was de- 
sirous of relief, or compelled to defend himself in the Court 
of Chancery, was obliged to employ one of the Six Clerks as 
his representative. 

In early times great exertions were made to limit the 
number of attorneys who were allowed to practise in each 
court. The increase of litigation which accompanied the 
increase of property was looked on as an evil to be checked 
in every possible method ; and the method most relied on 
was that of limiting the number of legal practitioners. The 
well-known statute of 1455 (33 Hen. VI., o. 7.» which is still 
in force) may be referred to as an instance. It recites a 
practice of contentious attorneys to stir up suits for their 
private profits, and enacts that there shall be but six com- 
mon attorneys in Norfolk, six in Suffolk, and two in Norwich, 
to be elected and admitted by tlie chief-justice. In 1564 
a rule was made by the Court of Common Pleas, that every 
attorney of that court ' should satisfie himself with the 
suits in the same, and forbear to be towards any causes as 
plaintiff in any other the Queen *s Majestie's courts here at 
Westminster.' As late as the year 1616 a rule was made, 
' that the number of attorneys of each court be viewed, to 
have them drawn to a competent number in each court, 
and the superfluous number to be removed.' These various 
regulations, so far as they were enforced, could only have 
been detriraenul to the public ; and as regards the Courts 
of King's Bench and Common Pleas, they seem not to have 
been lon$c insisted on. As to the Exchequer, the principle 
of monopoly was continued in force down to the year 1830, 
until which time eighteen attorneys only were admitted to 
I ractise in it. As a consequence, that court was, before 

the year 1830, eoaraely at aU rMorted to. Since thai tuae 
more actions are commenced in it than in any other court 
In the year 1632 a new principle was introduced into the 
Common-Iiaw Courts, ana all persons wishing to be attor- 
neys were required to serye an attorney under articles for 
six years (since reduced to five). The Six Clerka' Office 
however did not adopt this method until long after. Tbej 
got over the difficulty by admitting uuder-clerks, afterwardb 
called sworn derks, to practise in their names, and they 
shared in some way or other the profits with them. In 
1548 an inquisition was appointed, to inquire into the sup- 
posed exactions and abuses of the Court of Cbancenr, and 
the fees then payable for the business of this office. A copy 
of their presentment was printed by order of the House of 
Commons, 8th February, 1831. It shows that all the fees 
payable for business done in this office were at that time 
payable to the Six Clerks; and it contains no allusion what- 
ever to the under-clerks as being in any way known as 
officers of the court. They seem at that time to have held 
a position with regard to the Six Clerks, quite analogous to 
that the solicitors for a long period were under with regard 
to the sworn clerks, and to have been the real persons who 
prosecuted the causes.. They must have been numerooi^ 
as in 1596 an order was made limiting the number that 
each Six-Clerk should be allowed to have under him. Soon 
after this the Six Clerks, instead of taking clients according 
to the clients' choice, agreed to divide the business coming 
from time to time into court among themselves alphabeti- 
cally. This arrangement shows that the scheme of a limited 
number of legalised attorneys for the Court of Chancerv had 
now entirely ceased to operate, and had been converted into 
a mere legal pretext to enable these officers to tax all who 
were driven to such Chancery Court for justice. This re- 
gulation for dividing the business was, after some years, set 
aside on petition of the master of the rolls to the crown, as 
a monopoly and a breach of the liberty of the subject. In 
1630 the office of Six-Clerk was, if not a sinecure, at least an 
appointment of great value. From a ridiculous story lold 
about Sir Julius Cassar, the master of the rolls, in Qacen- 
don's * Rebellion' (vol. i., p. 5'i), it appears that the appoint- 
ment at that time sold for so large a sum as 6000^ About 
this time the under or sworn clerks, or clerks in court <for 
all these names apply to them), began to be frequently 
mentioned in the orders regulating the court, and soon 
grew into a very important body. The under-clerks were 
the parties who knew the merits of the different causesi and 
were interested in getting the work done, so as to gain the 
fees from the clients. The Six Clerks had begun to sink 
into the lethargy of sinecurists. Many orders were made 
to spur them into activity, but all in vain. The following 
may be instanced — the 10th of Lord Coventry's orders 
(1635) : ' The Six Clerks, who are the only attorneys of this 
court, ought to inform themselves continually of the state 
and proceeding of their clients' causes, whereby they may 
be able to defend their clients, and to give account to tbo 
court, as the attorneys in all other courts do, and not leave 
the care and knowledge thereof upon their. undei'H:lerks» 
who attend not in court ; and the clienti^ and such as follow 
their cause, are to acquaint their attorneys for thai purpose.* 
Order of 1650: ' Whereas only Mr. Hales, one of the Six 
Clerks of this court, gave his attendance this morning at 
the sitting of the court, at the entering into the hearings of 
the cause wherein Kitchin is plaintiff against Meredith 
defendant, and the rest of the Six Clerks mule default: it is 
therefore this present day ordered, that such of the six 
clerks who so made default of their attendanee and service 
to this court, at the beginning of that cause, be fined ten 
shillings a-piece to the poor, and the usher of the court is 
to receive the same to the use aforesaid.' 

The Six Clerks, in a paper given in by them to the Chan- 
cery Commissioners of 1825 (nepi., Appx. B, No. 20), after 
communicating their present duties, state that ' From the 
first establishment of the Six Clerks, up to the RebeUiou in 
the reign of King Charles I., many other important diitic:^ 
were attached to their office. During the usurpation bow- 
ever a part of the duties was assigned to certain new offi- 
cers entitled the sworn clerks, who have ever since continued 
the execution thereof.' The Six Clerks in this statement 
have fixed rather too early a date to the legal transfer, (xreat 
efforts were made for reform of legal procedure during the 
Commonwealth. Among others there was an ordinance for 
abolishing the office of Six-Clerk in 1654, but it terminated 
with the other ordinances of the Commonwealth, at the R^ 

S I X 


S I X 

toration, and the judges endeavdurdd Tigorously to reifist&te 
the Six Clerks in U^ir old position. By an order of Lord 
Clarendon, of 1665, made * On taking into consideration the 
manifohl disorders and undue practices which of the late 
timea have crept into the Six Clerks' Office, to the great 
dishonour of this court, the ohstruction of justice, ana the 
dama|;e of the dient,' the alphabetical division was re- 
enaetod. ' And hecause it is very manifest that these mis- 
demeanors and enormities are gotten into the office of the 
Six Oerksby the liberty and lioenoe which the inf«><**/*7 clerks 
have of late assumed to themselves,' the numbers were to 
bo limited to twelve under-clerks to each Six-Clerk. It is 
olmous however that the decrepitude of a rotten constitu- 
tion rendered these eflbrts nugatory. In orders about this 
time the under*clerks ara sometimes referred to incidentally 
as the ' attorneys of the parties,' though it is strongly re- 
peated that * the Six Clerks are tlie only attoraeya of this 
court' In 1668 the Six Clerks submitted to their fate ; an 
order was made fully recognising the under-clerks, and di- 
viding the office-fises between them and the Six Clerks. The 
Six Clerks, having secured their own monopolv, had, by the 
year 1688, become the agressors, and had schemed to in- 
crease their income "by a&iitting other persons, as well as 
the sworn or under derke, to practise in their names. This 
was a bone of contention for many years. Before 1693 the 
under*clerks had obtained the privilege of filling up all the 
vacancies in the office by taking articled clerks themselves. 
Prom this time the office of Six-Clerk has become a complete 
sinecure, and the Six Clerks are only mentioned in the court's 
annals with respect to the fees that they are entitled to 
demand Arom suitors, as door-keepers, as it were, to the court. 
Their business, such as it is, for a long time has been 
managed by one or two pnvate clerks, employed as clerks 
to tke whole body of Six Clerks; and the Six Clerks have 
signed the neceesary documents for each other, each being 
at the offices for two months only in the year. The office 
is virtually abolished by Lord Brougham's Act, 3 & 4 
Wm. IV., 0. 94, & ^, which enacts that vsirancies ahall not 
be fitUed up till the number of Six Clerks is reduced to two. 
Nearly the same story has to be told over i^ain with re- 
fereBoe to the sworn clerks. For a long time these under- 
clerks were the principal solicitois of the court; and until 
the middle of the last century the chief business of the 
court waa transactod by them without the intervention of 
a solicitor. The same principle of monopoly has with them 
led to nearly the results that it did with their titular superiors. 
A vested right to fees in the various stages of equity pro- 
ceedings brought about an inattention to business, which 
haa led to the transfer of the prosecution of suits to the 

In 1693aBew half-official character was givento the aitieled 
cWrks of the under-clerks^ They were legalised under the 
11 ame of ' waiting ctorks.^ This new body soon began, as the 
iuUowing extract from an order of the master of the rolls of 
1693 will show, to imitate towards their own mastess the 
iuaolence which the sworn clerks had thkty years before 
shown to their superiors the Six Clmks : — * Whereas oom- 
plaint hath been made by the petition of the sworn clerks 
of this court to the right hon. the master of the rolls, that 
divers of their under-clerks have of late behaved themselves 
after a bold, insolent, rude, and disorderly manner in the 
Six Clerks' Office, as well towards their respective makers 
as to others the sworn derks, and to the suitors of the court 
attending the despatoh of their business there^ by unman- 
nerly and abusive language, breaking of windows, cutting 
desks, breaking down seats, throwing stones and other things 
at the said sworn clerks and their clients, whereby, and 
by making rude and indecent noises, they often loroed them 
to leave the said office, and caused the same to be shut up 
in the most usual thne of business, and when the court hath 
been sitting, to the great scandal thereof, and damage of 
the said sworn clerks and their clients, and eontrary to the 
duty of the said under«clerks, and the antient and hiudable 
usage of the said office : and whereas complaint hath been 
likewise made to His Honor by petition of the under-elerks 
that the Six Clerks do take and employ persons to be their 
waiting-olerks who have not been articled clerks, or ever 
educated and employed in the said office ; and that several 
of the sworn clerks have and do not only take more than 
one articled clerk, which they, by the rules and orders of 
the said court for the government of the said office, ought 
not to do» but do likewise carry the records out of the said 

office^ and cause the same to be copied at under* rates by 
persons out of the office, rather than to allow to their under- 
clerks their due fees for copying thereof* It was accordingly, 
amongst other things, ordered * that no und^-clerk in the 
said office shall ftrom henceforth during the time of his 
clerkship presume to wear any sword, either in or out of the 
said office, within the cities of London or Westminster* or 
the liberties thereof; or to be covered, or wear his hat in the 
said office, in the presence of any one of Um sworn clerks ; 
but that all the said under-clerks shall, during all the 
time of their respective clerkships, as well in their masters' 
seats as elsewhere in the said office, he uncovered, and 
behave themselves orderly, soberly, and with respect towards 
all the said sworn clerks and suitors of the said court : and 
in case any of the said under-derks shidl be idle in the said 
office, out of their masters' seats, they shall, upon the admo- 
nition or command of any of the said sworn derks, imme^ 
diatelv repair to their masters' seats, and quietly sit and 
attend their business there, from seven of the clock in the 
morning in summer, and eight in the winter, till twelve of 
the dock at noon, and from two of the clock in the afrei> 
noon until such time at night as their respective masters 
shall think fit.' 

There is still another class of workers of a semi-semi- 
official character) even now not recognised by the court^tbe 
sworn clerks' agents. These gentlemen really now perform 
almost all the remaimng duties of the (wffice which the in- 
trusion of the office of solicitor has left to it, except taxing 
the costs ; and are paid (it would appear illegcdly) by some 
share of the fees received. The necessity for these agents 
seems to prove that a monopoly officer cannot work. After 
so many sttccesaive attempto by the court to have each suc- 
cessive class of officers do their duty in person, it is at last 
in the main done by gentlemen who are mere private per- 
sons, hold no official situatton, and are liable in point of law 
to be turned away at any moment. 

An effort was made on the occasion of the Chancery Com- 
mission of 1825 by several eminent solicitors to g^ the 
offices of Six-Clerk and clerk in court abolished. It was 
broadly 'steted in evidence by a solicitor of celebrity that 
Mr. S. (a gentleman whose mind had feiled him) was 
' quite as good a clerk in court after ^e was a lunatic;' and 
the expense of the office to the suitor was insisted on. The 
commission, influenced (as one of their number has lately 
deobred) by Lord Eldon, stated they saw no reason to in- 
terfere with these ofiScea ; and they have remained to the 
present day. It is now however condemned by the unani- 
mous voice of the whole profession, and iU fell may be 
shortly expeoted. At present the client has still to use the 
Six-Clerk a name as his attorney. He therefore pays his own 
solicitor for his services ; he pays a clerk in court (and his 
partner, the real working agent) for totting the solicitor get, 
in his name, to the Six-Ctork fer liberty to use the Six-Clerk'a 
name^ and he pays the Six-Clerk for this liberty also. 
Therefore what was once feir emolument haa now become 
plunder. It is mainly to the existence of such legal abuses 
as have here been pointed out, that we must look to account 
for the astonishing feet that more suitors annually applied 
to the Court of Chancery for aid 100 years ago than do now. 
So httle doQB personal talent aifect the office of clerk in 
court, that an executor of a clerk in court can sell the prac- 
tice of his testator to another clerk in court, almost with a 
certainty that not a client will be lost, however mean may 
be the talents of the purchaser. 

The emolnmenU of the office have long been a subject of 
speculation among the profession of the law. They were 
represented by LcMrd Sldon's commission as causing '^a very 
triffin^ expense to the suitors.' The accuracy of this repre- 
sentation was suspected, and orders were made on various 
oocasions by the House of Commons for ^e Six Clerks and 
clerks in court to return the amount of their receipts, but 
the return could never be procured, until, in the year 1840, 
a solicitor, by a variety of calculations, demonstrated that 
the amount must be between d8,000/. and 63,000^ a year. 
The return at last has been obtained, and it turns out to 
have been, for the year 1839, d9,967/L 6#. 9d, with some 
extra fees reeeived by the Six Clerks not induded in the 
return. (See Return, printed by order of the House of 
Commons, 1840^) The Six Clerks receive only a small 
amount of the whole sum, about 1300^. a year each. One 
of the clerks in court alone appears to be in the gross annua^ 
receipt of above 10,000/. u^m^^^u uy ^ v_. ^^ .^^ 


SIX 7 

For further information as to this office, the reader is re- 
ferred to the case 'Ex-parte the Six Clerks,' 3 Vesey's 
' Reports,' 519 ; to the 'Reports of the Commissioners on 
the Offices of Courts of Justice' of 1816 ; to the ' Report of 
1825 of the Chancery Commission ;' to Beames's ' Orders of 
the Court or Chancery ;' and to several recent pamphlets 
hy Mr. Spence, Mr. Field, Mr. Merivale, and Mr. Waine- 
wright; and to a powerful speech on Eouity Reform, 
made in the end of the session of 1840, by Mr. remberton, 
since published in a separate form. 

SIXTH, a musical interval, a concord, the ratio of which 
is 5 : 3. [Concord; Harmony.] 

Of the Sixth there are three kinds ; the Minar Sixth, 
the Major Sixth, and the Extreme Sharp Sixth. The 
first (b, c) is composed of three tones and two semitones; 
the second (c, a), of four tones and one semitone ; the third 
(c, A)(), of four tones and two semitones. Ex. :— 

SIXTUS I. is recorded as bishop of Rome after Alexan- 
der I., about the beginning of the second century of our 
sera, but the precise epoch is not ascertained, and nothing 
more is known of him. 

SIXTUS II. succeeded Stephen I., a.d. 257. He is said 
to have been by birth an Athenian, and a philosopher of the 
Academy until he became a convert to Christianity. He 
suffered martyrdom in the persecution of the Christians 
under the emperor Valerianus, a.d. 258. 

JSIXTUS III. succeeded Celestine I., a.d. 431. He en- 
deavoured, though with little success, to settle the dispute 
between Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, and John, bishop of 
Antioch, concerning the Nesforians. Several of his letters 
are contained in Constant's collection. He died in 440. 

SIXTUS IV. (Cardinal Francesco delta Rovere), a Fran- 
ciscan monk, succeeded Paul II. in 1471. He greatly en- 
riched his nephews, or sons, according to some, one of 
whom was afterwards pope under the name of Julius IL 
He seized Citt^ di Castello from its lord, Niccol6 Vitelli, 
and took Forii, Imola, and other places. He afterwards 
supported the conspiracy of the Pazzi against Lorenzo de' 
Medici, and his nephew Cardinal Riario was present in the 
church when Giuliano, Lorenzo's brother, was assassinated. 
The conspiracy however failed of its principal object, for 
Lorenzo was saved, and the conspirators were put to death, 
including Salviati, archbishop of Pisa, who was one of the 
leaders. Riario was saved by Lorenzo's interposition, and 
mereiy confined for a time. Sixtus, on hearing the news, 
excommunicated Lorenzo, and all the magistrates of Flo- 
rence and their abettors, for having hung the archbishop. 
The clergy of Florence took the part of Lmnio, and being 
assembled in convocation or synod held for the occasion, 
they signed an act of accusation irrounded upon depositions 
and statements of facts proving Sixtus to have been acces- 
sory to the conspiracy and the murder of Giuliano. This 
curious document, the original of which, in the hand- writing 
of GrenUle d'Urbino, bishop of Arezzo, exists in the archives 
of Flp.enoe, is given by Fabroui and Roscoe in their re- 
spective biograj^ies of Lorenzo. The expressions used by 
the clergy of Florence, in speaking of the head of the 
church, are stronger than any of those used half a century 
later by Luther and tlie other reformers. Another docu- 
ment, drawn up by Bartolomeo Scala, chancellor of the 
republic of Florence, corroborates the statements iu the 
Florentine synod, bv giving an historical memorial of all 
the proceedings of that celebrated conspiracy. Pope Sixtus 
induced Ferdinand, king of Naples, to join his troops to 
the papal forces against Florence, but the Florentines 
braved the storm, until Lorenzo took the bold resolution of 
proceeding to Naples alone, to plead the cause of his 
country l^fore King Ferdinand, in which he succeeded. 
Sixtus, being forsaken by his ally, and alarmed at the same 
time at the progress of the Turks, who had landed at 
Otranto, was fain to agree to a reconciliation with the Flo- 
rentines. In 1482 -Sixtus entered into another intrigue 
with the Venetians, for the purpose of depriving Duke £r- 
coleof Este of his dominion of Ferrara, which he wished to 
bestow upon Count Girolamo Riario, another of his nephews. 

S K E 

This led to a war, in which the king of Naples and the 
Florentines supported the duke of Ferrara against the 
pope and the Venetians. The emperor however interposed, 
threatening to call together a general council of the chnttb, 
upon which Sixtus thought it advisable to detach himself 
from the Venetians, and make a separate peace with the duke 
of Ferrara. He then advised the Venetians to do the tame, 
and as they disregarded his counsel, he solemnly excommu- 
nicated his late allies. In 1484 however the Venetians 
made peace also, and a few days after Sixtus died. He was 
one of the most turbulent ami unscrupulous in the long 
list of pontiffs. 

SIXTUS V. (Cardinal Felice Peretti of Montalto) suc- 
ceeded Gregory XIII. in 1585. His first care was to puVge 
the city and neighbourhood of Rome of the numerous 
outlaws which the supineness of ^is predecessors had en- 
couraged. He resorted to summary means, he employed 
spies and armed men, and he soon extirpated by the 
sword and the halter the noxious brood. The name of 
' Papa Sisto,' as connected with his summary justice, has 
continued proverbial at Rome to the present day. Beine a 
shrewd politician, he disliked the overgrown power of Spain, 
and was not displeased at the staunch opposition which 
Philip II. received from Elizabeth of England, whom Six- 
tus however formally excommunicated as a heretic. He 
embellished Rome with numerous and useful structure^ 
among others the present building of the Vatican library 
(Bocca, De Sixti V. Ediftciis, in his Bibliotheca Vaticana. 
He published a new edition of the Septuagint, 1587, and 
one of the Vulgate with improvements, 1590 ; and he him- 
self edited the works of St. Ambrose, and is said also to 
have superintended on Italian translation of the Bible, which 
was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition, between which 
bodv and Sixtus there was little sympathy. Sixtus died 
in August, 1589. His life has been written by Leti, Tem- 
pesti, Robardi, and others. As a temporal prince he was 
distinguished in his age. 

SIZAR, a term used in the University of Cambridge for 
a class of students who are admitted on easier terms as to 
pecuniary matters than others. These pecuniary advantages 
arise from different sources in different Colleges, and are of 
different value. Originally certain duties were required of 
the students so admitted, approaching to the character of 
menial, but these have been long discontinued. A similar 
class of students at Oxford are called Servitors. The word 
is supposed to he derived from size, which is used in the 
University to denote an allowance of provisions at the col- 
lege buttery ; and that from the verb to auize, which is 
much the same as the modern asiess, which means appor- 

SKATE. This name, as well as the term Ray, is used in 
England to designate numerous fishes with cartilaginous 
skeletons, having the bodv much depressed and more or 
less approaching to a rhomboidal form. The eyes and tem- 
poral orifices are on the upper surface, and the mouth, 
nostrils, branchial and anal apertures are situated on the 
under surface of the body; the tail is lone and slender, 
generally furnished with two (analogues of the dorsal fins) 
and sometimes three fins, and usually armed with spines. 
The peculiar form of the skate arises chiefiy from the great 
size and expansion of the pectoral fins ; these extend from 
the head to the base of the tail, and are dilated in or near 
the middle in such a manner as to give (combined with the 
pointed snout) that rhomboidal form so peculiar to these 
fishes. The jaws are as it were paved with teeth, and these 
approach more or less to a rhomboidal form, and are flat, 
but in the adult males (at least of many of the species) 
those nearest the centre assume a pointed form. 

The young of the skate, says Mr. Yarrell, are produced 
towards the latter part of the spring or during summer. 
They are deposited by the parent fish in their horny cases, 
like those of some of the sharks; but they are more 
square in form. These homy cases of the young skates are 
by some called purses, and on the coast of Cumberland have 
the name of skate-barrows, from the resemblance they 
bear to a four-handed machine by which two men carry 
goods. As the young skate increases in size, the angular 
parts of the body are curved over. 

Nine species of skates, or rays, are found on the British 
coast, the distinguishing characters of which are carefully 
pointed out in Mr. Yarrell's History of British Fishes 

SKEBN. [Christiakia.] y ^^v^^^i^^ 

S K G 


S K E 

SKELETON (from inetKua,*! dry'), is the name applied 
to those harder parts of organized hodies which form the 
framework upon which the softer tissues are fixed. It is 
more particularly applied to the collection of bones which 
in an animal either serve as fixed points for the attachment 
of the soft parts, or form cavities for enclosing and protect- 
ing important organs, or constitute the apparatus of sup- 
port and the passive instruments of voluntary motion. 

The present article will treat of the skeleton of man, 
as a standard with which to compare those of other ani- 
mals described in the several articles on natural history 
and comparative anatomy. On this comparison of skeletons 
many of the most important facts of the latter science de- 
pend ; for the bones, being the least destructible of the 
tissues, are the most convenient organs to examine in the 
different classes of the higher animals ; and in accordance 
with the rule of the exact adaptation of all the parts of an 
organizQd body to each other, the skeleton of each animal 
affords general indications of the characters of every other 
organ in its body. And not only so; but each bone, accord- 
ing to the same rule, affords indications of the characters of 
the rest of the skeleton, and therefore, though less cer- 
tainly, of the other organs of the body. Hence it is that, 
by an examination of a part of the skeleton of an extinct 
animal, geologists are enabled to form very probable sup- 
positions of tne form of the whole ; knowing by certain 
marks on the bones, that they served for the attachment of 
muscles of corresponding form and strength, and that 
these muscles were adapted for peculiar movements, which 
again were most probably employed for certain purposes 
closely connected with the mode of life and the whole 
adapted oi^anizatioff of the animal. 
Fig. I. 

The human skeleton is divided mto three prmcipal parts: 
the trunk (2), the head (I), and the extremities (3 and 4). 
Neither the whole number of bones composing it, nor that 
In each main division, can be exactly stated, for many 
which are in early life separated, are subsequently united ; 
but as an approximation, the following enumeration may be 
adopted: — Cranium, 8; face, 14; internal ears, 8; vertebral 
column, 24; chest, 26; pelvis, 11 ; upper extremities, 68; 
lower extremities, 64: in the whole, 223. 

The trunk is composed of the spine or vertebral column 
P. C. No. 1368. 

(extending from a to J in the annexed Ftg. 2), the chest, 
including ihe ribs and sternum or breast-bone {e), and th« 

pelvis, the circle of bones on which the spine rests. The 
spine is the column of bones which, in the erect posture, 
supports the head on its sunomit (a), and rests with its base 
id) upon the sacrum. It consists of 24 bones called verte- 
brae (from rertn, I lurn), because it is Iheir motion upon 
each other which enables the trunk lo be turned round. 
Of the 24, the 7 upper {a io b) are called cei*vical, the 12 
middle {b to c) dorsal, and the 5 lowest (c to rf) lumbar, 
vertebroL'. With the exception of the two first, they are all 
connected by interposed discs of a very elastic subst n e, 
the intervertebral cartilages. 

The general characters of the vertebras may be best 
studied on one from iliolumbar region; in which the fol- 
lowing parts, common to nearly all of the 24, are well 
marked : — a body, a ring, a spinous process, two transverse 
processes, four articulating processes, and four notches. In 
the annexed plate two lumbar vertebra) are represented : 
that in the figure A, as seen obliaucly from behind, from 
above, and from the right side; ana ihat in the i g .re B, as 
seen from above and behind. 

Fig, 3. 

Vol. XXI1.-L 

S K E 


S K E 

The body (1) is a disk of bone with a nearly oval outline, 
larger above and below than at its middle, and having its 
greatest dimension from side to side. Its texture is spongy, 
invested with a thin layer of compact tissue. Its upper and 
lower surfaces, by which it is affixed to the two adjacent in- 
tervertebral cartilages, are nearly flat, and slightly marked 
by radiating lines. At its posterior border the oval outline is 
interrupted by a slight concavity (2), which forms a portion of 
the ring surrounding the spinal marrow, and in which there 
are several apertures larger than those on the rest of the 
body, for the exit of the veins from the interior 

To either side of the posterior part of the body, and near 
its upper border, is affixed one of the extremities of the 
arch (3) by which the ring is completed behind. It is com- 
posed of two flat laminee, which spring from the sides of the 
body, and meet at an obtuse rounded angle in the middle 
line behind, where they bear the spinous process (5). The 
space (4) included between the body and these laminee is 
called the vertebral foramen ; it is occupied by the spinal 
chord ; it is of a somewhat triangular form, and in the 
lumbar vertebrse is of large size. 

Close to the attachments of the laminso to the body there 
is in each of their borders a rounded notch (6) ; and when the 
vertebrse are applied one on another, these notches form 
oval holes (the intervertebral foramina, see next figure (8), 
through which the spinal nerves pass, one pair goin^ out 
between each two vertebrae. [Nerve.] To the rest of the 
lamincD are attached the interlaminar ligaments, or liga- 
menta subflava, bands of very elastic tissue by which the 
spaces between the adjacent arches are filled up, and the 
spinal canal completed behind, as it is by the intervertebral 
cartilages before. 

The spinous process (5) is a broad flat quadrilateral por- 
tion of bone directed horizontally backwaros from the meet- 
ing of the laminee. Its posterior border is thickened, and 
to it, as well as to the upper and lower borders, are attached 
strong ligaments binding the spinous process of each ver- 
tebra to those next above and below it. The transverse 
processes (7) project horizontally outwards on either side; 
they are thin and long, and are enlarged and rough at their 
ends, to which several strong muscles and ligaments are at- 
tached. The articulating processes are flat and oval ; each 
has a smooth surface, by which it is connected with the 
corresponding part of the next vertebra above or below. 
The upper pair (8) are set most widely apart, and their ar- 
ticulating surfaces are concave and turned inwards; the 
lower pair (9) are nearer together, and have their articula- 
ting surfaces turned outwards. When the lumbar vertebree 
are put together, the lower processes of each are locked 
within the upper processes of the one next below, so that 
scarcely any lateral or rotatory motion is in this part of the 
spine possible. 

The dorsal vertebree, which in the adjacent plate are 
drawn, as seen in A and B, from behind and from the left 

Fig. 4, 

side, and in C from before and from the same side, have t)ie 
same general characters as the lumbar, but are distinguished 
from them by the following : — 

The body (1) is small but deep, and longer from before 
backwards than in any other direction ; its general outline 
is heart-shaped ; it has at each border, just in front of the 
attachment of the laminee, a shallow depression (2) ; and 
when the vertebrae are set together, the depressions on 
either side of each adjacent pair form one cavity, into which 
the head of one of the ribs(C 3) is received for articulation. 
The laminsD are broad and thick ; the vertebral foramen is 
oval and small. The spinous process (5) is long and narrow, 
and projects obliquely downwards ; those of adjacent ver- 
tebree are imbricated at their bases {Fig. B). The transverse 
processes (6) are long and directed backwards as well as 
outwards ; each of them (except those of the two last verte- 
bree) has a smooth surface in front of its outer extremity, by 
which it articulates with the tubercle of the corresponding 
rib. The articulating processes (7), both superior and in- 
ferior, are equally wide apart; the former have their smooth 
surfaces turned backwards, the latter theirs forwards. The 
notches and foramina are smaller than in the lumbar rex* 

The cervical vertebree, of which one is represented in the 
adjacent cut, as seen from behind and above, are distin- 
guished by the body (2) being small, broad, and shallow 

and wider above than below. In its upper surface also it 
has two elevations (1) between which the lower part of the 
vertebra next above is received. The laminee (3) of the 
arch are long and narrow, and enclose a large somewhat 
triangular vertebral foramen (4). The spinous process is 
short and bifurcated. The transverse processes (6) are 
bhort, horizontal, and bifurcated ; and each has a foramen 
at Its base, through which the vertebral artery passes. The 
superior articular processes have their smooth oval surfaces 
directed backwards and inwards, and they receive between 
them the inferior processes of the vertebra next above, articular surfaces are turned in the opposite direction. 
But these distinctive characters of the several sets of 
vertebree are only general: they arc merged at the ex- 
tremes of each set, the lowest dorsal being very like the 
upper lumbar, and the upper dorsal like the lowest cervical. 
Some single vertebree, moreover, have particular characters. 
The first of the cervical set, or Atlas, is scarcely more than 
a flat ring of bone with two long transverse processes, two 
superior articulating processes, with large oval concave sur- 
faces opposed to those of the occipital bone, and two infe- 
rior, with large flat horizontal surfaces, which articulate 
with those ot the second vertebra. By the former joint the 
chief movements of depression and elevation of the head 
upon the neck are permitted ; by the latter, those of rota- 
tion. The second cervical vertebra (named axis, or V. 
dentata) has a large pointed process, which rises from 
the upper part of its body, and is enclosed in a ring formed 
by the anterior half of the Atlas, and a transverse ligament 
passing from one side to the other of its body. In this ring 
the process of the axis rotates freely ; er rather, the Atlas, 
with the head supported on it, moves round that process* 
and upon the flat superior articulating surfaces of the eixis. 
The seventh cervical vertebra has a remarkably long spinous 
process, to which is attached the ligamentum nuchse, a 
strong elastic band for the support of the head when 
inclined forwards, but which, as welt as the spinous pro- 
cesses of all the adjacent vertebree, is much more developed 
in animals that move horizontally and graze, than in man. 
This vertebra is also marked by having a small rib-like pro- 
cess in front of its transverse process ; it is a rudimental rib, 
and is analogous to the cervical ribs of serpents and mauy 
other animals in whom the chest is more elongated than in 
man. The first and the three last doi'sal vertebree have each. 
At the upper borders of the body, sur&ces for articulation 

S K B 


S K E 

with tb« whole head of the corresponding rib. The fifth 
lumbar has its lower surface cut obliquely upwards to arti- 
culate with the top of the sacrum and form the promontory 
of the pelvis. 

Viewed as a whole, the human vertebral column forms a 
kind of pyramid with its base at the sacrum, and its trun- 
cated summit at the head. It is not however regularly 
pyramidal ; for, as seen from the front, it becomes gradually 
smaller from the base to the fourth dorsal vertebra ; then it 
wiileus to the seventh cervical, and then again becomes 
narrower to the second. In the adult it has well-marked 
curvatures. (See Fig, 2.) From the head it is first curved 
slightly forwards to the last cervical vertebra ; then its dor- 
sal portion forms an arch with its convexity backwards and 
eading at the last dorsal ; and then again in the lumbar 
region it arches forwards to the base of the last lumbar 
vertebra. These directions of the column have relations to 
the naturally erect posture of the human body [Man] : in 
correspondence with them the bodies of the cervical and 
iurabar vertebrs, and their intervertebral cartilages, are 
thicker before than behind, and those of the dorsal thicker 
behind than before. 

The spine serves several offices in the economy. One is 
that of guarding the spinal marrow, which, with the roots 
of its nerves, is enclosed in the long canal formed by the 
superposed rings of the several vertebrae. The spini-cere- 
brate form of nervous system, which consists of a brain and 
longitudinal axis, both placed on the same side of the diges- 
tive canal, is intimately connected with all the rest of the or- 
ganisation of the animals in which it exists; and being 
always enclosed in a skull and spinal canal, the vertebral 
column is taken as the most obvious character of the four 
classes of animals which have this plan of nervous system. 
These therefore, namely, mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles, 
areealledvertebrata; and the other portion of the animal 
kingdom, whatever be the plan of their nervous centres, in- 

The apine is also the main support of all the rest of the 
skeleton. The head, the ribs, and the pelvis directly arti- 
culate with it ; and through the medium of the pelvis and 
sternum, it suspends both the lower and upper extremities. 
It is the passive instrument of all the motions of the trunk, 
and the centre about which each of the limbs as a whole is 
moved. For these purposes it is adapted by combining 
firmness with flexibility and lightness. Flexibility is ob- 
tained by its being composed of so many pieces separated 
from eaeh other by layers of elastic tissue ; and its strength 
ia secured by these layers, which are at the same time firm 
bonds of union, and by numerous other strong ligaments 
l^assing from bone to bone. In its own movements, extent 
is combined with security by each vertebra (except the first) 
having but Utile motion on those next to it; the larger 
movements being the result of the combination of a number 
of such small ones. The directions of the processes and the 
diverse modes in which they are locked one within another, 
determine the degrees in which, in each part of the column, 
the several motions of flexion and extension in all direc- 
tions, and of rotation, can be performed. The pyramidal 
form of the whole is adapted to the accumulated weight 
which the lower vertebrse nave to bear. The curvature in 
the back increases the capacity of the chest. The spinous 
and transverse processes especially sen'e for the attach- 
ments of muscles of the head, chest, back, shoulders, and 
pelvis. The elastic cartilages interposed between the bodies^ 
break the shock of any violence upon one end of the body, 
and both they and the interlaminar ligaments tend to keep 
the spine straight, and so diminish the muscular action 
necessary to hold the body erect. 

The base of the spinal column rests on the top of the 
sacrum {Pig. 2, g), which, though commonly described as 
part of the pelvis, is indeed a continuation of the column, 
and is composed of five or six rudimental vertebras, which 
after about the tenth year become consolidated. The sacrum 
{Fig. 6, A) has a triangular outline, the base being above ; and 
it articulates with the last lumbar vertebra, so as to form an 
obtuse angle, the promontory, by means of an intervertebral 
substance and the other parts common to the rest of the 
vertebral joints. Its anterior surface, which in the erect 
posture looks obliquely downwards, is concave, and on it 
are four or five transverse lines, the traces of the divisions 
between the bodies of the original vertebrae. At each end of 
these lines are as many holes (the anterior sacral foramina), 
which give passage to the anterior branches of the sacral 

nerves. Outside these holes the saonim has a smooth sur 
face composed of the coalesced transverse processes of its 
several vertebne. Along the posterior eonvex surface, the 
sacrum presents corresponding traces of its composition. Its 
upper border is surmounted oy two regularly-formed arti- 
cular processes which are connected with those of the last 
lumbar vertebra, and leading downwards from these, in 
converging lines on either side of the middle, is a series of 
slight elevations, the traces of other rudimental articular 
processes. Along the middle line are three or four hieher 
ridges, the traces of spinous processes, and between these 
and the former are on either side four or five foramina, 
which give passage to the posterior branches of the sacral 
nerves. These and the anterior sacral foramina already 
mentioned are analogous to the intervertebral foramina; and 
they both lead into the sacral canal, which runs through 
the whole length of the sacrum, and contains the cauda 
equina, or tuft of the last roots of the spinal nerves. The 
outline of the sacral canal is triangular; it grows smaller 
from above downwards, and is clos^ in behind by a layer 
analogous to the arches of the regular vertebrcD. It is con- 
tinuous above with the spinal canal, and below is, in the dry 
bones, open in the middle line, the arch of the last sacral 
vertebra being deficient ; but in the recent subject is closed 
by dura mater and dense ligament. The sides of the sacrum 
are thick above, and become gradually thinner below. In 
the former situation they are marked by large rough oval 
surfaces, directed backwards and somewhat outwards, by 
which the sacrum is on either side articulated immoveably 
with the iliac bones to fbrm the sacro-iliac symphyses. The 
lower end of the sacrum has a plain oval surface, which is 
fitted to the upper surface of the first bone of the ooccy;^. 

The coccyx is the lowest part of the whole vertebral 
column. Its bones form the interior frame of the tail in*, 
brutes, but in man are small, short, and not more than four 
or five in number. The uppermost is bv far the largest, and 
is surmounted by two processes called cornua, the extre- 
mities of which are adapted to those of two similar processes 
by which the sides of the lower end of the sacral canal are 
bounded. The three or four lower pieces of the coccyx have a 
somewhat ovfld outline, and are rather deeper than they are 
broad. Up to a late period of life they are articulated 
moveably with thin layers of interposed cartilage. 

The sacrum and coccyx form the middle posterior part of 
the pelvis ; its sides and front are formed by the bones called 
ossa innominata {.Fig. 6, B). Each of these is in the young 
subject composed of three parts, which are usually described 
separately, as the ilium, or haunch bone (a), the ischium (6), 
and the pubes {c). These three meet at the acetabulum (I), 
the hemispherical cavity in which the head of the thigh bone 
is lodged, and of which the ischium forms nearly three- 
fifths, the ilium somewhat more than one-fifth, and the 
pubes rather less than one-fifth. 


The ilium forms the upper broad and expanded part of 
the pelvis. Its outline is somewhat fan-shaped, and in the 
greater part of its extent it is flat and thin. That surface 
which is directed forwards and inwards towards the cavity 
of the pelvis is slightly concave, and gives attachment to 
the strong iliac muscle by which the thigh is raised towards 
the pelvis. Its upper border has a thick strong rim (2), the 
crista ilii, to which parts of the three broad muscles of the 

L 2 

S K E 

S K E 

abdomen are attached, >and ^^hich serves for a fixed point 
towards which the rihs are drawn down by those muscles in 
strong expirations. The extremities of this rim, and the 
anterior and posterior edges of the ilium, into which it is 
continued, have at either end two strong projections for the 
attachment of muscles of the thigh, which are named spinous 
processes. In Fig. 6, 3 is the anterior superior, and 4 the 
anterior inferior spinous process ; 5 is the posterior superior 
spinous process, and 6 the posterior infenor. At the pos- 
terior part of the inner aspect of the ilium is a rough oval 
surface, which is fixed behind that at the back of the sa- 
crum, with which its fore part forms the sacro-iliac sym- 
physis (see Fig, 2). From the upper part of this symphysis 
aline, continuous with that of the top of the sacrum and the 
promontory of the pelvis, passes in a curve across the lower 
part of the ilium to the upper and inner edge of the pubes, 
along which it is continued to the middle line at the sym- 
physis pubis. This line, by which the pelvis is divided into 
an upper and a lower cavity, is called the brim, and the 
space it encloses is named the upper strait of the pelvis (see 
Fig, 2). At and just below the brim is the thickest part of 
the ilium ; its inner surface, which is opposite the acetabu- 
lum, is smooth, and gives attachment to muscles of the 
pelvis and thigh. The outer and back surface of the ilium 
(which is represented in Fig, 6, b) forms the haunch, that 
is, that expansion of bone which is felt above the hip-ioint. 
It is marked by curved lines for the attachment of the 
strong glutei muscles of the buttock, and of the ligaments 
connecting it with the sacrum and last lumbar vertebra. At 
its lowest and narrowest part it swells outwards, and is then 
suddenly and deeply hollowed, to form the upper part of 
the wall of the acetabulum. In this cavity it is united with 
the pubes before, and the ischium behind, by fiat surfaces, 
•which in the adult bones are indicated only by slightly ele- 
vated lines tending to the deepest part of the cavity. 

The ischium is the bone on whose lowest part, or tuberosity, 
the body rests in sitting. It is described as composed of 
two principal portions : a body (7), consisting of the tuberosity 
and the thick strong part above it ; and a ramus (8), which 
passes from the tuberosity obliquely upwards, forwards, and 
inwards. The upper part of the body is united tp the lower 

Sart of the ihum, and its outer and anterior surface is 
eeply hollowed to form the lower and back part of the 
acetabulum. At its posterior and inner border there is a 
strong pointed process, the spine of the ischium (9), to which 
•ne of the main ligaments of the pelvis, the lesser sacro-sci- 
atic, is attached. Above the spine, the body of this bone and 
the adjacent posterior border of the ilium as far as its poste- 
rior inferior spinous process, are cut out in a crescentic form ; 
they thus form the ischiatic notch, and, with the ligament 
just mentioned and the outer border of the sacrum, enclose 
an oval aperture, the great ischiatic foramen, through which 
there pass from the pelvis to the thigh .the pyriform muscle, 
and the gluteal, ischiatic, and pudic bloodt vessels and nerves. 
Below the spine, another foramen, the lesser ischiatic, is en- 
closed between the same and another stronger ligament, the 
great sacro-sciatic, and the lower part of the body of the 
ischium; through this, together with some vessels and 
nerves, passes the internal obturator muscle, which, on its 
way to the femur, winds round a smooth oval surface on 
the back of the ischium directly below its spine. The pos- 
terior thick surface of the body is rough for the attachment 
of muscles, especially those of the ham-strings which form 
the greater part of the back of the thigh. From the lowest 
part of the tuberosity, and forming an acute angle with it, 
ascends the ramus, which at its anterior extremity (10) 
unites with the descending ramus of the pubes. 

The pubes forms the anterior part of each os innomina- 
tum, and is composed of a body (11), and a descending ramus 
(12). The body is the upper, anterior, and larger part. At its 
outer extremity it articulates with the ilium just below the 
anterior and inferior spine, from which it descends in an 
even gentle curve, over which the iliac and psoas muscles, 
the chief vessels, and one of the principal nerves of the 
thigh, pass beneath the crural arch. »Its outer end is hol- 
lowed to form part of the acetabulum. The horizontal part 
of the body has a somewhat pyramidal form with three 
sides. Along its posterior and upper border is the line 
which forms part of the brim of the pelvis. Near the ter- 
mination of tnis Une is an elevation, the spine of the pubes, 
for the attachment of one end of the crural arch, the strong 
ligament already mentioned, whose other end is fixed to the 
anterior superior spine of the ilium. The inner ends of the 

bodies of the two pubic bones are opposed by flat oval sur 
faces, which, with ligaments and a strong intermediate ear 
tilage, form the symphysis pubis. From below and the side 
of this, the ramus descends outwards and backwards to meet 
the ascending ramus of the ischium, with which it forms one 
flat and thin beam. Between these rami below, the body of 
the pubes above and on the inner side, and the meeting of 
the pubes and ischium at the acetabulum on the outer side, 
is an oval aperture, the foramen ovale or obturatorium(13), 
which in the recent body is nearly closed by the obturator 
ligament, and of which the borders, as well as the surfaces 
of the ligament, give attachment to the two obturator 
muscles, which thence proceed to the back of the thigh-bone, 
which it is their office to rotate outwards. The space in- 
cluded between the rami of the pubes and ischia on either 
side and in front, and the great sacro-sciatic ligaments, 
passing from both borders of the sacrum and coccyx to the 
tuberosities of the ischia, behind, is named the lesser aperj 
ture or strait of the pelvis. The meeting of the two rami 
in the middle line makes the angle of the pubes. 

The general purposes served by the pelvis are — to support 
the abdominal viscera, to enclose and guard those in its own 
cavity, to give insertion to muscles of the abdomen, back, 
and thighs, and to be such an intermedium between the 
rest of the trunk and the lower limbs that the latter may 
move freely and yet firmly support the body. For the three 
first of these purposes its adaptation is obvious. For the 
last, the pelvis is fitted by its posterior half forming an arch 
on whose summit the spine is supported, and whose pillars 
rest on the heads of the thigh bones. Of this arch the 
sacrum, impacted between the ilia and held firmly by the 
ligaments of the symphysis, forms a kind of key-stone, fitted 
tightly enough to bear, through the medium of the spine, 
the weight of the trunk and of great additional burdens 
The pillars of the arch are terminated by the acetabula, 
which rest on the femora ; and the direction in which the 
weight is thus transmitted from the sacrum to the thighs is 
that in which the strongest and thickest part of the ilium 
(in the line of the brim of the pelvis) is placed. Each ace- 
tabulum forms part of a sphere hollowed out at the meeting 
of the three component bones of the os innominatum. Its 
depth is increased at the upper and back part (where the 
chief pressure falls) by the swelling out of the ilium ; and 
all round, by the cotyloid ligament, a band of tough fibrous 
tissue, by which the bone is bordered. It in a measure en- 
velopes the head of the femur, which is fitted into it aii^tight, 
and so closely that even after h^I the ligaments cere removed, 
they cannot without much force^ be separated. In the diy 
bones however the border of the acetabulum is not a com- 
plete circle ; there is a notch where the ischium and pubes 
meet at the fore and lower part, to which the round liga- 
ment is in part attached. The head of the femur thus 
moves in the freest manner in the acetabulum by a perfect 
ball-and-socket joint; and if the thigh-bones be fixed, then 
it is by the rolling of the pelvis on their heads that the body 
is swayed en mease. 

The particular circumstances in the structure of the 
pelvis which are especially adapted to the erect posture, such 
as its hollow expanded sides, the oblique direction of its 
cavity, its width, the strength and position of the tuberosities 
of the ischia, &o., are described in the article Man. Its 
relation to gestation and parturition may also be here 
omitted, except to say that it is in reference to its share in 
these processes that the pelvis is larger in all its dimensions 
in women than in men. 

The last main division of the trunk is the Chest or 
Thorax, composed of the dorsal vertebrse behind, the ster- 
num in front, and the 12 ribs and their cartilages on either 
side. (See Fig, 7.) All the ribs articulate with the spine, 
but only the 7 uppermost on each side have distinct con- 
nections with tho sternum ; these are therefore called True 
ribs, and the five lower on each side False ribs.— Of these 
last, the 3 upper have their cartilages united before they 
reach the sternum ; and the two lower, which are sometim^ 
called floating ribs, have short cartilages which are not at* 
taehed to the sternum at all. 

In each of the greater number of the ribs there are a head, 
a neck, a tuberosity, an angle, a body or shaft, and a carti- 
lage. The head is that part which articulates with the ver- 
tebral column. It is larger than the neck, and its articu- 
lating surface has a somewhat oval outline, and is divided inUi 
two parts by a transverse elevation. This elevated line corre- 
sponds to the intervertebral cartilage, to whicn it is afllxed 

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by a ligament The motion permitted at the joint between 
the head of the rib and the border of each of the vertebrte 
next above and below it is not extensive ; but it is sufficient 
to give the body of each rib, which has the relation of a long 
lever to the joint as a fulcrum, a wide sweep outwards and 
upwards in the act of deep inspiration. Proceeding onwards 
from the head, and passing over the neck, which is the 
smallest and roundest part of the rib, the next object is the 
tubercle, an elevation on the posterior surface, by which the 
rib is articulated with the end of the transverse process of 
the vertebra next below it. Farther outward is the angle, 
an oblique projecting line at which each rib turns somewhat 
more upwards and becomes flatter. The remainder of the 
rib is its shaA. This is thin and flat ; its surfaces are both 
nearly smooth, the outer being slightly convex, the inner as 
slightly concave; the upper edge is rounded; the lower 
(which is also directed somewhat outwards) is sharp, and, 
from the angle inwards, is grooved on its inner aspect, where 
the intercostal vessels and nerves lie. The end of the 
osseous part of each rib has a rough surface, to which is 
adapted one end of the costal cartilage, of which the other 
end (except in the instances already mentioned) is attached 
to the sternum. The costal cartilages have each the same 
general form and direction as the part of the rib to which 
thev are appended ; they may be regarded as mere prolonga- 
tions of the ribs, the purpose of their being cartilaginous 
instead of bony being that of giving more elasticity to the 
walls of the chest. Each of them, except the first, is arti- 
culated with a slight capacity of motion to a depression on 
the border of the sternum. 

The direction of the body of the rib is first downwards 
and backwards, forming an arc of a small circle, to the 
angle, at or near which it seems twisted on itself, and then 
sweeps round forwards and a little upwards in the arc of a 
larger circle. The distance from the head to the part at 
which this change of direction takes place, is greater in the 
lower than in the upper ribs, and in the same progression is 
gradually increased tne obliquity of the ascent of the carti- 
lages towards the sternum. The length of the ribs and 
their cartilages together becomes regularly greater from 
tbe first, that is, the uppermost, to the seventh or eigthth, 
the rest become gradually shorter, especially in their os- 
seous parts. 

Some of the ribs have particular characters in which they 
deviate from the general description. The heads of the 
first, eleventh, and twelfth, have but one articular surface, 
being each connected with but one vertebra; the first and 
twelfth have no angles, the second and eleventh scarcely 
any. The first forms nearly the half of a circle of a very 
small radius compared with those of the ribs below it ; its 
surfaces are horizontal ; the upper is marked by two grooves 
over which the subclavian artery and vein pass, and by an 
impression between them to which the anterior scalenus 
muscle is attached ; the lower surface has no groove ; the 
sternal end is very broad ; the head is small. The second 
rib presents characters intermediate between those of the 
first and those of the true ribs below it 

The Sternum, or breast bone, is single only in the adult ; 
in youth it is composed of at least two pieces (of which the 
upi>er {Fig. 7*, A) is named manubrium), and in the foetus 
of many more. Consideretl as one bone, its form is elongated, 
broader and thicker above than below, where it terminates in 



2 r <? 

a long narrow process, which is generally cartilaginous, and 
is named the ensiform or xiphoid cartilage (B). The an- 
terior surface of the sternum is marked by four transverse 
lines (3, 4, 5, 6) which indicate the divisions between the 
five principal parts of which it is composed. These marks 
are repeated on the posterior surface. Along its borders 
there are (proceeding from above downwards), first, at each 
of the angles between its upper and lateral edges, a shallow 
depression (1) into which the extremity of the clavicle is 
received; then immediately below this an oval depressed 
surface (2) to which the cartilage of the first rib is fixed ; and 
lastly, along each side six other similar surHSices separated 
by notches with which the cartilages of the six following 
ribs articulate. Of these six, the four upper are placed at 
the ends of the transverse lines ; so that each of these ribs 
articulates at its sternal end with two pieces of the sternum, 
just as, at its other extremity, it articulates with two ver- 

The general structure of the chest, and its adaptation to 
the movements of breathing, the most important function 
in which it is particularly engaged, are described in the ar- 
ticle Respiration. 

The Bones of the Skull are divided into two chief sets 




,- ^ 


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rlio??e or tlio Crauium, or case for the brain, and those of 
tlje Face. They arc represented in the annexed skoic^hcs 
separated, yel in their natural relative positions, in ibree dif* 
furent aspects : in Fig. 9, an seen from the front ; in Ft^. 9. 
as seen m profile ; in Fig. \Q, as seen \v'hen» afier removing 
the top of the bkuU, one look^ from above upon the bottom 
of ils interior 

Mg, 9. 

TUe Bones uf the Cranium mc, the Trontal (ah the Iwu 
Ptrictal !&)» the twu Temporal (c), the Occipital (</)» the 
Sphenoid <«)» the Ethmoid (/); those of the faoe aic. the 
two Na^al (^K the two superior Maxillary, or upper Jaw- 
bones ihu the two Filiate, the two Malar if), tlie twu Lacry- 
mal iju the two inferior Turbinated, the Vomer {kh and ihe 
inferior MaxiUiipy (/), 

The fruntal bone i^g^ 1 1. a, 6) forms the ftrehead and 
Ihe roof of the orhir. The from or frontal portion is the 
larger. It& anlerior surfupe, which is represented in Big. a, 
is cunvex and 6Uif:>oth ; it i!» bounded below by two urcht'd, 
thick, and rounded borders, separaiod by a rough notch in 
the middle hne. The borders (1, 1) ate called the orbiful 
arches or ridges, and they form the front and prominent 
part of the ov\ its. The notch (2) is nanied the Daeal notch ; 

on cither side of it are Qxed parts of the upper jaw* and In 
the middle the nasal bones, which rest hehnid on a process 
ealled the nasal spine (3). At the euiur extremity of each 
orbital arch iathe external aiiRiiIar process (4, 4), and at llie 
inner extremity the internal angular prewss (5* 5); iho 
former is articulated with the malar, ihe latter with the up- 
per jaw and lacr)mal bones. Near the inlerniil process U 
the Supra-orbitalForamen or notch t6» 6), through nrhicb 
ihe frontal vessels and nerve puas from thtJ orbit to :he 
forehead. Just above it and by its side is a rounded eIeT&- 
lion. ihe frontal pjoliibernnce (")» which marks the srtua- 
ttGU of Ike subjaceiii frontal huiuaea, oir eaviiicit, betweaa 
llic two layers of which the bone is corapoAtd They varv 
much in sine in differetil persons, and ctimmunicale wiih 
the interior of the no5e. On either side of I be middle line, 
nnd extending above Ihe orbital ridj^Ot the surfnce of ihtj 
bone is a^ain eltnatcd in the superediary ridyo (8, S), nn 
arcljod prominence behind the eyebrow. The rest of this 
anterior surface is smooth and even, but in difftrent pen?DU» 
its form i^ a^ varied ns ibat of any other feature. On eillier 
s i il e it I er m i n a t es n\ I h c r a h ru p 1 1) w i 1 h a c u r vcd bti i d e r ( 9 J , 
VTlnch forms the front bmindury of the Temporal fossa (10), 
und behind which there is n *»iiiooth surface, to which Ihe 
fore pait of iLc temporal raubcle is attacbfsd. 


The posterior or cerebral surface of the Frontal bone iFifg. 
11. !/} is concave. Along ihe middle line ihere is a bniotl 
irrooveCl), in which a part of ihe lon^iUidimd sinus [Ba4i?f] 
lies ; a ltd at the fore and lower end of this a ndi^e, to which 
a process of dura mater called the falx is aituchcd. The 
ridge ends at a hole named the Foramen caecum. Tlie ic*l 
of this surface is marked by depressions and ridges filltng 
to Ihe convolutions of the suiface of the brain. 

The orbital portimni ib, 3» 3,) of ihe frontal bone are thm 
jdiik'S exfendint; Eilmo^l hunzonially backwards froui ihe 
orbital arches. Between iheir nmer hosders is a space, the 
clhmoid notch, into which the ethmoid bone fits, and jtist 
anterior to which me the apertures (4. 4) leading into the 
frontal i^Iuiisefi. The undL-r surface of each phiie is eun- 
c;vve, smooth, and even ; and hns at its outer and fore part a 
s^liallow depression, in which the lachrymai gland is lodged, 
and at its uiner nnd fore part a mark to which ihe pullejof 
ihe trochlearis muscle of the eye i% alt ached* The uppei 
surface is marked in corrcijpondence wuli the irregularities 
of the under pari of the anterior lobe of the brain, which 
rests upon it. 

The posterior and upper margin of the frontal bone (^, 5, 
5) is joined by ihe coronal suture to the two parietal bones; 
and it is cut obliquely in buch a niagii^r that its sedges re«l 
upon theirs above, and tljeip owia| ilAhiehjW? |I^® lomwr 
pan of Ibis margin is cM^gR^ef ^hfe^JroV#*^^henoki, 

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wbere they nse into the temporal fossse. The frontal is 
usually in the adult only a single bone, composed (as all the 
bones in the middle plane of the skeleton are) of two equal 
and similar halves: these are developed separately, and 
tbey sometimes remaia undivided by a continuation of the 
sagittal suture which passes from between the two parietal 
straight down the middle of the frontal. 

Fig. 12. 

The construction of the Parietal bones, which form all 
the upper and middle part of the skull, is very simple. In 
P^, 12 at a the exterior, and at b the interior, of the right 
parietal is represented. They are quadrilateral, and of nearly 
equal thickness throughout. The outer convex surface is 
everywhere smootii, except at its lower border (1), where 
it is overlapped by the Temporal bone in the squamous 
suture, and just above this part, where there is a slight 
arclied ridge (2), for the attacnment of a portion of the tem- 
poral muscle. The inner concave surface has impressions 
of the cerebral convolutions, and a deep branching groove, 
which, beginning at the fore and lower angle (9), thence ra- 
mifies diffusely. It lodges the middle meningeal artery of 
:be dura mater. TBaAiif J Along the upper border is a broad 
shallow groove (4), which lodges part of the longitudinal 
tinus, and is continuous with that on the interior of the frontal 
bone. The borders of ihe parietal bones are all, except the 
.ower, deeply and irregularly indented; and by the dove- 
tailing of such irregular teeth, they form, with the frontal 
bone in ftront, the coronal suture, with the occipital behind, 
the lambdoidal, and, in the middle line at their own meet- 
ing, the sagittal. 

The Temporal Bones (Fig. 13, as seen from without) are 
placed in the middle, lateral, and inferior parts of the skull. 
They present each three distinguishable piarts, which in the 
foetus are separated: namely, a Squamous portion (I), 
which forms the middle of the side of the skull ; a Mastoid 
portion (2), which forms the thick protuberance that may 
be felt behind the ear ; and a Petrous portion (not visible in 
Fig, 13, but in Pig. 10 marked e), which passes from the 
lower part of the squamous forwards and inwards in the 

Pig. 13. 

oase of the skull. The squamous bone or portion has a 
roundish form. Its upper edge covers in the lower border 
of the parietal. Its exterior surface is smooth, and gives 

attachment to some of the temporal musclo. At the hir.der 
part of its lower border is an oval aperture (3), leading to 
the meatus auditorius externus [Ear], a passage whioh 
goes forwards and inwards to the tympanum in the interior 
of the oetrous portion. Immediately anterior to this, and 
under the fore-part of the bone, is the Glenoid cavity (4), a 
deep transversely oval hollow, with which the condyle of 
the lower jaw is articulated, and behind which is a narrow 
chink, the Fissura Glaseri, separating it firom a strong 
ridge whioh runs along the upper surface of the petrous 
bone. In front of the glenoid cavity is a prominence, which 
forms its border, the Tuber articulare (5) ; and from its outer 
part there proceeds horizontally forwards, as if springing 
from the tuber and two other slightly elevated lines running 
backwards, a long narrow portion of bone, the Zygomatic 
process (6), the enlarged end of which joins a short process 
of the malar bone to form the zygoma, an arch beneath 
which the temporal muscle plays, and whose size and 
strength are generally in direct proportion to those of that 
muscle, and to the force with which the lower jaw is worked 
in gnashing with the teeth. 

Behind the metans auditorius is the mastoid portion. It 
is prolonged downwards in a strong conical projection, the 
mastoid process (7) giving insertion to muscles upon and just 
above it, and of which the interior is occupied by nume- 
rous cells communicating with the cavity of the tympanum. 
Behind and within the mastoid process is the digastric 
groove, to whioh the muscle of the same name is attached ; 
and forther back another more shallow groove for the tra- 
ehelo-mastoid muscle. 

The cerebral surface of the squamous portion has a ver)' 
obliquely cut and groved upper border, which articulates 
with the lower border of the parietal bone. On the same 
surface of the mastoid portion is a deep fossa, which lodges 
part of the lateral sinus. Both are marked by the impres- 
sions of the brain. 

The Petrous process or portion of the temporal bone 
(Pig. 10, c),has received its name Arom the peculiar hardness 
of its tissue. It has the form of an irregular three- sided 
pyramid, directed from either side forwards and inwards, 
and fitting, at the base of the skull, into the angle left 
between the sphenoid and the occipital bones (e and d). 
Its base is affixed to the interior and lower part of the 
squamous bone ; its summit fits in the apex of the angle 
just mentioned. On its posterior surface the most pro- 
minent object is the oval aperture of the meatus auditorius 
internus, the passage leading to the internal ear, and tra- 
versed by the auditory and the facial nerves. On the 
anterior surface there are a shallow groove leading to a 
small hole, through which the Vidian nerve and blood- 
vessels pass, a slight hollow on which theGasserian ganglion 
of the fifth pair of nerves lies, and a prominence which 
indicates the position of the superior semicircular canal of 
the ear. On the inferior surface, which is placed outside 
the skull, there are seen, at the posterior ana outer border, 
a deep fossa (the Jugular), in which the upper part of the 
internal jugular vein is lodged ; before and on the inner 
side of this, and separated firom it by a prominent ridge, a 
large oval aperture, through which the internal carotid 
artery passes into a tortuous canal, whose other extremity ia 
at the very apex of the bone ; between the jugular fossa 
and the mastoid process a hole, the Stylo-mastoia foramen, 
through which the fkcial nerve passes on its way to the fece, 
after penetrating the bottom of the meatus auditorius in- 
ternus ; and just anterior to this, a long-pointed process, the 
Styloid (8), to which several muscles and ligaments are 
attached, and whose base is surrounded by an irregular 
sharp-edged elevation, the Vaginal process (9). 

The anterior border of the petrous bone is articulated with 
the posterior part of the ala of the sphenoid, leaving an 
intermediate space, named foramen lacenim medium ; the 
posterior border is similarly united with the side of the 
basilar process of the occipital bone, leaving another space, 
the foramen laoerum posterius, through which the internal 
jugular vein and the nerves of the eighth pair pass. Near 
the angle where the anterior border joins the sauamous 
bone is an irregularly shaped aperture, to which the carti- 
laginous part of the JBustachian tube is affixed. 

The small bones of the internal Ears, and all the other 
parts of the organ of Hearing, which lie within and near 
the petrous bone, are already described. [Ear.] 

The Occipital Boue {Fig' I* i» a view of the internal 
surface) forms the poa\enot ai^J^^f^j p^rt^t^^ddlg^ 

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Fig. 14. * 

(li6 skull, a porlton being at ihe outer wall und a poi lion at 
tilts base, lis lower and anterior part is narrow, and liaa a 
rough aurfaLt! (1) in front, which is iinilud wtlh the budy of 
the sphenoid bone, Vicwint^ it at ils internal surface, it 
prestftils, as one proceeds from iIh;* surface backwards and 
upwards, a smooth hollow aurface. which gradually widons, 
and is limited hthiiid by ti hn'|;e oval openuig^. The surface 
(2) is that of the Basihir Procciis, in which ihe iiiediilla 
obUingjitn and pons Varotii [JIrain] rest; Ihe afserluixj (3) 
is the Koramen mn^num, through which ihe medulla paasea 
into the spinal cai\al, where it is continued into the stpinal 
cord* By the sides of this foramen, near vvhcre the basilar 
procijsa joins the back and expetndcd p^ivt of lite buoe, there 
ar*j four foramina, two on either side, the anterior and 
posteviar cundyloid foramina, of which the anterior iran.smit 
the hypoglossal ner\*eij on which the motions of the tongue 
depend, and the latter give passage la veins communicating^ 
with the vertebral veins. Opposite the fore part of the 
foran^en nriagnum the basilar process suddenly widens into 
the greater portion of the occipital hone, which forms the 
back of the head. In ihrs part are ft>ur l«rge hollows 
(A, 1,5. 5)^ of which the two i^pper lodge the sui faces of the 
posterior lobes of the cerebrum^ tlie two lower those of the 
lobes of the cerebelluni. They are separated by two rid^^es, 
which bisect each other at nearly right angles. The upper 
part of that which runs vertically has attached to it a portion 
of the falx major, and to its lower pari is atfixed the falx 
cerebelli; that which runs tianaverstdy gives insertion to 
the back part of the tentorium cerebelh, whose anterior 
bordeiii are fixed to the upper angles of the petrous bone. 
By these ridges are broaei shallow grooves, which lodu^e 
parts of the sinuses of the brain. By the upper halt of the 
vertical rid^e i* the extremity of the longitudinal sinus, the 
groove^i for which, in the frontal and parietal bones, are 
already mentioned, and which, at tlie Internal Occipital 
Bpine* where the ridges bisect each olber, meets itie inferior 
longitudinal and other sinuses, to form what is named the 
Torcular Heropbdi, their commt>n point of meeting. From 
Ibis thsre pro*:eed tho two lateral sinuses, which run 
above the transverse rids^e on either side, ttien cross over 
the posterior inferiur angle of each of iho parietal bones, 
then lie for a shorl disianco on the inside of the mastoid 
portion of the temporal, from whicdi they pass through the 
foramen lacerum posterius by a special aperture, marked by 
a deep notch in the border of the occipital bone, near ihe 
angle (GK whieh separates the basilar from the other 

The inferior and outer surfaee presents on the basilar 
process numerous irregularities, from which the back part 
of the pharvnx is suspended, and into which certain mus- 
cles and ligamculs of the front of the spine are inserted. 
Tlie foramen raairnum has here an even and grounded bor- 
der: and by its siilea two elevations, each with a smooth con- 
vex oval surface, whose larger axis is directed fi>rward^, in- 
wards, and downwards; these are the Condyles, by which 
the occipital bone articulates moveably with iho first verte- 
bra of the spine. Near ihese also are Ihe outer orifices of 
the anterior and posterior condyloid forammo, and around 
them very roufjh surfaces for the insertion of ligatncuti and 
muscles* On the outer surface of the expanded poslerior 
portion of the bono are three ridges» one of which passes 
horn the burder of the foramen raagnym backwards nnd 
upwards in cunespondence wUh the internal vortical ridge, 
and is crossed on Us way by two transverse arched ridges. 
At Ihe crossing of ihe upper of ihe jo two is a sharp promi- 
nence, the occipital spine or protuberance. The two trans- 

verse ridges and the spaces below them give attachment tc 
muscles ; the spine, to the lii^amentum nuchBO. Above the 
upper ridge ihe surface is sinooth. 

The upper and lateral borders (7) of the Occipital bone are 
deeply toothed, and form the Lambdoidal Suture, with whe M 
parietal bones above and the mastoid beiow. In the courte fl 
of this liuture there occur, more olten than in that of any 
other, insulated portions of bone, of various size and forni, 
called Ossa Wormiana. surrounded by margins toothed aa 
in the regular line of suture. 

The Sphenoid Bone ( Fi[^. tO, e) is placed in the middle ■ 
of the base of the skull, and has a very complicate form. I 
Fig. 15, (1^ gives a front, and b, a back and upper view t^f ^ 
it. Its principal parts are described as a body (1^ I), ivo 

Mg, 15 

Greater Alto (2, 2), two Lesser AIed (b, 3. 3), and. on each ' 
side, two Pterygoid Processes fa, 4, 4). The body is the ' 
central part, and has somewhat the form of a hollow crube. 
Chief part of ils upper or cerebral surface is hollowed, 
forming what is called the Sella Turcica (fi, 4), and lodging 
the pituitary ^land. [Brain j It is bounded at its four ' 
corners by bluntly pointed prominences called Clinotd Pro 
cesses (see Ffg. 10), to whiidi prolongations uf dura mater 
are attached. Between, and a little in fiwU of the two an- h 
terior of these, is a level surface (6, 5> on which Ihe com-H 
missure of the optic nerves rests, and wbieli has behind a " 
slight elevation, the Olivary process, and in front a pointed 
onc^ the Ethmoid spine {bi G} which fits into the Eih moid 
bone. The sides of Ihe body slope obliquely downwards 
towards the great aloe?, and the cavernous smus and internail 
carotid artery of each side rest af^ainst them. The postenoc 
surface (^, 7) of the body is rough, and unites with tbe 
end of the basilar process of the occipital* The anterior 
presents the openings of large cells which occupy the whola 
interior. These arc divided by a middle septum (a» 5). ttDd 
are pattly closed in by two small portions of bone called 
Sphenoidal Cornua; where not thus closed, they open into 
Ihe posterior ethmoidal cells. The under surface of the 
body is chietly tiat, but has a ridi^e called the astygous pro- 
cess along the middle line, which tits to the Vomer. 

The Greater AIsd Ci) are afHxed by the sides of Ihe bodf, 
and project from it outwards, upwards, and forward?!. On 
each there are Ihree principal surfaces, turned towards the, 
brain, the temple, and the orbit, respectively. The iniieir^ 
or cerebral (b, H} is concave, supports part of the roiddle^ 
lube of the brain, and presents three particular orifices, 
namely " the tbramcn rotnndum, near its anterior and intier 
margin, through which the superior maxillary nerve passed 
from the Gasserian ganglion of the fifth ]!air; the foramen' 
ovale, much larger and near the posterior and inner border, 
through which the inferior maxillary nerve goeis fion^ Ikirf 
same ganglion , and the foramen spinosnm, near the outer^ 
and postertor angle, which transmits the middle men in -"^^ 
geal artery* This enter angle (6, 9), which fits in between' 
the petrous and squamous parts of the icmporal bone (»e©- 
Fig. 10), is named the spinous process. The outer or lem- 
pora! surface (a, 6) is slighily liollowed, and forms part of 
the temporal fossa, rising up at the lower part of the side 
of the skull as far as the anterior inferior angle of the parie-" 
lal bone. At its lower border it turns abiHiptly inwards at 
a slight ridge, below whith il is continuetl to the ptery-* 
goid [irocesses, and forms part of thcf x^'gojnuiitribssa ; its' 
poslerior border articuIaNsiJuatb ttte i(^u^^wXiS aiHenor 
with the frontal bone. The anterior or orbitA^urface (a, 7> 

S R E 


S K E 






U ihxi ami smoulb, and farms part of ilie outer wall of the 
orbit, wbcfe it articulates ^itb the raalar, fi-onlal and upper 
juw bones. 

The Lesser AIib ib, 3, 3) are long, narrow, sbavp-polnted 
lirt>ce?»ses projeeting borjz mtally outwards from ihu front 
iitid um)cr part of the body, liiternally and behind they 
bear the anterior clinoiil procciiscs, beneatli whi^h are the 
Optic forauiiim for transmititng the ophihalmit^ arteries and 
Uie optic nerves frura ihu eomtnissuro to (he orbit. The 
uppur surfaeo of lliese aim is tlet, and suppc>ri9 part of I ho 
brain. Tiie anterior border is arlicubited wiilj the orbital 
plates of the froiilal bone on eiiher side, aud in (lie middle, 
Tvhere I he plhmoidal spine projects, with ihe clhtnLnd bone. 
The posterior border lies in the Fissura Sylvii, between the 
anterior and middle lobe* nf ihe brain. The under surface 
is smootli: belwocn it nnd llie nuterior edge of the gre^t 
tila ia a gap^ the fi>ramen bieerum anterius, Irangimitting 
nerves and a vein lo the orbit. 

Tht» Pterygoid processes (a, 4, 4) nro directed downwards 
from the under and ouler part of the body. On each side 
llierti are two lamellse, an externa! and an iniernal ; ihey 
ore lon^j and narrow qnadrilaieral platen nearly tneetitig in 
fionr, where they articulate with the palate bone» and di- 
ver»;ing behiud so as to leaveaspace* in which ihc iniernal 
pterygoid and circurallexus palali niusck's are altiirhed. 
The internal and longer of Ihe lamella has at its luwcst 
extremity a hook, the Hamuiar process, round whicb» as on 
a pulley, the tendon of the lasl-meutioned muscle plays. 
At ihe upper part, where the pterygoid processes join tlte 
body, i» a canab Ihe Vidian, rutming frum before backwards 
and transmitting the Vidian neri-e. 

The Ethmoid Bune ( Fig, 10,/' is situated in the front 
and middle part of Ihe base of the skull, between the orbits. 
Fij^. 16 gives a profile view of it from the left side. It pre- 
senta six different aspect**, and for the most part is of a very 
li^ht spongy texture. lis upper surface, which is presented 
1o the brain, has in front and in m midtUe line a strong 
triangular process, the Crista Galli (1), to whieh the front 
of the falx cerebri is attached. The apex of Ibis process ii 
directed straight upwards; the base is continuous below 

Fig, 16, 

with the perpendicular or nasal plate (2), which divides the 
Btbmaid bone into I wo equal lateral halves, and which, 
with ihe Vomer, which it joins below, forms the greater 
pan of the soptutn of the nose. The Crisia Galli, slomng 
downwards autl backwards, is gradualiy lost behind, where 
the Ethmoid bone receives the nnine of the sphenoid. On 
ciiher side of it is a narruw quadrangular plate (the Cribri- 
form plate), on which the bulb of one of the olfactory nerves 
rests. Each is perforated by a number of holes throui>:h 
vrhjch I be branches of the olfactory and another smaller 
nervp pass to the interior of the nose. In front, and along 
part of the border oi each plate, are the orifices of numerous 
cells, 'which, in the entire skull, are closed in by the Ironlal 
bone atid its ovbitar plates, and communicate with the 
lal sinuses. 

e surface of Ihc upper part of each side of the ethmoid 
is formed by a Ihin smooth quadrilateral plate, the 
orbitar plate (3). wbieb forms gteat part of the inner wall of 
the orbit, and unites above with the ccirresponding plule of 
the frontal {leaving two small apertures, the anlertur atrd 
posterior irjternal orbitar feramina, for the pis^at^e of braull 
nerves and vessels), in front willi the lacrymal, below with 
the orbitar portions of the upper jaw and pa^t^e bones, and 
behind with the sphenoid. Between the oibitar f>nd nasal 
plates, each half of the bone is formed of culls and folds of 
Tery ibin laroellso, wbicdi form pan of the chambers of the 
noBe, and have the olfactory membrane and nerves spread 
out upon them. [Smell.] The priucipul parts are the 
middle ttirbinated or spongy bone(4|, a roll of thin bone, 
which forms the lower boidorof the cf^lls; and a smaller but 
ftifuilar roll higher up, and confined to the back part, cttlled 
tlie superior turbinated or spongy bone (5). Umler each 
roll ftt its posterior part is a passai^e to the cells, called re- 
P. a. No. 1369. 

fepectfvely the Superior atid the Middle Meal us of the tiosf. 
The ethmoidal rv)h communicale ni front witii the frontal, 
and behmd with the sphenoidal cells or sinuses. 

The st\ bones jtist described enclose the Brain* forming a 
cavity whose size, compared with that of the crania of brutes, 
is one of the most distinguishing marks of ihe human 
species. To the protection of the important organs within 
it, as lo iheir chief office, everything in the structure and 
arrangement of the bones of Ihe cvanium is adapted. Those 
partsof iheni which lie exposed to direct external injury are 
formed of three layers, namely, an outer and inner table, and 
an iniermediate diptoe.* The outer table is formed of bone 
of ordinary compaetness, surh as is not liable to be cracked 
by moderate shocks; the inner, of much harder and more 
brittle bone (whence its name of Tabula vitrea), wliich may 
be more easdy cracked, but tci^s easily cut or pierced. The 
diploc is of a sot\ spongy tissue, calculated to lessen the 
vibrations that are producetl by blows on Ihe outer table, 
before they reach the inner and more brittle one. The 
arrangement is thus simdar to that by which one mi^ht 
sufely enclose a subslunce liEible to injury either from 
being shaken or cut, within an im^er caseyf baid porcelain, 
a middle one of soft leather, and .m outer one of tough 

The formation of the sutures seema to have the same end* 
The outer tables of the exposed bones have iheir edges finely 
dovetailed, and are thus so imnioveably held together that 
none but a violently expatv^ive force exercised at once on the 
whole interior of the cavity can separate them. The inner 
tables are simply apposed with a very thin intermediate 
layer of cartilage; an arrnngement which, as Sir Charles 
Bell (who has written most ingeniously on this subject in 
his * Animal Meclianics^), says, is often imitated in works of 
art, in which tough materials, such as wood, are joined by 
mutually fitiinR dentations; and brillle ones, such as glass 
or maible, by stnoutb edges and a layer of cement. A similar 
mode of opposition is seen between all the bones of the skull 
that are not exposed to direct violence. 

The lop of the skull presents Iransversoly an arch formed 
by the two panetal botres (see H^. b\ whose most prominent 
parts, like those of the frontal, occipital, and others, are 
slTonger and thicker Ihan any others; a circumstance 
adapted fur greater resistance to foi-ce, whether applied 
directly against those parts, or to the summit of the arch 
from whence it would fall cbielly on tliera. The strength of 
this arch is further secured by the lower parts of the parietal 
bones being held in by the overlapping upper borders of the 
temporal and sphenoidal bones^other parts of which, passing 
across the base of the skull, hold the parietal bones, which 
by pressure from above might be made to start outwards or 
pu^^hed inwards, as beams hold the walls of a house from 
beuij^ driven either in or out by the weight of the roof, 
Takinij the wIjoIo upper part of the skull m a dome, [he 
same strength of rcaistance to superincumbent pressure is 
obtained at every part by nearly similar means, especially at 
a I the coronal suture, where, as has been already said, tho 
parietal bones o\erlap the frontal at the supports of its arch, 
atid are themselves overlapped by it at the summit of their 
own. In this regard also may be noticed the sirengih and 
lhickno^s of the angular processes, and of the orbitar arehes 
extentled between them (see Fif^, ii), which serve a$ sup- 
ports for the front of the dome; and the thickening of the 
bones along the course of the longitudinal and lateral sinuses, 
resembling grains in masonry. 

The relaiions of the skull to the erect posture, the adap- 
tations of the ethmoid and sphenoid bones to the ticnse of 
smell, and the arrangements of the base of the skull in 
reference to the ear, the several nerves, &;c., are considered 
elisewhere. [Brain; Eak; Man; Smell, &c,] 

Tire second chief division of the Skull includes the bones 
of the Face, the principal of which are represented in Figs, 
8 and 17. 

The Nasal Bones (Figs. 8, 9, 1 7, g) form the upper part 
of the bridge of the nose. They are narrow and quauri- 
lateral ; thick above, where they fit into ilie nat^ul notch of 
the frontal bone; broad and tlun below. The outer border 
of each articulates with that of the ascending process of the 
upper jaw-bone; the inner is in contact with that of tho 
other; the lower are in contact wiili tho cartilages that form 
the rest of ibe groundwork of the nose» The anterior sur- 

* Thi» arrnnurmt'iitdoet ^^^ ^^x^i \a ekticr Lhta clittd or ihe old ponoD< In 
Ihe fotmpT n\\ the bona* art* ttinzl^ i^<^^ cVftsvic ; in the UkUrr Ui» dlploti U fllltd 
mi l>y Itarri b«oe, ftml ihe wtvoXft tl**^^*^ ^ tb««r«>i« my*-******- •* iw-*i— ^ 

uiyiiizeo^y ' 

S K R 

S K E 

fiioe ii» concave from abcivc downwards^ uufl convex from snle 
to side: the posterior has opposite direction^, and in ibc 
raiiWle line, vbere the two bones arc in contact, is applitid 
on the nasal spine of the frontal, and the edge of the perpen- 
diculaj* plaieof tlie ethmoid bone. 

of Iho palate bone. The inner or naBal aspect pre 
beb)W, a nm-b Mirface by which ibe bono is umted lo itM 
feUuw Oil the uppoMte side' and which js dteper m front lUafi 
bobm'3. It ia aut mounted by a ndge vvhtch extendi from 
before backward:*, and between which end that id the other 
bone is a luirrow groove to receive the votuer. The nmericr 
part uf the ndge(7) is called the anterior na^id sprne, aiul 
close by it is II jc lorameji ini?isivum, which leadi. dowa ta 
the roof of the mouib, and transmits the anteriur pulatiiJ« 
nerve. On tho outer «nle of the ndge i^ a concave siooolh 
surface, ibe upper surface of the v^la^^'ne procebs,of wbjch 
the lower surface furnr*, as alieady ha^d, ihe roof of th# 
moulh. From the outer part of this hurfarc*, winch fortu* 
part of the tkn^r of the iiosuds, the bone riiies alinrjil TeMi- 
cally toviird^iibe nasul Bpitieand the imxeredge of the orbital 
phiie. and. at abuut i'.ft middJe, pre>euls a large aperture 
leading into ihe Antrum Hij^hrauri. a cavity occupyiog t!ie 
whole inienur of tne budy of the bjne. 

The Palate bones are plieed backward between the superior 
maxillary and ilic pterygoid processes of the sphenoid. *"^~ 
Ftg, 19. 


The Superior Maxillary or Upper Jaw bones {Figs,h, % 
17, h) forra the greater part of the front of the face. Fig^ 18 
gives a view of rhe outer part of that of (he Iwfi ^dc Tltis 
surface is bounded below by a narrow border* the Alveolar 
border or process (0« in which the upper teeth are set in 
ibtfir socket a* lis ouihne is an el[ii>tical arc. and from it 
Ihe outer surface ascends to the orbit, of which it forms the 
inner and great jjart of the lower margin (2). It is nn- 
cvenly depressed m two or three places for tl\e attachment 
of muscles of ihe face. At the outer part, near the orbit, it 
presents a rough surface, the Malar eminence {H\ by whiKb 
It ih united with the cheek-bone. Below and in front nf 
[lis is a depres'iion called Fossa canina, and on its inner 
tidL% just below the orbital margin, is the Infra-orbital fura- 
*»ien, ihrough which the superior mamillary nerve pa*»ses 
to the face. The anierior border of this external surface 
fir&t ascends vertically where the two bones are in contact 
in the middle line (see Fig, 8); then is suddenly cut out lu 
a crescentic arch (4>so as to leave between the two lire lurge 
aperture into the nasal cavities, and then again ascends 
vhere the upper maxdlary bone unites with the nasal of the 
♦ajue side. This ascending part is called the nasal prucesii 
(5); its summit i» fixed in the nasal notch of ihe frorital 
bone; its outer euifaco looks towardt the orbit, is deeply 
groo%'ed, and wiib the lacrjmal bone, to which its posterior 
border is attached, forms a channel for the bcrynial duct; 
itis inner surface is directed towards the cavity of the nose, 
has an oval rouejbness which is united with tlie inferior lur* 
biiiii(ed hone* and above closes some of the ante nor eih- 
4lKndal cells. Below and behind the malar eminence the 
^ lUrf^ce it excavated to form part of the zygomalic fossa; 
knd above Ibis it swells out and is perforated by numerous 
foramiQa» ibrougb which the nerves of the upper leoth 

The upper, or orbitar, surface (6), consists of a thin plate, 
forming the lloor of the orbit, and presenhng a groove which 
"eads to the infra-orbiial canal, and a deprc^^sion for the in- 
ri.on of the inferior oblique muscle of the e)e. The 
'tinder or palatine surface is rough and concave, and forms 
fijirt of Ihe roof of the mouth. Its outer border is arched, 
mi*d bounded by the alveolar process; the inner is strai^;bl^ 
and is set a;;ainat that of the opposite auXe in the middle 
line; the potterior is ;Qtied with the correspond in £^ process 

lower, horizontal, or palaiine portion (1) of each is attac; 
liehind the palaiine process of the upper jtiw, to which U 
similar in form, and vt completes the back part of lb« rocf 
of the mouth or hard palate, and of the floor of the nosiriU 
Its posterior border has tlie Velum palati [Palate] attac bed 
to it: iis under surface presents two foramina, tfanmgit 
which the posterior palaiine nerves pa^;*. From its oaler 
border a thin plale (-2) aiicends vertically ; where it com* 
mences there is, behind, a rou^h process (3). articulating vilh 
and fillini^ up the gup between the pterygoid proces%ea of 
the sphenoid. iFti^. 16, a; 4, 4.) The nasal or inner surf 
of thia aseendiutj portion urticnliite& wiih live inferior V 
iiated boni\ and iovta^ part of the outer wall of the ur 
Ihe outer surface arlieulates with the back and in .<5r 
of the siuperior maxillaiy bone, and forms with it the 
tenor palatine canal. The upper bolder has a notch, wbi« 
in the entire skuH, is completed by the sphenoid bone iiilo 
a hole, called the sphono-palatino, for the transmission at 
nerves of the same name : behind it is a triangular prQoe« 
(5), of which one surface articulates with the body of llw 
sphenoid; and before it is another (4). of whose surface* 
one c^loses some of ihe cibmoid cells, and another forms a 
small pnri of the back and lloor of the oibit. 

The Malar or Cheek Bone* ( Ffff^, 8, 9, 1 7, i) form the moat 
proiumenr parr, of the clieeks. The form of each is quudruik* 
gular. The front surface is slightly convex, and has small 
apertures for vessels and nerves : the back covers ihc front 
of the zyp;oroatic fos.^a : the upper surface is the itarrowesl. 
and forms part of the floor of the orbit, of which also jiart 
of the front border is formed by the upper margin of this 
bone, Uy it* posterior surface and inner border the malar 
is united to the upper jaw-bone, as already described; and 
by its posterior and outer angle to the i,ygomaiic pror ess of 
Ihe temporal b<jne {Ftg. i3» 6), with w'hich it forms the 

The Lacrymal Bones (l^V. %j) are two small thin lamel)» 
of bone at the fore part of ihe inner wall of the orbit, Eaeh of 
them in some niensnre resembles a thumb nad, wtionce 
1 hey are also called Ungual Bones. Each is eomp!>«-d of 
two parts: ibe anterior is deeply grooved on iht 
turned towarfls the orbits and conlnbulcis to the i i 
of the lacrymal canal wiih the nasal jnocess of the utrper 
jaw-bone, with which its anterior margin articulates. Tlie 
posterior part is flat, and closes ibobo of the cthmotdal 
cells wiucii lie anterior to its orbital plale. The po«teri^ 
margin of this part articulates with ibe ethmoid bone, the 
upper with ihc orbital plale of the frontal, and the lower 
wnh thai of the upper Jaw-bone. 

The Inferior Turbmaied or Spongy Bones are thin rough 
lamellav whose lower border is loUfd up somewhat like a 
scroth Ttiey he vvithni the nasal ^^avities, anji, except m 
being larger, iheyr cloi^(^,ff|^\^0@^te*^'^ 



S K E 


S K E 


name whidi aro apptsmled to the ethmouL Tbey are 
•tiached at eiiher end lo the inner surfaee:^ of tlie nas^al 
proi*e!;se$. of the upper jaw and piilate bancs, ami, in ibe 
tajdtlle, lo the lawniual and vlie lower portion of tbo oibiijil 
'' ^te of ibe eibraoid bones: upon these they are suspended 
fcre I bo apeiluru of the Anlrum, which, in the entire 

nil, iliey uearly conceal. LiUe all liie bones which form 
part o( the cavities of the nose, ihey are covered by mucous 
ttiecnbrane. Beneath their ouier concave surfaeo runa the 
infei iur meatus of I be noie» 

The Vomer (Ftg^H^k) is a thin quadrilaleral plate which 
lbriii& a coudideiabie part of the middle parti lion of the 
noae. Ita iip^ier border i!» the Ihicke^st, and id ariiculoted 
wilU ibe azygoii process and und^r surface of the sphenoid 
bone ; the lower border fils inio ihe groove between Ihe 
ridges tn the apposed liur faces of ibe palatine proceMses of 
ihc upper jaw and |jalate bones; ibe anterior joins the ver- , 
tical patt of the etimioid abuve^ and ibe cartilaBtinous part 
of the aeptum of the nuse below : the posterior is free, and 
divides the pui^age from the nostrds inlg the pharynx 

fig. 2a 

The last main division of the Skeleton consists of tlie 
Upper and Lower Extremities {Fig, 1; 3» 4). Tb<i uppur 
aie composed of the Scjpula, Clavicle, Humerus, R;Mltus» 
Ulna, CarpUii, Mel ucarpus, and Finger;). The scapultv mid 
eluvicle are analogous to the Ossa innonaioata hi the lower 

Fig, 21. 

The Inferior Maxillary^ or Ijower Jaw-Bone (Fig§. 8, 9, /, 

mndFig. 20)» has a form sonieihini^ Hke tbut of a hone-shoe. 

I It is made up of a body or horizontal porlian (1), and a 

Lrftnius, or ascending poriiui* (2). Tbu former is convex 

'Anteriorly, and on its very ftoul presents the prominence 

which contributes lo form (be cbm (3), Thi^ \& marked in 

the middle line by tbu Symphysis, at whicb the two porliona 

of which the jaw was first composed are united* On eiilier 

side of ibis is a ilighl depres-siun* the Fossa incisivii; and 

farther out a hole, the mental (4), through which branches 

of the inferior denial nerve and vessels pass to the chin. A 

raised line giving in^jerlion lu muscles passes hence obliquely 

1 outwards to the upper border; an 1 on the inner surface there 

, ii another line coiiesponding to tbi.s, and giving origin to 

Ihe my\o hyoidena muscle, from whence it is called the 

cn)1o-h)i>idean ud!j;e. On the inner surface there are also 

■ sruralnencesnear the symphysis for the insertion of mnscka. 

[The lower border is suiuoib and rounded; the upper* or 

.Alveolar prore?kS» is marked by notches corres^ionding with 

»lh^ BfickutA of the lower leelb, which are set in it. 

The rami asicend almost veitieally from the ends of the two 
l.|\af ts of the body. They are broad, (lal, and quadrilateral. 
At the ans^le (i), where each joiui the Lnidy, there me on 
fboth surfaces ro. 'jh prominences; the external gives at- 
Ltachraent lo the musseier, the internal to the intermd ptery- 
tgoid tnuscle. The inter nal surface has also, near the end *jf i 
fihe mylo-hyoidean ridge, a liole, the inferior denial 16), | 
iihrough which the nerve of the same name passes into the | 
Tinlerior of the jaw, ham which it ag&in emerges at the ,< 
ISKlental hole (4). Leading hom the dental foramen is a 
■maU groove for a branch of ihe dental nerve. The anterior 
border uf the ramus terminates in a sharp projection, the 
IjDoronoul process (7, 7)» to which the temporal muscle is at- 
Invhed; the posterior, in a transversely oval process, with a 
[imooth summit, tiie Condjlo (S, S), which articulates with 
full freedom of motion in the glenoid cavity of the iem|ioral 
sne. Below lhi?i is the Neck (9), to which the external 
jkterygoTd mu^ele is in part attached ; and the space between 
the amdyle and the coronoid proce«s is the Sigmoid notch 
[10. Itij. 

The bones of the face serve as a groundwork (a many 
irts whose structures and functions are already described 
%U «eparato ariidea; and since, in each case, the parts which 
e bones take are at the same time considered, an account 
their adaptation lo the several otfices performed by the 
liferent portions of the face k not her© necessary. Their re- 
itions to the features are described in the article Man. 

The Scapula, or shoulder-blade, of which, in Eff. 21, the 
back is represented, with parts of the clavicle and humerus^ 
is triangular m its outline, and flat, beiiip formed of two 
cotnpact byers. and an intermediaW diploe. varied in thick- 
ne>s. It has three borders orCosia?, a superior (I), yoste- 
rior (2), which lies nearly parallel with the spine* aud an 
inferior (3), which is also the longest. They are all i bicker 
than ihe body of the bone, and t^ive iiiseiiion to various 
muscles moving the shoulder. From the po.sterior liordcr^ 
about one- third from the upper and two thirds from tha 
lower angle, there commences ft rid)t;c called the Spine (4), 
which, as it passes along the back of Ihe scapula towards 
I ha outer angle, gradually increases in depih, and at its 
end, pr^vjectiiig beyond and above the angle, bears a strong 
arched process, called the Acromion i!>)» which articulaltu 
wiih the clavicle, overhangs the shoulder joint, and gives at- 
tachment to some of its muscles and ligaments. The spme 
divide** the back of the scapula into two parts, of which the 
lower is much the larger, and which are named, accord nig 
to their posiiion, Supra- (6) and Infra- (7) Spinous Fos>Jo. 
They give origin In muscles of the same names. The an- 
terior surface, or belly of I he scapula, is slighlly conca\e, and 
gives insertion lo the subscapularis muscle, for the attach- 
ment of whose several parts it is marked by alternate longi- 
tudinal elevations and depressions. At the outer angle t1io 
bone is terminated by the Glenoid Cavity {S). an ov;ue siir 
face slighiiy hollowed, narrower above than btduw, and with 
which the head uf the humerus (9) articulates with very ex- 
tensive freedom of motion. Its border is thick, and is ren- 
dered deeper in the recent bubjecl by a nm of fibro-carli- 
lage, t!je glenoid ligament, siniiliir lo that which borders- 
the acefabuium. Between this bonier and the base of liie 
spine the scapula is narrower than elsewhere; and this part 
is ralle<l the Neck, From the superior costa. near this 
neck, a long and strong curved process, the Coracoid, pro- 
jects forwards, and gives attachment to sevetal muscles and 
ligamcntB; and at its root iheie is in the superior costa 
a hole, or a notch, through which the supra scapulair ner\e 
(and sometimes its accumpanying vessels! pass. 

The scapula is attached to the irunk only through the 
medium of the clavicle, and by the muscles whicli lonncrt 
it to tlie spine and ribs. It can therefore slide freely on the 
back of the chest ; aud, to a cert am extent, it follows all the 
lavjzer movements of the humerus, so ihal its glenoid cavity 
and the head of that bone, which have but a small surhicc 
of mutual coniatt, almost always preserve the same rela- 
tion to each oiher, and are less iikely lo be dislocated than 
they would be if the scapula were more closely flxed. 

The Clavicle, or Collar-bone, ex I ends transversely from 
the notch in the upper angle of llie sternum to Iheanienof 
and outer margin of the acromion ihg '21). With both 
of these its ends are articulated with a moderate extent of 
mobdily; with the sternum, by the apex of a broad iri^ 
an;^ular surface ; w ith the acromion, by a small Hat oval fur 
face on its posterior ©age. TheC(|»ld^ M4l§B#@^W 

S K E 


S K E 

tions of the double-curved line of benutj% being tligbtly 
arched forwards at the alenial, and backwtird» at the sca- 
pular, half. At the furmcr it is tliiekt strong, and irmn- 
gular; in ibe laUer* br.tad ami llnttcned. On the upper 
fluiface, wbtch lies just under ihc skiu* it is srnDoth ; on ibe 
)ower U has, neiir its stenm- emi, a raark where a ligaracnt 
fixing it to the first rib is attached ; farther out a larger 
elevaiioHt lo whii-h the fiubdavian muscle is fixed : and 
near the acromial end, other promiuenc^ss, to which the 
ligaTnenis connecting it with the coracoid process of the sca- 
pula (which projects just below it) are affixed. 

The ctiief purpose uf the Clavicle is to keep the arm at a 
distance from the trunk for all its outward motions; and in 
adaptation to this, it s> length and strei*gih furm one of the 
most characteristic features of the human skeleton. 

The Humerus, the hone of the upper arm {Fig. 2% A), is 
articulated above with the scapula by a hemispherical 

smooth portion called the Head 1 1), which is bounded at 
its outer and lower purt by a narrow gixjo^e culled the Neck. 
The Rxis of t!ie head forma wiik that cif the shaft or body of 
tlio bane an angle of ahoui 130^, Close by the neck, ihe 
upper and ouler part of the slmft is sumioanfed hy two Tu- 
Ifcrosilies: ihebirger and posterior (2) ha?» three tldt surfaces, 
to each of which a muscle from the scapula in attached ; the 
lesser (3) gives attachment to the subscapuKiris mu.scle. 
The rest of the upper part of the shaft is rtmnd and nearly 
smooih ; but just above the middle uf its outer surface i^ a 
rough elevatiim (4), to which the deltoid, the chief muscle 
of ihe {^boiiider, is attached. About half-way down, the 
shaft begins to he Uaiier and wider, and al either bordt*r of 
it commence sharp ridges, which, as they descend, become 
prominent, and which terminate below at the External (j) 
and Internal {&) Condyles. Each of the Condyles gives 
insertion to a li|?ament and several muscles of the fore- arm ; 
the inner is Ihe more prominent, but the outer is the larcer. 
Between the condyles is the inferior articulur surface, which 
is composed of two parts for articulating sopurately with 
each of the bones of the fyre-arm. On the outer side^ just 
within the external condyle, the surface hasa smnoih rounded 
"Prominence or tuberosity (7), against whitdi the summit of 
Ihe head of the radius is appw^ed ; more inwiirds there is a 
deep groove (8) separated from the luherosjty by a slight 
ridge, und frum the inner cond)le by one much mnre pro- 
minent, in which Ihe raised ponion «3f the sii»moid cavity uf 
the ulnii moves as in a hinge-joint. This part of the joint 
is numed the Trochlea, Both before and behind it is 
bounded above by a deprc>sion : inlo thai en the posterinr 
Bvirfijce, which is ihe deeper^ the olecranon of the ulna is 
received when the fore arm is extended: and into the an- 
terior, the coronoid process of the same bone> when the fore- 
arm is much bent. 

The Fore-arm contains two bones, the Radius and the 
Ulna (/'>V. 22, B, C): the firtncr being that with lahich ilic 
niovernent* of relation arc ellecied; the latter, that which 
lukes ihe ciiief part in tlexcm and extension. Th« radius 
(B), when the palm of Ihe hand is turned forwards, is on 
the outer side of the arm ; and it h the shorter of the two 
bones. Ai it* upper end ii hds a circular disk* the Head (1), 
h^'liowed ua Its upper t»ur face, where it articulates with the 
tuucrosity oq the lower end of the Humerus (A, 7), and 

smooth on its circumference, where it h encircled by a rii»g 
within which it rotates, and which is formed in pari by the 
ulna, and in part by a ligament. Just below this is lh« 
Neck r '2), of which the upper part is si railaily encircled; 
and below it, on the ntiterior and inner surface is a knob. 
theTubeicle(3), to which ihe tendon of the biceps, lUerbief 
tlexor muscle of the fo re-arm » is attached. Yet lower, lh« 
shaft (6, 6) of the radius becomes three-sided, and as it 
descends grows wider. At its lowest part it is much ex- 
panded, is flattened before and behind, and lerminatei vith 
a prottiinont border to which ligaments of ihe wrtst -joint are 
allached. The posiertor and outer surfaces of this lower 
end are deeply grooved for the passage of tendons; and the 
latter is piolongwl into a blunt-poinied process, the Styloid 
(4>, to which the external lateral ligament n aUached, The 
inner surface has a small smo^uh cavity, the Semiluivar, 
which articuhtes with the outer part of Ihe lower head o! lb© 
Ulna. The terintnal surface (at 5) is smooth, some what 
triangular, and slightly hollowed ; it arliculales with the 
carpus, and h continuous over ihe inner border with thU 
which articulates with the ulna. 

The Ulna (C) is situate^l on the inner side of ihe fore arm. 
At its upper and larger extremity it lias a broad and deep 
crescentie notch, Ihe Greater Sigmoid Cavity (l| whoM 
smf>nih surface is divided into two parts by a middle ridgei 
and which is received in Ihe trochlea of the Humerus. Il is 
bou tided at either end by a sharp prncess. The upper and 
]>ostenur is the larger, and is named the Olecranon it); it 
forms the rou»h prominence behind the elbow; and wbea 
ihe arm is extended, its point, which is curved forwards, 
rests in the fos-^a at the back of the humerus, Tlie lower 
and anterior <.1) is the Cotonosd Process, whose point, when 
Ihe arm h fully bent, rests m the anterior fossa of the 
humerus. On the outer side the smooth surface ef the 
great sigmoid caviiy is continued over a small oval coiicave 
portion i5f the side of the hone just behitid the coronoid pro- 
cess. This is the Lesser fiigniuid cavily; upon wl^icb the 
side of the head of the radius rotates, and to whoso borders 
the rorotiary li/iviULnt by wliich that head is encircled, is 
attached. The budy or shaft (A, 4} of the ulna grow& 
smuUer from uhuvc downwards, and is for the tuosl part 
three-sided; its external and sharp margin giving oiigiti to 
the interosseous ligament, which, being attached al^o to the 
opposed margin of ihe radius, fills up the space between 
these hunes. At its lower end, the ulna becomes nenity 
cylindrical rtiid then is a little enlaii^ed: at its tenninalion 
it presents a double avticubr surface; one, on the er>d 
whirh 18 nearly circular, and (through the modium of & 
llbro'carlihige} articulates with part of the carpus; the other. 
on the outer border, which is narrow and conNXX, and i« 
received in the semdunar cavity of the radius. The inner 
border of this lower extremity he;irs a short und blunt pro- 
cess, the Styloid {5}, to which ihe internal lateral ligament 
of the wrisi-JMUit is fixed. 

The motions of which the Fore-arm is capable are Flexion 
ond Extension, and Rottviion on its axis. The two forroer 
are effected at the hinge-hke joint between the Greater 
Sigmoid cavity of Ihe Ulna and the Trochlea of the Hume- 
rus; the head of the radius mo\'ing at tlie same time for- 
wards and buckwards on the lower tuberosity. Tl»c elbow 
affhrds the heat specimen of a htngejoint in the body, for 
no lateral motion is permitted in it, the ulna beiti*^ locked in 
the groove between the iwu sule lidgea of the trochlea. Ro- 
lalion. hy which also the rotiiuon of the hand is eflbeted, is 
peijbinied by the upper head of the radius moving rou&d 
in Ihe ring fusmed hy iho coronary ligament and »he letscr 
sigmoid cavity of the ulna; and by its tower bend at the 
some time being carried round on the outer border of the 
lower head of the nlrm. In this movement the ulna is almoct 
fixed, its lower end only being earned oulwaids as that of 
the radius is moved far inwards, when in cMii'me {ironatton 
of the hand the two hones are made to cross ouch other- 

The Hand (22, D) consists of the Carpus, Metacarpal^ 
and Fmgers. The Carpus (I, U is composed of etght small 
bones arranged in I wo 1*0 ws, and so nearly immoveably 
united by ligaments, that, except in being more elastic, ibejr 
serve the puipose of a single bony arch. Those of the ClrU 
row, whicJi lie nearest to llio forearm, are (from the outer to 
the inner ^ide) the Scaphoid, Lutiar, Cuneiform, and Pisi- 
form bones: iho^e of the second row, following the same 
order, are named Tiapczium, Trapezotd, Magnup* and Un- 
""■ ■ "* . ^ . ... ^.j^j,m 


ciform. The three fir!i^t-named, atiictjlaiiof^(Tti|^ rad 
directly and with the uWi^ffitfifell^f \iSYi^W ha 

S K E 


S K E 

^irface of peculiar fornix criiicave from tide lo side and con- 
vex from before baekivardg, by which the tliumh, iirticu- 
iaiing wilh it, is permitted lo have a very wide extent of mo- 

The Metacarpus (between 2 and 2) 15 composed of five 
_one-j. which are calletl by number iiccoidaij^ to the order 
In which they stand; dial «f ihe ihuriib being taken us the 
Ir^t. Each is described as consiattug of a body and an 
upper oTid lower head*. The form of the upper head k 
adapted !o one or more of the bones of the carpus ; thai of 
ibe lower vi in all very convex, tmd ralher narrow. The 
[ly is compressed from side to side, and i*i broader btdiind 
ilmn before, and on its dorsal thnn on its palmar aspect. 
The Gist metacarpal btMie only has free uinbiliiy. 

The Banes of llje Fingers are railed Phabnges. The 

Ihutnb bos two, each of the fingers three. Their form and 

roportionale aizes are pkinl>^ exhibited in Figure III, D. 

Jtiey are articulated with each other, and with tlio meta- 

[cftrpal bones* so as lo permit free extension and flexion, 

Uiiid at the joints between the phalanges and metacarpus 

Kiiere i« also permitted a certain exient of lateral motion, 

fAt that between tbc carpus and tore-arm there is a very 

extensive binge-iike motion of tJexion and extension, as 

rell OS a wide lateral motion. 

The vterieral arrangement of the bones of the human 
Upper extremity is adapted to a far m«ire extensive and 
I varied set of movements than exists in the correqiondmg 
lliiember of an> oiher uniraal; they have all relation to the 
[|>lUc«of the liandj as an instrument not of support^ but of 
[prehensvon, und that in its most per feet form. In this view 
[they arw fullv considered in ihe ariiele Man* 
I Each of the Louver Extremities is formed by a Fetnur, 
fTibia, Fibula, Patella. Tarsus, Metatarsus, and Toes. 
Ftg, 23, 

Tbe Femur, or Thigh-bonGv A, is the largest of the Body* 
I Hi articuliites with the arelabuUim of the Us iivnoroinalum 
I'lty lis bead (IK \vhicb forms rather miJTc than half a jipbere, 
ftnd is smooths e\cepi at iu snmmii, where there is a de- 
[*]>re8sion for an interarUt olar hgoment. It rests upon a 
T aaorrowep part, the Neck (2>, which dtiscends obliquely to the 
summit of the shati, and is at its base somewhat expandt^d. 
It IS here set between two strong processes ealttd Trochan- 
ters, by which ihe shaft i* .surmounted, and its base is 
[.bordered by two ^fbliqne Imes, named lntertroch»interie, 
I tvhich pass' on either surface of the bone, from one lo the 
«>iher Trjchanter* The Greater Troclianter (:V) is the u|ipcr- 
luosr, iinil hes at the outer part of tlie bone; it is thick* 
ruu-h, and strong, and gives aUaLhuient to the great muhcles 
of tlie buttock, liehiiid d is a deep depres'-ion, the Diijital 
Fossa, in which thi." obluiaior and other muscles to rotate 
the thigh outwards are attached. The Les&er Trochanter 
(4) is on the inner aspect ui' the femnr, and also gives a 
point of in-scrtiun for musrles. At the level of the Tro- 
chanters I be shua is naltened both behind and before, but 

below thqjn it is' round and nearly cylindrical, till, withiQ 
one-fourth of its length from the lower end, it expands, and 
ngain becomes llattened. The shaft (5, 5} of each fcinur is 
dii-eiteii rather inwards, and is slightly arched forwards; 
its axis makes, with that of the neck and head, an anglo 
of ahout l^C*; iU surface is everywhere smooth, except 
behind, where there is a prominent line, the Linea o^pL-ra, 
running along the middle* and at either end dividing into 
two, which above go each tg one of the irochonicrs, and 
below each to one of the condyles. These courlyles are tha 
processes in which the lower expanded part of the femur 
terminates. The inner cond}le (6) is the narrower, and 
descends lower than the outer (7), which is the broader and 
Btron^en l^ieir articular surfiices are united in front at ii 
concave pulley-like surface (8), over which the ptitella lies; 
belc»w it ihtfy diverjje, and at the back of the femni are 
separated widely on two \ery convex prominences, betvveeti 
which there is a deep and rough fossa, in which the Crucial 
ligaments of the knee-joint are fixed. On the sides of the 
femur, just above the lower border of the condyle, are 
eminences, the Tuberosities i% 9), io which the external and 
internal la I end ligaments respectively are attached. 

TheTibia, or Shin-bone (F/;?. '23, B), is placed on the front 
and inner part of ihe Leg. Its upper part or Head (I) h 
far larger than any other. Its upper surface is nearly oval, 
its greatest djamelcr being transverse; and it presents two 
slightly concave oval smooth surfaces {2, 2). on which the 
condyles of tlie femur rest. Between I hem is an eminence, 
named the Spine, which fits in between the cond)les. and 
to which, as well as io rough surfaces before and behind 
it, the crucial ligaments and semilunar cartilages ore fixed. 
Below and on the sides of the head are Tuberosities on which 
the lateral ligaments are inserted, and behind the external 
tuberosity is a tmooth oorfaco which articulates with tlm 
head of the flbula. In front, and a little holow them, is the 
Tubercle (-J), to which the li^ramenlum patollfe is attached. 
Below this the body (5, 5) is triangular, iind as it descends, 
becomes smaller: its outer surface is hollowed; its inner, 
which forms the skin,ftlighlly convex; its posterior rounded. 
The outer border gives attachment to an mtcrosseous liga- 
ment, which fills lip the space between it and the opposed 
part of the fibula: the anterior is sharp and prominetU, and 
IS named the Crest. The lower or tarsal extremity is a 
little expanded, and has a somewhat qimdrilaleral form. Its 
outer aspect has a slightly concave surface, which is articu- 
lated iinraoveahly with the fibula; the inner is prolonged 
into a hlunily pointed process, the internal malleolus iti), 
which Inis the iiilenial lateral ligament of the ancle flxt^d 
to its exiretnity, and a smooth surface on its nuter side, 
which articulates with the nstragahis. The anterior surface 
of this extremity is smooth where tendons pass over it ; the 
posterior is ttat; the lower or terminal surface (7) is quadri* 
lateral and slightly hollowed; it rests on and is articulated 
With the astrognlus. 

The Fibula (F/g-. 23, B) is situated at the outer part of ih© 
leg. and is fixed immoveably by the side of the Tibia. It is 
long, very slender, for the' most pait three-sided, and en- 
larged at eilherextremily. The upper extremity or head (1) 
19 the smollcr j it is rounded, and on its upper and inner 
part has an oval smooth surface, with which it articulates 
with the outer tubercle of the Tibia ; the rest of its suiface 
is uneven, for the attachment of ligaments and a tendon. 
The lower extremity (2) is longer and more ijoinied than 
the upper; it forma tlie external malleolus, or outer amle, 
to who^e extremity the external lateral ligatnont of the joint 
is attached, and whose inner surface is articulated with tho 
astraj^ahis; behind it is a deep groove, over which Ihe ten- 
dons of some muf^eles of the leg pass to the fole of the foot. 
Above the malleolus, and on the inner aspect of the fihula, 
is a smooUi surlace* where it is united with Ihe tibia. 

The Patella, or Knee-pan, has a somewhat triangular out- 
line. Its narrowest part is below, and is fixed by the liga- 
ment um patella* to the tubeiclc of the tibia. Its an tenor 
surface is slii^Utly crjnvex, and hsoka fitirous, beini: marked 
by the insertions of the tendons of tho extensor mu^scies of 
the leg ; ihe posterior js smooth, and ilivided by a rid<»e into 
tw« parts, of whirh the outer is the lar<;er. and which are 
adapted to the pulley-like surface between the condyles of 
the femur. 

Thti Tarsus is composed of seven bone«, tiamcly, tho 
Astragalus (iK O^ Calcisi2), Navicutart3), Cuboid (4), In- 
ternal t:3J, Middle tfi>, ftud ExternaV (7) C«neifoim Bope«^ 
Thet,e are set logethet so thalitiIs^i^WB9^yitii*:^^F@ 

S K K 


S K E 

iliglit force^m yet are possessed of considerable elasticity 
The Astragal Qa i& llmi on whicb. througU the TiBia, which 
rtslii upon its upper quadrilateral surface, the weight of ihe 
body first falls. With the Tibia above, ai^t ihd two iiialle- 
oH on either side of it, it forms the ancle-jyitit, a hinge with 
a limited lateral motion. Its lower part rtsis, wilh twii sur- 
faces of contact, on the os cakis, whose hintlev promiiienl 
part (9) forma the heel; and its anterior portion or head k 
rectjived in a cavity, formed by the navicular bone in front, 
part of the os calcts behind, at^d a very strong ligumetit be- 
low and between them. This caviiy is at the summit of an 
arch which the tarsus and metatarsus together contribute to 
fbrm. and of Vkhich the supports are the oi ealcis behinti and 
the ends of the metatarsal bones before. It is indeed a double 
arch, for it has at the sole a concavity, both from before 
harkvrards antl from side to side; and the strength with 
which its several parts are joined i* m great» that few acri- 
dents are rarer than a fracture or dislocation of any of tho 
bones of the tarsuii. 

Tho rest of the bones of the Foot, including Ibose of the 
Metatarsus (% 9) and the Toes, are in number, arransre- 
ment and form very similar to the Metacarpus and the Pha- 
langes of the Fingers, Tho metatarsal bones however are 
longer, more slender, and set more closely side by side than 
the metacarpal ; mid the Phalanges arc all much shorter, 
and (except the two of the great Toy) pmaller. Their 
movements are in general the same a^ those of the fingers, 
but less extensive; neitlicr is there any adaptation for so 
free a movement of the first toe a-S of the thumb. 

For tho remainder of the mechanigra of the bones of the 
leg the article Man may he again referred to. 

There are ^ome supplemuutal hones of the skeleton, 
which need but just be n.entioned, These are the Sesa- 
moid and the Hyoid bones. The former occur within the 
substance or in Ibe cotirse of tendons which are much ex- 
erted ; the patella is the largest of ihem ; the number and 
existence of the others are not certain, hut there are almost 
always two at the first joints of each of the thumbs and 
great toes ; they are small, oval, or round, and rough on all 
their surfaces^ except that by which they articulate with the 
bone on which they lie. The Hyoid bone is that on which 
the larynx is suspended, and the base cif the ton^^ue fixed ; 
it is not articulated, except by long ligaments, with any 
other of the bones, and is described in the articles Larynx 
and Tongue. In relation to many points in this article, 
those on Articulations and Bone may be consulted, a* well 
aa those to whtch distinct references are given. 


SKELTON, JOHN, an EngUsh poet of an antientCum- 
berlantl family, was born some time in the latter part of the 
fifteenth century. Very few pnrticulars of his life aro 
known. The first mention of him is in the preface to Cax- 
ion's iranslation of the ' /Eneid/ printed in U^JO, where ho 
is said to have been IntcFy created poet-laureate in the 
* Unyversite of Oxcnfavde/ This honour was a degree m 
grammar con forrc'd by universities, and not, as is now the 
case, an othco in the gift of the crown. (Warton, Hi^f, Eng. 
Fbeiry, in the account of Skelton; and Malone, Li/e (\f 
Drydeti^ i. 83.) Skcllon was ordained deacon in 149S, by 
the bishop of London, and priest the following year. 
(liegii'^' Savage, Epis^- London,, (|uoled by Bishop Kennot 
in his collections ; Lansdowne MSS.) He was afterwards 
admitted to an ad eundem degree at Comlmdge and allowed 
to wear the dress {hfilniu.%) given him by the king* This 
we must suppose to have been some badge of royal favour 
bestowed on hira by Henry VH » to whose son Henry VIH* 
he was tutor, being esteemed so great a classical scholar as 
to obtain from Erasmus the praise of being * Britannicarum 
Ltlerarum Dec us et Lumen/ {Eptstle to Hmirtf Vlll.^ 
prefixed to his Epigratm, 294, 4to., BasiL, 1518.) In 1507 
wtj find from his own statement in his poems that he was 
rector of Diss in Norfolk and curate of Trompington in 

In the reign of Henry VIIL, if not during the lifetime of 
his predecessor, he was appointed orator regius, as he styles 
liimself in the title to several of his poems, being, according 
to Watton, a graduated rhetorician employed in the service 
of the kine« though whether with any salury does not appear ; 
an one place he is called Reginoe Orator (' Poems), in 
a possage referring probably to the battle of Gurnegate, 

Skelton became nolortous from h\s coarse and bold invec- 
tive agaia.^t Cardinal Wolsay and ihs clergy in general^ but 

according to tradition his own condnci as a prie«! 
from being creditable. He was onteenKnl, observes . 
iAtkefim Oxmu\ in his parish and the dnjctiwf raiire 6 
the stage than the pew or pulpit j hu is said to have 
sus] ended by the biiihop of Nurwich, having been |£UtUr of 

* certain crjmcs, as most poets are. (Wood, /Afdf.» xhm 
crimes alluded to in this passage were probably ^ouaethmg 
more th;tn the mere extravagances oi buffoonery; he is 
accused by Fuller of having kept a concubine, or a w\§m 
(according to Dulafield, ' Anecdotes of celebrated Je&tfiji&» 
&c,, MS. Bod I, quoted by Bliiis, AtL OxQn\ a gmvef 
ofi'cnce at that time. The severe attack upon WoUey iti \hm 
poem, * Why come ye uot to Court?' drew down u|>oti h»m 
the resentment of that great eoclesiastic, who ordered hixn 
to be arrested. Skelton took sanctuary at We^tmixiftler, 
under the protection of Abbot Islip, to whom« ill \b\% he 
dedicated the ' Prseconiura Henrici Septimi/ 

He died in this retreat, June 21, 1529, and was interred! 
in tlie churchyard, with the luscripliun, ' J, Skdtono: 
Vates Pierius hic situs est. Animam egil2l Juiiii, Ao« 
Dom. MDXXIX.' 

Skelton was much thought of in his day. We hm.%m 
already quoted the praise bestowed on him, and * of the hko 
opinion,' says Wood, ' were many of his tinje. Yet tho 
generality s^aw that his witty discourses were biting, hm 
laughter opprobrious and scornful, and hibjoket comojooiy 
sharp and retted ing/ Among the nobility kis patron was 
Algernon Percy, fifth earl of Norihurabcrland, and he haj 
written a long elegy on the death of that nobleiiui.D'» 

The chief of his poems are the ' Crowne of Lawrell ' and 
the * Bouge of Courle,' two cold and tedioua allegoric* ; 

* Why come ye not to Court?* a satire against W^olaey, Mid 
the * Boke of Colin Clout,* " Wore the Hawk/ &e., attacks 
upon the whole body of the church. In other neems 
Henry VlH/s foreign enemies, particularly the Scotch, are 
the victims of his scuniljty, or else some private grudge xa 
gratified, as in his abuse of William Lilye the grammarian. 
Most of his productions are enumerated in Wood*s • AtheniD* 
(lihss), who says he wrote * 51} several things/ According to 
Caxion, in the passage quoted above, he iranalated the 
Epistles of Cicero, Diudorus Siculus, and various Latiii 

Skelton has been called original And inventive. He i» 
rather unique; in style there is no known writer through- 
out our literature lo whom he can be compared. His poems, 
if they deserve the name, present a strange mixture of 
n baldly, learniuji, maUco, and boffuonery, nni-elieved by 
any Iracea of the hi[;her quahtics of satire. The structure 
of his verse is irregular and tuneless ; the language, a motley 
Jar^ron* at once pedantic and barbarous; in the * Boke of 
Philip Sparow,' he complains of the rude and unpoli»ht!t| 
stale of hts imlive tongue, to the improvement of which his 
studied obscunty has certainly not contributed. His Latin 
compositions are wxittcn with comi^arative elegance. 

Hu appears to have been one of tlio carliet^t authors hi 
this country who aildres^ed themsehcs to the nation at 
hirge, rather than to the nobility or to any particular cla^. 
Hence perhaps the grotesque com hi nal ion in hiswoiksof 
classical allusions and phraseology, and of dog^^iel for the 
unlettered multiiude. That he should have been admired 
in an imperfectly civilized age atjd in the dearth of belter 
literature is not surprising, when \\r. consider that in a crisis 
of great political excjtement, such a« I he Ru formation, iinj 
metrical compositions are eagerly circulated winch cmbodj, 
however rudely, the feelings and opinions generally preva- 
lent among the people. 

In this point of view, regardini; them aseminent*v i* r^- » 
of the bold and unlicensed spirit of his lime, we ii 
be interested by the poems of Skelton. They pre.^tu: .;.^.._ 
over a minute picture of the corruptions of the 
Romish churoh, lo the iiifumy find downfall of which they 
probubly much contributtsd, nnd cuntain several allusion* to 
passins^ events whwh are not without historical value, ]q 
the * British Bibhogranher* (iv. 3Sy) there is a full lenglk 
portrait of Skelton in the dres^ of hi!> time, copied froio lh# 
wood* cut in n work of Skeltou's in the Bntish Muieaia 
entitled * A R)ght Deloccable Tratyse upon a goodly Gar^ 
lando or Chapelet of Laurell, by M ay sier Skelton. Poeta 
laureate stud) ously di*vy;^ed at Sheryfliotton Ciii»lell. &c. 
Inprynted by me Rycharde faukes,' &c., 1523, 4to. A new 
edition of the Works of Skelton, wkh an inirodnctory LilW 
by the Reverend A. Dy^^ ^f^^^iji^^^u^ic^i:^^ 


S K E 


S K E 

SKEW-BACK, in tiv\\ engmeennf;. the course of ra»- 
sonry furmiiig rlio aUntmeiU for the voussoirs of a se«:nitn* 
Ul tiich. Of, in iron bridges, for the nbs. Its lite lalior case 
pUte of cnst-iron is usuiilly iaid iipon ibe *tune »kew- 
icks, extend injj tbe whole widih of the bridge, and form- 
ig a lie to ihe masunry. On account of the expansion and 
nlraciiou of iron under cbanges of lempevature. the nbs 
ould not, especially in large arches, Ite fixed to their 
utmetitft. The ribs of Southwark Bridge, over Ihe 
amea, were origmally boiled to the masonry of Ihe pier* ; 
t il was found necessary, on this account, to detach ihem, 
ring ( he progress of the works. 

SKEW-BRIDGE, a bridge in which the passages over 
id under ihe arch intersect eadi other obliquely. In con- 
cting a road or railway through a district in which there 
many natural or artificial watercourses, or in making a 
nal through a coantry in which roads are frequent, such 
mierbectiona very often occur. An however the construc- 
tion of an oblique or skew arch i& move difficult than that 
"one built at right angles, skew-bridgca were seldom erected 
fore the general introduction of railways : it being more 
nal to build the bridge at right angles, and to divert the 
course of the road or of the stream to accommodate it, as 
^presented in Fig. I, in which a 6 is a stream crossed by 
road, the general direction of which is indicated by the 
Line c3. In a railway, and sometimes in a common 

id or a canal, »uch a deviation fVom the straight line of 
direction is inadmissible, and it therefore becomes neces- 
^^ary to build the bii^tge obliquely, as represented in the plan, 
^Ht^. 2, Whore space and nealne'^i^ do not require to be coti- 
^Vdeted, an ubhque arch may be avoided, either by building 
the bridge square with the upper passage, and making the 
span so wide aa to allow the stream to pass under it with- 
out being diverted; or by building the arch square with 
the stream, and of sutiieient len2;th to allow ihe upper pas- 
"" je to take an oblique course over it ; but either of these is 
_ ;lutusy expedient^ although well adapted for some situa- 
tions. The arches or tunnels by which the Birmingham 
railway is conducted under the Hatnpsiead-road and Park* 
street, near the London terminuJi, are instances of the lat- 
ter kind of construction ; the length of the arches being 
such that they present faces sqnarn with the line of rail- 
way, nolwitbsianilm^ the oblique direciiou of the roads over 
them. A similar ca^e occurs at Denbigh Bull. on the same 
line, where the railway cro^iies over the J^ondon and Holy- 
iicad road at such an angle that the difference of direction 
ia only 23", In this case a long gallery is constructed un- 
der the railway, consisting of iron ribs or girder^ resting 
upon walls built parallel with the turnpike road; the ribs, 
and consequently the faces of the bridge, being at right an- 
gles with it* This gallery is about two hundred feet long 
and thirif-four feet wide; and by its adoption, the necessity 
of buildmg an oblique arch of eighty feet span was avoided. 
The necessity of increasing the span of an arch aocordtng 
to its degree of obliquity, by which the expense and difti- 
cully are materially increased, is illustrated by Fig, 3, the 

ground plan of an oblioue nrch across a stream a h. Hera 
it is evident that r^is the arlual span of the arch ; although 
erf, the breadth of the htre^ini, would be the span of a 
sirai^ht arch, leaving the same width of passage under- 

Very little is known respecting the origin of skewbridges. 
It has been repeatedly asserted thai those built by George 
Stephenson on the Liverpool and Munchestcr railway were 
the first crecltoiis of the kind; but this ia certainly incor- 
rect, tht^re being some of earlier date even in Lancashire, 
A paper in the 'Transactions of the institution of Civil 
Engineers,' vol. i., p ISfi, alUides to an oblique arch erected 
about the year 1530 by Nicold, called *ll Tnbolu,* over the 
river Mug none, near Porta Sangallu, at Florence. It ap- 
pears however that the principle up^n which such bridges 
should he constructed was too lUtlc understood to render an 
atierapt at conslructinK them on a large scale advisable. 
Tin; next infyrniation the writer has met with on the subject 
is contained in the article * Oblique Arches," in Rees's 
*- CyclopaDdia ;' an article which appears to have escaped ihe 
notice of modern writers on this biamh of engineering 
scienco. It is written bv an engineer named Chapman, 
who mentions obhoue bribes as being in use prior to 1787, 
when he introduced a greiit improvement in their construc- 
tion. Down to tlial lime, as far as he was informed, such 
bridges had always been built in the same way as common 
square arches, the voussoirs being laid in courses parallel 
with the abutments. How very defective such an arch 
would be may be seen by reference to Fig. 3, in which lines 
are drawn to indicate the direciion of the courses. It is 
evident that here the portion cdfe is the only part of the 
arch supported by (he abutments; the triangular portions 
f:d^ and e//ibemg sustained merely by (he morlar, aided 
by being bonded with the rest of ihe masonry. This plan 
could therefore only be adopted for bridges of very slight 
obliquity, and even then wiih considerable risk. About the 
time mentioned above, Mr. Chapman was employed as en- 
gineer to the Kddare canul, a branch from the Grand Canal 
of Ireland to the town of Naas. on whicli it was desired fo 
avoid diverting certain roads whkh had to be crossed. He 
was therefore led to think for some method of constructing 
ublique arches upon a sound principle, of which he con- 
ssdcred that the leading feature must be that the joints of 
the voussoirs, whether of brick or stone, should be rectan- 
gular with the face of the arch, instead of being parallel 
wUh the abutment* Tlias the courses, instead of taking 
the direction shown in Fig. 3, were laid in the manner m- 

plaiif the 

bridge, near Naas^ crossed the canal at an 

angle of only 39°; the oblique span being 25 feet, and 
the height of the arcli 3 feet 6 inches. Mr. Chapman 
obaervca that the lines on which the beds of the voussoirs 
ho are obviously spiral lines, and to this circumstance 
may be attributed much of the singular appearance of 
oblique arches. The Finlay bridge stood well, but ihe 
ingenious designer did not think it prudent in any other 
case to attempt so great a degree of obliquity, although he 
built several other bridges on the same principle, over the 
Grand Canal in Ireland, and over some wide drains in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire. He recommends carrying up 
the masonry as equally as possible from each abutment, in 
ortler to avoid unequal strains on the centering. 

On the Liverpool and Manchester railway, out of rather 
more than sixty bridges, about one- fourth were built on the 
skew; one, built of stone, conducting the l]|fDf»ili»'T<Ml 
ooroM the liiwat RainhiU, being at an angle oC^ml|r|J^lp 
which the width of apati ifllncreaA^dftom 30 feel^ the #it^*^^ 

8 K E 


S K I 

Lllie railway from wall to wall, to 54 feet, the width on the 
|4)blique face ot the nrch. Skew-bridges have biuce became 
Ijrery curanjon, and some have been erected of even g^reater 
|obhqiiity. That at Box-moor, on the Bumingliara railway, 
||a si a I eel, in Roscoe and Lecouut*s history of the under- 
LfAking, to bo unrivalled for obliquity by any othei' brick 
Tptrch. Its angle is 3 2^ the square ^pan 21 feeti and the 
lobltque span 39 feef. There are aUa brick arches of great 
I obliquity on the Greenwich and BUckwaU railways, but 
' with I heir preciiic angles we arc unacquainled. 

The extended use of such structures has led to the pro- 
[mulgattoti of several methods for forming the voussoirs with 
P accuracy, and dispot-ing ihera in the most advantageous 
r inanner. The commun ihetiry, the credit of whieh is claimed. 
Fwe believe, both by Mr. Nicholson and Mr. Fox, is that ihe 
^^ouraes of the atones should form portions of the thread of 
[m square-threaded screw, or rather, of a thread somewhat of 
fihe dovetail form; the highest point of each thread, or thai 
Pin Ihe crown of the arch, being at right angles to the direc- 
f tion of the road. This theory, it is cotilended by ihe author 
I of the article • Skew-Bridge,' in the recent edition of the 
Encydopicdia Britannica, is imperfect; and he inlitnales 
[that, in the present state of this branch of science, the most 
[perfect way of constructing a skew-arch would be to cut the 
fitones as tiiey are wanted, forming eadi of them in such a 
' manner * that two of its opposite sides, or at least the mid- 
[dle parts of these sides, should be as nearly as possible at 
flight angles both fo the sofTit and also to the direction of 
Mhe passage over the bridge,' Those who wish for further 
I in fur mat ton on this subject are referred 1o Nicholson's 
I pa per on iho Principles qf Oblique Bridges, presented to 
Mhe British Association in 1838; the treatises of Messrs, 
I Fox, Hart, and Buck on oblique bridges ; and the article juat 

From Mr. Buck's treatise it appears that the difficulty 
^Of building skew-bridges increases with the obliquity of 
the angle from 90'' to 4o^, which is supposed to be Ihe 
Dost hazardous angle for a semicircular arch ; but that he- 
jyond that point, instead of increasing, it rather diminishes, 
about 23°« which appears to be about the natural limit for 
i fieroi-cylindrical arch. Mr, Buck, whoi^c experience ren- 
ders his opinion higiily valuable, considers ihal oblique 
ftrches of the elliptical form should not be attempted, as 
they are delkicnt in stability, more diflkult to execute, and 
aore expensive tlian semicircular or segmental arches. 
The construction of skew-bridges of iron er timber is 
fccomparatively simple, the ribs or girders i>f which such 
■bridges are composed being of the usual construction, laid 
parallel with each other, hut the end of each betiig in ad- 
viince of that next preceding it. Fig, 5 represenis the 
ground-plan of such a bridge, the doited lines iudscalin^ 
the situation cf the ribs upon which the platform is sup- 

porled. The extraordinary iron bridge by which the Man- 
chcsier and Birmiiighara raihvay is conducted over Fair- 
flu Id-strGet, Manchester, at an angle of only 24^^, ts a 
fine example of this kind of skew-bridge. It cotisists of 
BIX ribs, of rather raoro than 128 feet span, although (he 
widih of the street is only 48 feet, reiiting upon very mas- 
sive abutments of masonry. The tolal weii^ht of iroh in 
this bridge, which is cont»idcred to be one of the finest iron 
arches ever built, is 540 tons. It was erected from the de- 
sign ot Mr. Buck, who has constructed severed oiher oblique 
bridges of great size and very acute angles. Timber bridges, 
formed of trussed ribs or girders, are built on the satne 
principle. One of very greai obliquity, on the Sechill rail* 
way, is represented in the second series of Breed's Railway 
Practice, A somewhat similar mode of conslructing skew- 
brid^res in brickwork has been introduced by Mr Gtbbs on 
the Croydon radway . The Jolly Bailor bridge, which crosses 
over this line near Norwood, consiais of four t-eparaie ribs of 
brickwork, each forming an elliptical «rch of 5ti feet span, 
With a versed sine of 18 feet 6 \wi\m, tuppoiiing a tlut 

viaduct of Yorkshire Hogslones. Each of tbeBei' 
are three feel wide on t lie transverse face, is buiK 
so that the brickwork is of the stioptesi kind ; but by 
ing the respective abutments project beyond each ptii 
according to the oblique direction of the railway, tlie rjib 
taken collectively, form a £kew-arch. In a bridge erecto,^ 
by Mr. Wood ho use on the line of the Midland CounlJ^ 
railway, the same principle is adopted, but the ribs 
placed close together, so thLit tio platform of flagstones 
required. ' 



SKIN. The Bkin, or derma* is ihe outer covering of tL 
budy ; and having to serve at once as a defence for the nior, 
deeply sealed structures, as an organ of touch, and ms afl 
apparatus for secretion, it is one of the most compound < 
ail the tissues. 

It is composed of two chief parts: — a vascular basu 
named Cutis, and a superfieial layer named Epidermis i 
Cuticle, which is not \«i5cular. The cutis is made up foa. 
the most part of fibre.^ and lamiua>, like those of coEnmaj 
cellular tissue- They are much more densely woven 
the surface thaci in the deeper pari of tbe skin: in Ibfl 
former they constitute a very tough and elastic cob 
membrane; in ihe latter they are arranged in irre 
large cells, which in muderotely atout persons are fillei 
fat, but in the emaciated are collapsed, and form a lo<S 
(hicculent white tissue. Thi;* general form of structure pre 
vails through the whole skm j but in different parti of thi 
body, and si ill more in did e rent persons, the densiiy an 
thickness of its layers, the size of the cells, Ihe ouantit 
of fat which they contiiin in the deeper parts, and the Qtic 
ness or coarseness of the tissue composing them, vary ec^nJ 
siderably. ■ 

The external surface of the skir^ presents a variety 
wrinkles. Tho krger of these are produced by the aoUol 
of muscles, which in many parts throw tlie skin into folds 
others result from its loss of elasticity in old age» and tin 
removal of the fni beneath it; and again others, which 
seeii most plainly on the pulms and the balls of the fingu 
and on the corresponding parts of the foot, run in verj' cloi 
parallel arches, and indicate the arrangement of subji 
rows of sensitive papilla", with whitdi the whole surfi 
the skin is beset, and which in the parts just name 
in some? othcrfi, are arranged in regular double lines, 
their most developed state, on the balls of ihe fin^e 
example, the papilla? areveiy fine con icnl pTocesses, standini 
jtoraewhat obliquely, and Fo'dunsely si't, that ih-^s u^.r 
form a seemingly smooth surface. On those ] 
vaied line which one sees on the surface has i> .. . 

rowsof pa|idlae; for when looked at closely, each eucU 
shows on its summit a little furrow doited with minute 
ture*, and which fits into the space between the rows _ 
papilla). Over the rest of the body the papillae arc inucli 
smaller, ami are irregularly arranged. Everywhere bow- 
ever they are the most vascular part of t}ie skin, each j»«- 
pilla receiving a distinct loop from the subjacent network ol 
blood vessels. It is \\\ Ihem also that the greater part of tlt4 
very numerous nerves of the skin terminate; for lliougk 
every part of the skin bo sensitive, yet the papillije are so la 
the highest degree, and are the chief instruments l»y whicfti 
the seuso of touch is exercised. [Senses; NerteJ It it 
through their being so much developed, thiit the tijisor iW 
fin^-crsare adapted fur the perception of the finest impress 
sions of the sense ; though even they have less delicHte p©f- 
ception than the tip of the tongue, on which similar' 
larj^er and more painted papilla? are set. 

The chief secretory ajiparatus of ilie skin consifts of 

perspiratory glands, whicli are disposed over its whole «l^ 
tent, but, like the papillae, are largest and most n - 
in the palms nnd soles. By looking on the surfar 
cuticle covering these part's, one may see, especm^v vu 
warm day. or when perspiring' IVeely, a number of tninul6 
orillces between and upon the tops of the arched ri 
already described. These are the orifices of the 
by wliieh the perspiiation is secreted, and sornetiitioi 
may sqoeexe thioogh ih*im a drop of the clear crjitll 
fluid which (he glands produce. Each oritlce leads *lo « 
fine tube of somewhat ess diameter than itself, which 
passes down throu-;h the epidermis, and inlo the deeper 
parts of ihe skin, making on its way several ftplfal turns, 
and ending in a slightly enlarged i5l^c^ M*^_|fn ihe sole 
each such lube tiJake«:;%0feli|Qf.2l><QQARw; in the 

S K 1 


S K 1 

palm, from 6 to 10; in oiWt parts, ft-wer : in the riglit hand 
the spirnl turns art* raatlc from left to right ; in the lefl, from 
Lfigni to left. There are about 25 of these orifieea m a 
fiquare line of ibe surface of the lip of the fure-finger; and 
I'bbout 75 in ihe same space between the bases of the fin- 
fgera : taking therefore tie whole superficies of the Ijody at 
rl4 squire feet, it is probable that, as Ewhhorn calculafed, 
nliere are not less lliuii tenniilltons of Ihebe glauda scaUered 
llirougb the skin. 

It i» in them that ibe perspiration is being constantly 

formed, though it most generally passes away as fast as it is 

j)rtHluced in an tnvisible vapour^ and during beulib collects 

In the form of sweut only when it is very rapidly formed^ as 

luring active exercise, or when the surrounding atmosphere 

tis already saturiled with moisture. The Iluid of the per- 

$|ii:aii'jn is composed of water, with very small quantities of 

hpnimal and saUue ruainur, some free lactic acid, nitrogen, 

Plnd rarbonic acid. By thus re movintf carbonic acid from the 

rT)loi>d, the skin is, next to the liiu^s* ihe most important and 

[Essential excretoiy orjiaii of the budy ; some recent cxperi- 

fients have p^o^ed that animals prevented from terspiring 

pie of suBbration asi ceriam!y» though not so rapidly, as when 

?heir respiration is obstructed. The t|uantity of perspira- 
ion secreted amouuis io about two pounds in -4 hours; but 
\\i is liable to considerable variatiotiS, according to the hubits 
rof the mdividuah the state of the atmosplierOi the activity 
Vof other gUitds, such as the lungs and kidneys, and olheV 

Another secretion from the f^kin is that of the oily seba- 
Lteous matter by which its surface i^ always kepi in a slight 
[ degree jjreasy, so that water adheres to it only in drops, 
^ and does not easily suak into the substance of the epider- 
mis. The sebaceous glands by uhich this sucrelion ia pro- 
Uuced* as well as the hair-follicles on which they are almost 
ftlways attendant, are already described. [Hmh.] 

The loss of lluid by these sccretigns from the skin Is in 

otne measure compensated by the absorption which it also 

b\ercise$. It is uncertain how much, if any, of the vapour 

pf the atmosphere around ns in tlius imbibed; but it is 

crtahi that the skiu ab^orbs lluids plai ed for a short titue 

l|i contact with it, and this so rapidly, that (especially after 

[>n|C fiistiii^) a perceptible increase of weight is observed 

^f^er a person has been mimersed in a ba:h. The obstacle 

a more constunt and t on-jiderabiC absurplion of Iluid is 

nearly iujpeneirablo layer of epidermis; and hence the 

^ubstunces must rapidly absorbed are those which most 

ily pa^s through it, such as water, after having been 

Imbibea into its rleepest layers, vapours of sulphuretted 

^ydrogen, hydrooyamc ai-id, Ste , oils rubbed upon it, or 

Driosi\ca which destroy its texture. 

Besides its secretions, theic are produced from the vessels 
^r the skin materials of which are formed cerlaiu appen- 
dages for its protection and other purposes, such as the 
b^ulicle, the hair, and the nails. 

The cuticle, or epidermis, is an insensible and non-vas- 

^nlcvr membrane, which is laid over the whole of the exter- 

l»^iiurface of the body in a layer, the thickness of which 

_^iried accordini; to the protection required for the well- 

5«m!( of ih© subjacent cutis. The under surface, which 

|ies next to the cutis, is accurately fitted into all its irregu- 

Drilies, and sends piolongatinns down uito the interior of all 

Its glands and follicles ; the outer surface, which is exposed 

jlo friction, is comparatively smooth. The epidermis is cnra- 

bosed of several layers of cells : of the two layers mto which 

it may commonly m an ordinary dissection be split, the 

lower is called rete mucosym, or rete Malpi^hii; the upper 

kod outer, m^re particularly, epidermis* In the deeper layers 

|he epideimis is composed entirely of miuute polyii^onal 

ells* adhering by their edges, and contaiiiing nuclei and a 

|liin tluid; in the k)*ir& nearer ihe surface are cells of the 

arae kind, but larger aod Hatter; and those on the very 

buler surface are dry and sealc'like; they have lost almost 

ill trace of form, and becoming loose, are removed by 

riction at exactly the same rate as, under ordinary circum- 

Lf lances, new cells are produced at the surface next the 

cutis. Thus the cpideimis is subject to constant and raptd 

change: its cells, as fast as they dry and are removed in 

the form of scurf [Scurf] from its exterior, being replaced 

'^hy new ones at its interior; ami thus, whatever waste 

(Wkthin certain limits) it is subject to, its thickness is not 

diminished, but rather, as the waste is increased, so ia its 

^tlilckness* till it attams that degree which is competent to 

the protection of the subjacent cutis; as any one may see 

P. C, No. 1370. 

in the palms of his hands, soon after he has begun to occupy 
himself in a more than usimlly luborious handicraft. 

The epirlermis is the seal of the characteristic national 
colours of the skin, as well as of the colours of fiTcckles and 
other superficial marks. In dark-complexioned races, espe- 
cinlly in negroes, it is very thick, and its cells are filled wit I, 
minute black or otherwise coloured pigment-granules, many 
of which also lie loose araouE^ them. The thickness of tho 
epidermis in these tribes renders it less penefrabW by the 
ra3's of heat ; and it is hence (and not on account t f its rolour, 
which would have an opposite effect) that a ncpm cun bear 
the exposure of his skin to a degree of solar heat which 
blisters that of a European. 

The hairs are already described in a separate i rticlc* Th^ 
naihs are thin lammro of horny tissue, prodi ced by tho 
cutis on the back of the ends of the t^ngei i and toes. 
Under each of the more perfect of the nails, si rh as tlioso 
of the fingers and the great toe, the cutis hn i a peculiar 
structure, called the matrix of the nail, competed of largo 
sHarply pointed and very vascular papilt©, w lich at Ihe 
root are arranged irregularly, but at the body of the nail nro 
placed in clohc-set rows or longitudinal radges. By all this 
vascular surface the substatire of the nnil is produced in 
minute cells, which subsequently coalesce aii I form the 
dense, obscurely fibrous, and transparent masi of the body 
of the nail. The cre&centtc opaque part at th a root of the 
nail owes its wliitencss in part to its own subHance, which 
in the deeper layers is softer and more opaque ban in those 
of the body, and in part to the surface beneath it being less 
vascular than the rest. 

The under surface of the nail is grooved or otherwise 
marked in correspondence with the matrjj. to which it 
closely Ills; the outer surface, exposed to fiction, is com- 
paratively stnoolh, though still it presents traces of the 
ridges in which, when il was at the nnder mrfacc, it was 
formed; for the nads are produced in the s^.me method as 
the cuticle; as fast as their exposed surfaces or their cuds 
are worn away, they are replaced by layers growing from 
the matrix ; and the whole mass of the nail, growing at 
otice from below its body and from its rod, is constantly 
pushed forwards and thickened, at the vety same rate as 
Its free extremity is cut or worn down, and its body thinned 
by friction. 

SKINNER,, STEPHEN. M D.. born ir,23, died 1667. 
a skilful physician and a very learned philologist, lie was 
born in London or the nei^^hbourhood ; stud ed in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, where he was a commoner ot Christ Church ; 
but the civil war coming on, he left Oxford without taking 
a degree, and tiaveiled abroad, occasionally remaining some 
time at the foreign universities. In JG-16 he returned to 
Oxford, atid took the usual academical deg ees ; after vs^hicK 
he again went abroad, livinj; in France, Italvt Germany, 
and the Netherlands; frequenting the courts of princes and 
tlie halls of the universities, being highly esteemed both for 
liis learning and his general deportment. He Uiok the 
degree of MD. at Heidelberg?, and atterwaids at Oxtord, in 
1656. He then settled at Lincoln^ where he engaged ia 
the practice of medicine with great success; but his career 
was short. In the beginning of autumn in 16^7 febrile 
com plain is were very prevalent in Lincolnshire, and he, 
among others, was fatally attacked. He died on the 5lh of 
September in that year, at the offc of forty- four, to the great 
regret of his friends, to whom the innoreiweof his life and 
the cheerfulness of his disposition had endeared him. 

His early decease waa a great loss also to the world, for 
he was applying his vast stores of philological knowledge 
to the illustration of tus native language; and had mado 
no inconsiderable progress in a work which was designed to 
serve as an etymological dictionary of the languai;e. This 
manuscript came after his deaih into the hands of Thomas 
Honshaw, Esq., of Kenainirton, who had a disposition to 
the same kind of studies, and who made additions to it. He 
also superintended the publication of it, which wasi eflbeted 
in 167], iu a folio volume, under the title of * Etymulo- 
gicon Lin::uae Anglicanae,* Dr. Skinner's work has the 
greut dttsadvantaije of having been left unfinished by iho 
author, who, it may be presumed, would have struck out, as 
well as added, as his knowledge advanced and the general 
principlcj* of philology became more distinctly perceived 
by him. which would probably have been the cose bad b© 
proceeded in Ins wurk. As it is, it ii tube regarded rathiyras 
containing auetdotes gf tbe Ismgiva^ iha|i as^fa^t^jT^fff^ 
body of English etytj^ologics; li'iit^H Cuivtams itti^ 

Vol. XXII.— N 

S K 


S K U 

Tal^mestt^^SSi Ion s, and many lutei" Eiif^lish etymologists 
have middle ubc of his labours, tlie etyniologtcnl pari af Dr, 
Johnson's DicUonury h almost wholly tlerived from Skinner 
anrl Junius. 




SKORUDITE. Cupreous Arxem'ate of Iron. Occurs 
crystallutHl ftnd massive. Primary form a ri^ht rhombic 
prism. Cleavage parnllel 1o the primary planes. indi<%tincL 
Fraclure uneven. Htirdness, seratches carbonate of Itme, 
and is spiatcbofl by fiuor-span Rather hrittle. Culoitr 
bluish-gre^n of different degrees of intensiiy, also bkcki^sh- 
green, brown, and black- Streak white. Lustre vitreous. 
Transparent ; translucent; opa^tne. Specific gravity 3*162 to 

Ma^Mvs vnrietiۤ, globular; fibrous, radiating. 

By the blow-pipe gives arsenical vapours, and fuses into a 
globule attracJed by the mapfnet. Found in Com wall. 
Saxony, near Hutteaburg in Carintbia, Braril, &c. 

Analysis by — 

Arsenic Acid . * 33*5 Arsenions Arid . . . 31-40 

Oxide of Iron . . 27'5 Protoxide of Iron . . 36-35 

Oxide of Copper , 23*5 Protoxide of Manganesje 4'00 

Water , , . . 19 Sulphuric Acid . ♦ . 1'54 

Silex (matrix) . 3 Lvme 2-00' 

- — " Magnesia 2*00 

98-6 Water IB'UO 

Ganguo ... . 1*40 

It would appear that different substances have in this, as 
in other case*, been culled by the same name. In one ana- 
lysis we have arsenic and in the other arsenions acid ; one 
comains no oxide of eupper, and the other no oxide of man- 
panew3, A specimen examined by R. Phtlhfs contained 
no copper- . 

SKQVOEODA (known in the Ukraine under the name 

L^f Gregory Savvicz, or Gregory the !?on of Sava) waa born 

Riout 1730, of poor parents, m a village near Kiew, where 
tn&falher was subdeaeon or parish clerk* He was adtnUlcd 
at the age of twelve years into the ecLdesiailical academy of 
Kiew, in the capacity of a servant, but was soon allowed to 
attend the lectures there, in ronsideration of the talent 
whifh he showed. After obtaining; the reputation of bettig 
the best classical scholar of the plare, and m vain soEcitnig 
permission to go abroad, he set out on foot, without the 
knowledge of his superiors, for Pesth, where lie cummencetl 
the study of the German language, nnd in stx months was 
able to profit by the lectures. His account of Ihesc 
lectures however nhows them to have been very ineflRcient, 
and moreover the farae of Wolf was then at it^ height and 
attractiim students fiora every part of Germany to Halte. 
SkovorodS went to Halle, w!iere he devoted three years lo 
metaphysical and theological studies; and that his country 
might profit by the advantages which lie derived from threijrn 
leurnini^, he made at this time translations from the Homi- 
Iti^^ of St. Chrysostom, and composed moral fables wliieb 
have been handed down orally by the inhabilanls of the 
Ukraine, the surest possible test of their popularity. After 

* |bur years he returned to Kiew, but was not re-admitted 

ilo the acadomy* nor appomied to any post in which his 

ftncrj^ics might find e'^eicise. Upon this he applied lut^iself 

ho nut (gate the persecutions of the United Greeks, cnncern 

^ng whom a few details are necessary. 

This sect had arisen in Russia from a kind of politico- 
ire hgious compact between the Holy Sec and the sovereign of 
luhsia about the year 16 10, for the purpose of reducing 
tussia under the papal dominion. In order to effect this, 
the two powera established a medium sect; partly Romanist, 
partly Greek: the pope sent Jesuits to teach the nece%sary 
doctrine; and the ernperor Wlndi^law, by a power over the 
consciences of his pev>ple which we can scarcely understand, 
imposed this body of doctrine as the creed of the provinces 
tin the Under of Russia and Poland, whose situation had 
alreadv expo»«ed them to the Jofluencos of both parlies. 
The Unites (as I he members of I he Greek Church who ac- 
knowledge the supremacy of the pope are called in Hussial 
bad aheady ajipeaied in the norilv ofliuly, in Illyria, and 
Croatia; but nowhere under timdar circumstances. lu 
Hus^ia this &eet became a sort of rally jnf^j)oint for the 
ttiembers of both churches, teaching the Russians gra- 

dually to confound distinctions of doctrine, and so lo think 

little of the purer faith and system handed down to theta 

by their ancer.lors. It has exjsied to the prescT't ' - 

and so late as J 840 the emperor of Russia, by a di-i 

power as strange as that which he exercised on^..,^ .,, 

decreed that the United Greeks should exist no more, BmI 

in the reign of Catherine 11., under which Skovorod^ li^ed, 

the oppression of the inhabitants of the Ukraine (who hod 

lost the privileges guaranteed to them by Peter the Great 

after the battle of Poliava) had so far spoiled their disposition, 

as to render them willing in their turn to o| press any one whg 

was weak enough to fear them. The United Greeks, who 

had from the commencement of the sect lived under ibe 

protection of the thioae, were selected as the objects of their 

peraecution. The most rational way of check n»g these i>er- 

secufions was to deairoy ihe spirit which gave them birth. 

To this task Skovorodl appUed himself: in the mtxrd 

character of priest and minstrel, he proceeded from vilta^n 

to village through Ins native Ukraine* preaching ihe wordt 

of peace, singing' the religious aongs which he had cotnpo^^l 

for them, and inculcatinti the same truths under the attr*c- 

live (brm of fables. Still he constantly refused to head ib^ 

sect of the Uniles, as his object was not to create or foster 

schism, but merely to give both parties the benefit of hit 

lessons. By this time the intluence which ho had justly 

acquired had pleaded strongly in his favour, and the acm- 

derny conferred on him the vicarage of his native village. In 

Ibis station he prohibited all rigour ayainst the perfecciiied 

Unites, and endeavoured to gain them over by his doctrinef, 

which were enforrcd by on eloquence unequalled In the puU 

pit of South Ru>sia. This at the same lime gave an tmpul^ 

to the clergy of the province, which however unhapptfr 

ceased with his death. Even when ordered by Ihe syncl, 

he refused to use the means of persecution, and bis refusal 

led to his ejection from the cure which his exertions had a* 

greatly heneflied. His occupation being gone, he re^olfvd 

to indulge a long*fclt desire to visit Rome, the ntirse of 

doctors and confessors, and to view her who, in bis eyes, had 

been glorious as the queen of nations. But altnosl imtr^' 

d lately on bi-a arrival iu that city lie wa5 recalled by the 

nows of fresh persecutions at liome ; bis works however »Iiow 

what an impression Christian rather than Pagan Ri:mid 

had left on his mind. His return again checked the ft,r? 

of the oppoj tie parties ; but his exertions, though *uc( 

ful, were only working out his own ruitK The jinihj 

the court at Si, Peterst>urg cuuld not allow n ?^int'l^' mi 

vidual, hi a cause however humane, to stand in ti 

its vieWH, He was con-^idcred as a rebel, and vi 

his apprehension were issued, which he evaded by (akiti;; 

refuge at the country residence of a noble who had of 

pressed liim to become tutor to his son. This i«anctUJ 

feudal power could not be invaded oven by the im 

authotiEy, and he miebt still have lived in a dn 

sphere of usefulness but he died at the early age 

eight, and iradilions say that he foretold his own il 

day before it occihred, and ^ug bis j^rase in thr* 

unwilling to give this last trouble to the friends to wii-i.. ut 

thought lie had long enough bet^n a burden. 

He was the only author in Little Russia who has jet 
written in prose : his work called * Symphonon * is a tohtary 
instance of that kind of composition, and it has the advan- 
tage ovt^r the works written in Great Russia in being foimcd 
rather on the antient Greek model tlian on that of the Latin 
or German lunguages, a style of which Lomonossof was the 
founder. His translations have been already noticed. Seme 
original essays in the Latin and Huiisian languages, vhirh 
remain, show much good taste and elegance, w itli a gr^i-l 
extent of reading, qualtflealions which were little ktn) 
his age or country* Willi the exception of the eo 
Bong-i of war and love, all traditional songs of ihe pi'i 
day are attributed by the bandurists (the troubadours of the 
Ukraine) to Skovonidii. 

The object of this notice is to rescue from utter neglect 
the name of one who in bis exertions resembled Felix 
Neff (whose name and character have become generally 
known ihrough the memoir of the Rev. W, S. Gilly), bul 
has still further claims on our notice as the founder cif • 
national literalure. 

Further details, garnished with all the romantic circtim* 

stances with which tradition loves to invest itd heroes, UkM^ 

he found in the * Mo^kowski Telegraph/ 

SKULL. [Skeleton.] T^^^^T^ 

SKUNK, [WEAsai^iqzed by VziOOglC 








'K, [lIlLBWiDES.] 

& K Y Li G H l\ I ncl udi iig uii'ler th is term every mode of 
aJmilUui^ liglit hitti an a]jart[Dent through its roar or ct;il- 
insr» we may liere biietly iiolictj Uiat ])anieulai* fahhiuu of 
sk>|ii»ht distinguished in Goiliic archhiictine b) the numo 
of Laiilein. tbougli laiileina in GuUhc biuklirigs weru iioL 
so much intended to admit liLjlit, as ttj supidy ventiliiliou 
and the means of eiicape to srnoLet Acconltugly llieir 
side^ were generally Wft unglaaed or open, wbunce anch 
Ijimem* wore diiilingui&hed by the name of Louvre {fnu- 
veriii »nd tbougb no longer n-quiicd for its onginal pui- 
po^, ttfter fireplaces were inliodufcd, ibo laiilern was siill 
retiiined as a cbanicierislic ieatuie uf ilie ball, ntil only in 
munastic and collegiate, bat also in domestic arcliileciure, 
wlien ihiU aparunent showed itself uxtenially as a dialinct 
portion of ibe building, being carried up as a small tiirrtt 
ri'ini^ out of the ridge of ibc roof. The lanlurn ovcjr ihe 
luiU of Ibe Middle Temple, London, is an exampte. Lantertis 
*>r Ibis knid appear to have been invaiiably polygonal in 
}d*iii, octa^^onal oi hexagonal, and had upeitures or wiudows 
on all sidui«. But the term lantern iti occasionally Uiied in 
two other signiftcationis; it is applied to the lewei part of a 
to ver placed ai the intersection of the tran^^epts *uth the 
Wdy of ft church* which» being Mpcn below, foims a 
I ufiier portion of the interior^ liylued by windowjs on each 
side; and again to an upper open stoiy, lliat i:4, one en- 
lirdy filled with window*, on the bunnnit uf a lower, and 
frequently forming a superstructure diflerent in plan from 
the rest, a^ at Foihcrnipy Chunh, and that at Busstun, 
Lutcolnshue, in both wineh e\araptes tlie laniuin forms un 
octagon placed upon a square. The upper portion ol the 
towor of Sl Dunstan'ii, Fleet Street, lAjndou, uiuy also be 
described a& a lantern. 

Of skyli-bis however, properly bo called (that is, which 
are nearly \n the »unie plane m the general auiface of the 
c-5dm*f )» or of lanterns intended to light the whole of an 
interior, without other windows in it«i s^ide walls, no exam- 
ples are to be met with in our aniient archiletrture; not but 
that skylights might be, and probably in bome caije^ have 
been, iniioduced tmobnildiugs in the Pointed style, wiiiiout 
doing violence to its chtuaRler, by ineiely perforating some 
al the compurtmenld and tracery in a groined ceiliuE^. As 
one iniitance at Uast of ihft kind, we may mention the con- 
servatory I hut was at Carlton House, whirh had a roof of 
fdn-tvacery, designed after that of Henry Vll/s Chapel, tlie 
whole of which wu» perforated and lllkd in with glass; but 
QA the ceding itself was low, and three sirles of the building 
consisted entirely of windows, it conveyed only an ini] tor feci 
idea of the effect that might be produced in an inleriur of 
tlie kind, if lighted froiu above only, pariicnlarly if the per- 
forwled parts of the ceiling were I! I led iit with stained glas:*, 

NotwUhstandmg both the variety as to design and decora- 
tion of which skylights arc suscepiihlo, and the p*clure*t|ue 
ciffeci produced in an interior where the light falls in from 
above, so far from hoving been turned to account for archi- 
tectural parposea, and studied as ornamental features, ^ky- 
lighLs have generally been coiisider-ed and treated its mere 
slijfts and expedients in building, excusable only when re- 
sorted to from necessity, and for inferior rooms si to a led 
where it was impossible to obtain side- windows. Hence 
scarcely anything on the subject, hardly the bare raenlion of 
skylights, is to be met with in architectural works. In Italian 
buildings such mode of lighting rooms is almost unknown, 
tfven where it reconnmends itself as being greatly preferable 
to that by side-wmdowii^ nnd in fa«H scarcely less than in- 
dispensable, as ifi the case with sculpture and picture gal- 
leries, staircases, and libraries ; and though, as regards these 
liui, it is not very material whether the light is admitted 
from the side of the room or from above» the second method 
is attended with this advantage, that it allows the bookcases 
to bii continued on all sides of the room* 

For rooms in general, the plati of lighting them from the 
eedmg would not be practicable; yet» where suitable oppor- 
tunity offers, it should be adopted, not only for the sake 
of variety of effect, but also as affording great scope for 
4irnamental design, ^ 

Scarcely anything of the kind occun^ in Italmn architec- 
ture, except it be in the form of a cupola over a central 
•aloon. [SaloonO Neither is the very best effect usually 
Studied in Italian cupolas and domes, the light bein*^ gene* 
rally admitted partly through small apertures in the con- 
cave of the dome itsell; or through a mere lantern on Us 
summit, atid partly through upri^jhl windows in the lam* 

hour or cylindrical wall immedinlely beneath it; insteaj of 
being concentrated and ditl'u^ed through a single hiig« 
opening, as in the Pantheon at Rume, whit»h, llmu^h pro- 
fessedly so mut'h admired, has very rarely indeed b« *#vi fol- 
lowed as a model by the architects of Italy. The same 
remark applies \u their folluwtrs in other cotintries; .vo liir 
from stndiouhly availing them&elves of oppiiriunilies of 
lighlmg interiors from above, and varying the means uf 
accomplishing it according to the particular ucca^ign or 
dcihign, they haNO rather avoided everything of the kind. 
Eveti where it would seem the most direct mode of obuiin- 
ing light, as in the case where a dome is iniroduced, the 
efTet't that might be so produced is more fre((uenll) than 
not quite neuirah.^^ed, if not destroyed, by the chief light 
being derived fium lateral windows. Of this we liave an 
instance m Si. Stephen's, Wulbrook, which, whatever merit 
it maypo6i*es9 in regard to proportions, most a^&uretJly dot's 
nt^i exhibit the mast refined taste, the small oval huUs 
in the walls, serving as windows, being in fact so many 
blemishes in the de&ign. In that nnd moat other examples 
of the same kind the lantern is so narrow or small m dia- 
meter compared with the dome, that it seems as much m- 
fended to obstruct as to admit light, nnd applied rather with 
a view to external than to internal etfect and utility, — as an 
orchitecturai finish tolho outside of the dome, than in oitler 
to light the inside of ihe building. 

It seems indeed a strange kind of perversene&s, that while 
lighting interiors entirely from abuve lias been employed 
nut only for picture and sculptuie galleries, but also for 
concert-rooms, leclurc-roomis and other places intended to 
accommodate an auditory or congregation, it should hardly 
in any instance have been a]iplted la churches, though by 
gelling rid of aperlures in the walls, noises and sounds from 
the street would be excluded. If the style of the building 
be GoihiCi such mode of course becomes out of I lie ques- 
tion ; for wuidows in the walls iheniiieUes are then essen- 
tial, being not only characteristic teaiures, but one chief 
source of decoration, while owing to their being divided by 
mullions into compartments, and more or le.^s filled up 
wiih tracery, the glare of light is propi'iiy ailempDred* 
Wilh regard to other slyles* Grecian or It ilia n, the caj.e is 
widely ditrertsnt: in them the windows are internally no 
betier than so many gaps — mere ^'lazed apertures, which, 
so fur from cantributing to decoration, hu\e not even any 
kind of finishing bestowed upon them, neither architrave, 
inonldingH, nor cornice^. 

The only instance that we are acquainted with of a church 
lighted entnely from abDve, wiihuut lateral windows, is that 
of St. Petei-le-Puor, Broad Street, London, which is a ro- 
t Lin da, covered by a cove, and a large circular lunlern, whose 
tambour foiTus a sort of cleresiury, cousislinj; of a conti- 
nuous series of arched windows, while the ceiling makes a 
very Hat or slightly concave dome. In point of design this 
example is not poiiicularly tasteful, but the princijde de- 
serves attention. Other ideas of a smiilar nature have occa* 
sionully been thrown out, ibough not cariied to the same 
extent: the centre of the interior of St. Mary Woolnoiirs 
is covered by a square clerestory lantern, having a large 
semicircular window on each of its sides, — a peculiar ifv pro- 
bably forced upon the architect rHawUsmoorJ on account of 
its beinij desirable to have no windows on the side towards 
Lombard Street, and it is only to be regretted that any 
were allowtdi on the opposite one, as the whole interior 
would have been raaterially improved by the amission of 
them, A more recent instance is llint of Hanover Chapel, 
llegent Street, London, which has what may be conve- 
niently distinguished by the term hmteru dome, viis. u dome 
where the light is admitted neither through a smaller lan- 
tern, or other aperture at its apex, nor lhrou|^h windows in 
a tambour bcnealh it, but by a series of windows or glazed 
panels in the lower part of the concave of the dome itself, 
similarly curved, and iherefore narrower at top than below. 
Taken by itself, this h a very pleasing feature of the inte- 
rior, but itseffeirt is counterauled by the numerous windowg 
on the sides, which, in addition to being mere plain openings 
in the walls, destroy all architeclurol repose, by the spotty 
cross-tighis which ihey occasion. Under &uch circumstances, 
it i:i to be wished that the architect could not possibly obtain 
light except from above. Fortunately this is smn«limes the 
case, if not m regard to churches, in other spociuus ipart- 
menls, where it hasi \i^^^\\ turned to more or less account m 
the design, and the i^eccssU)' of Vi^btiiig cUtin, if not nn- 
mediately from the ct^^\\u^* ^,}ffi^u%y**^ tJ^^^glig'^^ 

S K V 



of the walK baa given rise to new ideas and novel architec- 
luml combinations, Soane was, wc bplieve, almost ibe first 
who at I em pled fo give importimce and decora live cbtiructer 
lo skylighis and ceiling windows^ or windowed cetiinys, as 
tlic) nuny bo termed* making; tbera ornamenfal features in 
hia interiors, varied in their desifjn, anfl producing]: great 
diversity of striking effects, occasionally lieighlened by ll*e 
light beinjT Iransraitted through timed glass, so as to dif- 
fusic a warm sunny glow over ihe aparlmenl. The offices 
at Ihe Bank of England afford many s^ludies of ihe kind, 
while his own bouse (now the Suanean Maseuni) ^hows 
what he accompVislied by a similar mode of Ireainienl upon 
a very limited f^eale. It cannot be said llral the tuste which 
he otherwise displayed in infernal architecture, even in 
those instances, was llie most refined, for it was cxceedinsily 
unGf|iial ; yet many valuable bints may be derived from whiiit 
he did m that way, and it seems to have had the ^oud result 
of inducing; others to render such method of lighting in- 
lerioss highly effective and ornamental 

How very different that which is essentially the same 
mode in itself, becomes, arcordinjj as it u treated, may be 
seen in two examples which resemble each other ijo nearly 
in some other respects, ibat the comparison hetween them 
bcromes the more inslructive, and the contrast ihe more 
striking* We have in London two narrow streets of shops, 
exclusively for foot passengers, covered in abuve» and con- 
8eC[uenily liyjhted through that covering; hut while that 
termed the Burhngton Arcade is no more than an ordinary 
skylight — just what may be seen in a workshop — continued 
fi-om end ta end of the building, the roof uf the Lowiher 
Arcade is for rood into a series of arches and elegant pen- 
deniive domes, each of which terminates in an eye or circu- 
lar skylight. Somewhat similar to this last, ibough less 
ornamental in design, is the roof of the Arcade or Gallery 
on the west side of the Italian Opera hou^e. 

The simplest and most ordinary form of skylifrht consists 
merely ot a sash or framing fixed into an aperture in a roof 
or cediUfT, in a slanting dnection, in order to throw off the 
rain, and either of ont. or more planes according to its size 
or other circumstances. If square in plan, a skylight of 
this sort is usually coraposetl of four triangular surfaces like 
a low pyramid; if oblongs of four sloping planes, after the 
in a n n er'o f a hipp ed roo f, w i th a r i d jre. So nie t i mc 9 1 bo w h o 1 e 
of a room, or other area, is covered by a glazed ceiling of the 
kind, merel^' divided into such number of compartments or 
separate lights as its rensiruciion may require, as is the case 
"With a portion of the Corn Exchange, Mark luue. The effect 
lio^vever then becomes rather that of an open court than a 
covered hall or room, on which account, convenient as it 
may be in peculiar cases, it is not al all adapted fur apart- 
ments generally which may otherwise require to he so lighted, 
and leajsl of all for such as are intended to be cluefjy used by 
night. Vet \ihcre the object is nut to admit light into 
a ceiled room, but merely to exclude the weather from what 
must else he an une^jvered court, s*ucb glazed roof» may 
very pvo\ierly be applied ; and it is rather sir angje there shouht 
he no intention of so coveiing in the area of the new Ruyal 
Exchange, and thereby protecting it from rain and damp. 

To attempt to desciibe all the various forms of skyliglits 
and lanterns that have hitherto been employed, wtmbf re* 
quire considerable research for exflmples q{ ibcra, and also 
ibal plans and other delineations thould be f^iven of some of 
the more complex designs. Such a systematic and complete 
elucidation of the subject would form an inleresiting architec- 
tural volume. Here, on the contrary* we can merely advert 
to aorae of the principal varieties. Those more generally nsed 
for picture galleries, libraries, and other apartmenTs of that 
class, are al?o the simplest in form, being lanlerns, not like 
those in Govliic architecture, of narrow and straii^ht propor- 
tions, but spacious and low, and occupying: a considerable 
surface of tbe ceiling. The light is admitted tbrotigh the 
sides of ibe lantern, which are mostly filled in with panes of 
glass, so as to form a window continued on every side, with- 
out other divisions than the bars in its frame work. The 
shies of the lanlein are made either vertical or sloping; by 
which latter method more light h obtained, the upper coilinij, 
or that of Ihe lantern, being thereby reduced, as compared 
with the opening of I be lantern itself. Therefore in such 
cases its sides may be curved, instead of being made merely 
eloping planes. The upper ceiling should be coffered, or 
otherwise ornamented in accordance with the lower one, 
and rather in a greater than in a less dcfrree, both en ac- 
^oiltit of iU formittg a compartment where decoration Is 

looked for, and because the enrichments bestowed upon it 
display themselves to greater effect. Where, as will fie- 
qnentiy happen, more than one lantern is required, the 
centre one may be larj^er, that \^, longer than the othets* 
and somewhat lofiier also, besides being more or les? distin- 
gaished from them in its decorations. If a room be covffti 
and also lighted from above, the lantern may occupy iii« 
whole horizontal surface, so that its ceihng becomes In A 
manner thai of the room. 

Of other forms of lanterns and s.kylljrhts in picture an6 
sculpture rooms, examples are furnished by lno«e at the 
British Museum, National Gallery, and Fiizwdliam Mu- 
seum, Cambridge, some of which are double skylightA^ a 
smaller one being raised over the first one- In a small 
octagon room in the second building^ there is also :in in- 
stance of a lantern dome above a square opening in the 
ceiling : which kind of contrast is the reverse of that shown 
in one of Soane's buildings, where a square lantern is seen 
through an oval opening beneath it. Among other novel 
citnlrivanccH, Soane occasionally introduced narrow sky- 
ligbts or glazed panels around the ceiling of a room, n»>l for 
the purpose of lighting the whole of it, but of obtaining a 
strong light immediately on the upper part of the walls, 
and on pictures in that situation, an cSeot remlered the 
more striking in consequence of such openings being- made 
above the general level of the ccilinf^, and therefore in some 
measure screened from view. At oiber times he occasion- 
ally placed a lantern immediately upon the walls of a room* 
that is, he carried up the latter above the roof, opening ivin- 
dows in it on every stde, immediately below the ceiling. 

Somewhat similar to, altbough also different in efTert 
fn^ni, the mode just now pointed out, of admitting light 
through openings in the border of a ceiling, is that of ab* 
tuining it through the cove of a room, as has been done hy 
Barry in the saloon of the Reform Club-house, where the 
whole of the cove is perforated, and filled in with small 
panes of cut glass, so as to produce a rich diapered surfaew 
throughout, Once adopted, the same idea may be varied in 
a great number of ways, by making separate ajH^rtures^ for 
instanre, in the cove, and Rtling them in with Plained glu^jt, 
so as to produce the effect of painted transparent panels, 
which eRect might be rendered oven still more striking by 
night than by day, by means of lamps or gas-burners placcS 
outside. That the same mode of lighting at night might 
be ai^pUed in other cases is sufficient ly obvious. 

There arc a variety of otber modes of lighting rooms from 
their ceiling*, which we have not yel mentioned, and some 
of which it would be ditlicult to describe intelligibly by 
words ; we shall tlierefore merely notice one or two of them 
in general terms. Of an arched skyhght ceding, divided 
into compartments by intersecting ribs, an insiance i? f nr- 
nistied in one of the offices of the Bunk of England, built t 
few years ago by Gjckerell, and shfiwn in tbe * Companion 
to the Almanac,' for IH36. Tho roof of the Pant boon 
Bazaar. Oxford-street, on the contrary, though ^Uo arched, 
is treated altogether differently; for instead of being gtaxcd 
along its centre, it has a series of sashes or glazed paneU on 
each side, as shown in the small section of it here given 

Trnii5«rfc S^^tioa of tlie G^l^i^itfljIJ^v^ 




Tlte Uitlcrloo gollery or saloon M Windaor Can lie lias a 
lull tern ceiling of unusual (IcAEgn, not so much on account 
vf ihe iiL}k* of flecoratiLUi, us v( its armngement and the 
inotle in ubich ibii light is admitletl. The only oilier 
iusUnce we shall ndd, arul it dcservfts to be nuticed fur 
the novelty of the idea, la ilmt uf a skyligbl in a shop at 
SouUiamptont foruiinyr a dome raised uix>n four columns, 
^quanj in its ^dan, and semicircular in suction, and enurely 
(lUed in wiib stainc^l glass of vairiou:) colon is, form nig q 
mosaic pattt^tn in tlio x\lbanibra style, exccnlet!, we be- 
lieve, from designs by Mr. Owen Jones. 

SK.YROS (£jc*>jootK an island in Ibe/Egean, lyinir to tlie 
cast of Phalasja in Negmpuiite, and lo the west of P=iim, 
but nearer to the former, in 39* 10^ N, lat. aiid 25" 12' E, 
longf. The earbest inhabitants were Pelasgians and Carians, 
accoriliug to Nicolaus, quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus 
t^Kvpv^\ and Dobpcsi (Thucytl,, i, 9SJ. Homer records I he 
cu|ilarc of il by AcbtUcs ilL, x, 604), who is Baid lo have 
bet?n dis#?ovejfed there disgai^ed in female attire befjre the 
Trojan war* Theseus was i^oni into exile to this island, 
and ^vas muidered by LyromeiJes, its liingj who ber a tno jea- 
lous of his popularity. ( Pausan.. iii. G.) In 470 hx. d was 
taken by Cimon, when ibe inhabitants were enslaved, and a 
c\do!\v was sent Ihidier fiom Adicns {Tliuc)d., i* 98). bnt not 
in consequence t^f the tJiacle which directed the removal of 
tho banes of Theseus, as Pausanias asserts, for the dtdivcry 
of ihe oracle and the disinlermeal did not lake place till 
six or seven yt^ara after the capture* It afterwards passed 
out of the hand^ of the Athenians^ but was ret^tored to them 
by the peace of Autalcidas. u c. 38G. It wa^ taken by De- 
uictrius PuliorteteSj and again given to Athen:> b,c, I'Jfy, in 
Ihe treaty between Rome and Phihp of Macedon. (Livy, 
XKxii). 30s\ 

In the division of the Greek empire by Constant! ne For- 
i>livr<>ffennelns. Scyrus wa^ placed in the Thema j'Hge&um 
l*elagus, and in the S) necdemus of Flierocles, in the Pro* 
vineia llclladis AchaiiD, After the taking uf Constantinople 
by the Latins, it was seized by Andrew and Jerome Gtzi^ 
Il at'tcrwards formed part of the duchy of Naxus, and 
flnajiy of the Turkiih empire. In IS'13 the Skyrioles were 
among the islanders who renounced their allegiance to llie 
Port^ and repukcd the troops sent aifninst them with great 
slaughter. This island was husvever restored at the elose 
of the Greek war to the Turks, by the protocol of 18*iU. 

According to Dapper the bearings of Sky res are as fob 
l«jws: — Ten or eleven leagues to the noilh of Cap Mantelo. 
the soutli-eaiit rape of Eubcea; on the east it is gixleen or 
eightccti leagues from Lesbos, and the name an tlie north- 
east from Lemiios; and on the north -west six or seven 
leagues from the island of Skopelo. Tournefort slates the 
circumference at sixty miles. On the west «ide is a large 
bay, with several islands ai the mouth. The huibour here 
is called Kalaraitza by the Greeks, and by the Italians Gran 
Spiaggia. Opposite to this, on the other side of the island, 
14 Port Akbili. Tlie islhmus between these two points 
divides the island into two parts ; the southern portion is un- 
cultivated, full of high mountains, intersected by deep 
gulltes, ond nigged and bare, except at their summits, 
where they are covered with oak, fir, and beech. 

Mount Cocyla, on the east coast, a little to the south of 
Port Akhili, in 258!^ feci high, atcordinj^ to some auihonties. 
At Ihe soulhein exlrerauy of the hhnd is a port called 
Trimpoychais, a corruption of Tre Boohe, or the three 
mouths. It is surrounded by wooded hida* and has three 
entrances, the one on each side bemi^ abaut one- third of a 
milo in width, and the middle one rai her ncirro wen They 
arvif ail safe and deep. There is about twenty fathoms water 
in Ibe centre of the harbour. 

The northern division of the island is less mountainous. 
The town of St. George, on ihi; east coast, covers I ho 
north ami west sides ot a liijih rocky peak, which termi- 
nates obruptly on the sea. On the table summit of this 
hill are tko ruins of a casile built during the middle agcB^ 
and many houses, all abandoned, wlucli are u^ed by the 
inhnhitatits to keep stores in. The houses of Skyrusare Hat- 
f oofed, of two stories, the lower of stone, the upper ef wood, 
surmounted by terraces covered with earth. This hill was 
Ihe s*te of the antient .\cropolis. Ttie remains of Hellenic 
walls mny be tracerl round iho edge of the preei pices, parti- 
cnbirly at iht^ north end of the caslie, and others halfway 
down the |M3Qk, or among the modern houses. The grealor 
part of the anlient city lay to the east, near the sea. In 
ihh direct ton there is a large semicircular basitioli a'imost 

entire. Tliencc Ihe wall k continued along the slope above 
the sea as far as a round tower, half of which is stilt 
standing. Beyond I his are the iremains of anoUier tower, 
and a wall from each connects the city with the sea, like 
the long walls of Athens and other anlient cihes, Tour- 
nefort iFot/tt^e dti Levant) makes mention of the ruins of 
a temple of Pallas near tlie town. This goddess was wor- 
shipped lie re, as appears from *Statius (yfrAf//, i. 265). 

In the neighbourhood of St.Geor^re i> a plain four squar* 
miles in extent, which bears eorn, grapes, and figs. There h 
another ai Kalamitza, which is also feilde. Oil iho gieep 
ground in Ihe north part of the island madder is grown. 
The wheat of Skyros equals in quality that of any itland In 
the .i^gean. Its produciions are, HJ,t^UO barreb of wine in 
a good vintage, ihrec fourths of whit h are exported; la.uOO 
kilaof corn, StJOtl of which are exported; 5ao kanthars of 
fasulia; 2i\m okes of wiix ; SOOO okes of honev; 100.000 
oranges and lemons ; and 40U kunlhais of madder There 
are a few oxen, and about 15,000 head of sheep and goals, 
of which 2000 are annually exported. The taxes are 'iO 
purses, paid by 500 families luitig in St. George, 1 here 
are three baiks bclonijing to the island, and luiinv felucras 
built with Uie fir of the mountains. The oak timl>er is only 
used for file wood. {Leake's Travels in Northern iJreece.) In 
IS 13 Scyros had 12 shit^s, with an average loniuige of H)Oi 
average number of crews I'J ; of caiiuou 4. cPouquevillc, 
Voyage da n s fa Grect\ ) T he i n 1 lab i t a n t s u re go od se,i rn e n . 
and fotid of the chiiae. They retain more antient customs 
than most of the islanders in the Archipelago, and are at- 
tached to the early Greek traditions. The memory of 
Achilles is still preserved m the name AUiili (*A^(XXa,>>'K 
Skyros was much cetebratcd atnong the aotienis for its red 
and while marble, which, as Strabo informs us, was used ut 
Rome in preference to white marble, (Strabo, 437, Ca^aubJ 
Thijre is a bishop, who resides in the de^-'eited part of Sl 
Gcovj^e. His see is dependent on I hat of Rhodes. Tourne- 
fort mculions two monasleries— St. Gegrf^c and St. Dimilri. 

SLANDER consists hi the malicious speakimj of such 
words as render the parly who speaks tliem in the hcajiiii^ 
of others liable to an atlion at the juit of the parly to whom 
they apply* 

Slander is of two kinds; one, winch isaclioDable, as ticrna- 
sariiy importing some general damage to the i)ariy who 
ia slandered; the other, which i^ only actiotiable where it 
has actually caused some s^pecial damage. The first kunl 
includes all such words as impule lo a party the commission 
of some crime or misdemeutiLHir for which he might legally 
be convicted and sutler punishment, either bv ihe general 
law, or by the custom of a particular plat e. as wheie one 
asserts that another has commit led treason, or felony, or 
perjury, Stc. It iilso includes such words spoken of a 
party, with reference lo his o I lice, profession, or trade, as 
impule to him malpractice, incompetence, or bankruptcy; 
as of a magistrate, that he is piirtial or corruitt ; of a clergy- 
man, that ' he preaches lies in the pulpit ;' of a barrister, that 
' he is a dunce, and will get nothing by the law ;^ of a pliysi* 
cian, that * he is an empiric, a mountebank ;' of an attorney, 
that * he kalh no more law than a goose, bull.' S;c.. or that 
* he is no more lawyer than th." devil;* of a trader, that he 
has failed, or uses deceit in his trade, &c. ; or that charge 
a parly \viih having, at tho tmie being, an infectious dis- 
ease which prevents his having? intercourse with others; 
or that lend to the disheiison of a parly, as where il is 
said of one who holds lands by descent, that he is illegi- 
timate. Where a party is in possession of lands which he 
desires to sell, he may mainlam an action against any on© 
who slanders iiis title to ihe lands; as by staling that he 
is not the owner, or that unolher has a lease of the lands 
oris in possession ofa mortgage or other incumbrance upon 
tliera. With respect lo the bccond diss of slander, llio law 
will not allow damage to be inferred from xvords which are 
not in Ihemselves aciionable, even aUhongh the words are 
untrue and spoken maliciously. But if, in consequence of 
such words being so spoken, a parly has acl^ually sustained 
some injury, he may maintain an action of slander against 
the person who baa uttered ihem. In such case the injury 
must be some certain actual lobs, and it must also arise as 
a natural and lawfnl consequence of speaking the words. 
No unlawful act done by albird person, although he really 
was moved lo do ii \^y \\\q words spoken, is such an injui*y 
as a parly can recov^ij for ^^"^ ^^^^^ uctiun. Thus, the loss of 
the socie'- — ^ — * 

to some 

jty and eiutj^* '.^wtiG^''^^ o! fneuds, ofai^ appointment 
ofece, the Viv ^)\ ^^ % wanmee ^iigage^i^e^^ ^mi 



S I, A 

by Uic islaiulcrcr^s Riatement, nrc injunt'S for which a j^aiiy 
may recover dufooges. But he can have no action ht'c^ause 
in Cinmet|uende of sn«h statemenl cei'tain persons^ to use an 
illuslnilion of Ijonl E\lenborougli's^ * liavc ihitiwn him iiUo 
a horse-pond by way of punishmetit for his suppoiietl trans- 

With respect to both kinds of slander, it is immaterial 
in whut way th« eh urge is conveyed, whether hy direct 
statement, or ohliquely, ashy qiiL'stion, epilhel, or exclama- 
tion. But the acliml wtn«k used must be slated in the dc- 
olavalioti» and upu[\ the faifuie to prove them as staled, tho 
plainfiflT will be nousiiited at the trial: it is not sul^cienl 
to slate ihe meanini^ and inreretjcp of the woids. They will 
be iiiterpieted m the sen&e in which th^y are commonly 
used, but whete they are su.*repljble of twa meanings one 
innocent, lire other defainaiury, ihe innocent inteipretation 
is to be preferred. Where Wurd?» aie eiiuivocal either in 
Iheir meaning or I heir apiiltcation, a parent helical explana- 
tion may be inserled in the declaration. This is called an 
innuendo. It may be employed to explain and defi(it\ but 
not to enlarge or alter, the meaning or applicali<jn of ihe 
woids spoken. The declaraiiun must stale the pubheatii>n 
of the wordi«, ihat is, lijat they w«re spt»ken in the hearing 
of others, and spoken maliciously. Two rannot juin in 
brinj^ing on© action of slander, except in the case uf husband 
and >*ife, or of partners for an injury done to their joint 
trade; nor can an action be brought agaui»t tuo, except 
a husband and wife, where slandemns words have been 
spoken by the wife. Where an action h baunyht fur slan- 
derous words s|>okeTi of a party relative to hi* otllce or pro- 
fession, the declaratiun must state that he was at the lime 
of spciiking tho words in possession of the office or engaged 
in the profession. And where ihe knowledge of extrnneous 
facta is necessary to show the application of the slander, 
thc^e hhould be stated in the introductory part of the de* 
cl oral ion. 

In answer to an action of slander the defendant may 
plead that tlje words spoken were true, or that they were 
spoken in the course of a trial in -a court of ju^tit^e, and 
were p*^rtiEent to the case; or formed Ihe tiubjeil of a con- 
ftdentia! communication, as where a party on appliealion 
h<m(i Jlcfe states wh;it ho believes to be true relative to the 
characler of a servs^nl, cr ntakes known facts merely for 
the purpose of honestly warninj; another in whom he is 
interested, (Cum-, Dfg., * Action on the case forDefama- 
lion,* D. I. SiO 
SLAKE, [Mkatr.] 
8LANRY. River. [Wexfokd.] 

SLATE. By some i;eolugical writers the laminar struc- 
tures which [irevail in many straitfied and in some meta- 
morphic rocks are called slaty or schistose; but, in con- 
secjnenceof the progress of investigation, oite of these slruc- 
tutes, locally superinduced tii deposited strata, which is cha- 
raelerized by planes of cleavage generally meeting those of 
deposition at considerable angles, is specially called the slaty 
Blructure, If, ui tho diagram below, c, *, ^ represent in 

lection a series of deposited beds of clay {c\ sandstone (.?), 
and nodules of limestone (O, nil dipping, as the arrow S 
(south) indicates, at 20^: Ihe hnes which cross tliese beds at 
oblique angles, and are more hi^'hly inclined, as in ihe 
arrow K = Gn", are the edges of Innumerable parallel 
planes of cleavajje, which are conlinuons through the finely 
orgillaceous beds (T ; more or less twisted in and about the 
limestone nodules ^; more or less interrupted by the are- 
naceous tieds *, or represenfed therein by lines more nearly 
reciangled to the t^lane of deposition. The Uw here indi- 
cated of ihe waiu of coincidence in the planes of cleavage 
and deposition is almost univei sally observed in nature. 
Nearly uoriionlal strata are crossed by inclined cleavage; 
highly incUned strata are traversed by nearly vertical cIcav- 

Bge. In strata which dip different ways from an axis or lo 
an axisjhe cleavage planes are sometimes found to be paral* 
lei ihroughoLit the mass on both sides of the axis; and even 
where strata are variously contorted, tliey are frequeiiiljf 
dissected through a ^reat part or the whide of their nias4 
by cleavage planes parsing in one direction. Hence the 
conclusion is obvious that this slaiy struciuie, this niotio- 
hedral symmetry (if we may not call it crystallizaliou), it 
the fruit of a general cause acting subsequently to the do- 
position and disturbance of the strata, r^ipable of pcr\ading 
and rearranging \\m particles so as to polarize and systems* 
\\7x their mutual aitraciions, but not to fuse them togetWra 
destroy their original distiuciness, or obliterate the evidence 
of iheir original condition. This force was so ^enerahtbal 
along many miles of country* as, for example, in the vhole 
Suowdonkan chnin, one pariicular direclioii (north-north- 
oust), in North Devoti and Pembrokeshire another (neajrly 
east and west), is found to prevail more or less distinctly in 
all the rockij ; though, as before observed, arenaceous mnd 
pebbly beds are least iutiuenced by it, and Itmeatones ate 
unequally and variously allected. 

I'his dependence of the slaty structure on tho nature of 
the rock is sometimes very positively pronounced, &s in 
some classes of rock the cleavage does change and even re- 
verse its inclination where contortions prevail. (Thi^ li 
very observable in some cases of cleavage in the old red 
sandslone of Pembrokeshire.) On a first view it appears to 
be equally dependent on geological time, since it is pnt> 
cipally among the older strata that it is well exhibited on a 
large scale: but on this hc^d doubt arises, when we find 
the Silurian rocks, which are not slatv at Ludlow, become 
so near Llandovery ; Ihe old red- sandstone slaty in Pem- 
brokeshire and not i^o in Monmouihshire; the n)t>un tain 
Umestono bbules slaty near Tenby and not so in Yorkshire; 
the lias shales slaty on the northeru slopei of the Alps, btti 
not so in England. 

There are then local comlithm which influence the deve- 
lopment of slaty cleavage, and it is essentjal to a general 
sidulion of the problem which this structure involves, thai 
these conditions should be deteirained. Proximity to rack» 
of igneous origm has been freely oppealed to fur this pur* 
pose; but ibis appears an insnfticiont and not i ficn appU- 
cuble cause. The most general condition which has occurred 
to our observation is the fact of remarkable disptacemenl 
of the strata on one or more anticlinal or synclinal axe* \ 
and it is of consequente to this inference to remark that 
very often, approximately or even exactly, tho horizon lal 
edge (* strike' J of the inclined cleavage planes coincides with 
the axis of movement (and therefore with the strike) of tho 
stratification. Pressure In some peculiar application ap- 
pears to us to be huh ca ted by all the phenomena iiS the 
grand agent in Ihe production of slaty cleavage. Only one 
tolerably successful effort has been made exparimentally 19 
reproduce this structure by art. Mr. R, W. Fox has caus<Ed 
electrical currents to traverse a mast of moist clay, and baa 
observed in consequence the formation of numerous Q&sures» 
more or less similar to slaty cleavage, in planes paraH*jl la 
the vertical bounding surfaces of the mass, and at Kight 
angles to the electrical currents. The exact application of 
this experiment is not understood. Perhaps however, con- 
juinvd with the admission that the great movementa of 
slruta, by which apparently slaty cleavage was determnied, 
depended on disturbed equilibrium of internal heat, which 
might, or rather must, have developed electrical currents^ 
this solitary experiment may be the commencement of m 
right mode of more extensive inquiry embracing the roany 
circumstances of chemical nature, stratiied arratigemeDt, 
disturbed position, and proximity of igneous rocks, which 
must all be included in a good theory of slaty cleavage. 

For economical purjjoses there appears liitle chance of 
obtaining in the British Islands good alatif (properly so 
called) from any but the aniient argillaceous strata super* 
posed on mica schist and gneiss, and covered by old i^- 
sandstone or mountain limestone. From these strata in 
Scotland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Yorkshire, Charn* 
wood Forest, North Wales abundantly, Souih Wales, De- 
vonshire, Cornwall, iho north and ^oulh of Ireland, »laies of 
various value are dug. The thin tlugslone of llu' i la* 

lion in many pans of England and Wales, ili d 

sandy limestone of Stonestield, CoUywiston, fitc, niiicn are 
often called slates, and are exleniivcty uaed io jrjtofing, aie 
all obtained by natural ptirhingf pftralle<w(£lb^rm@lcation. 
TruQ slale ti st^lit by wedges from the apparei^iljy ^hd rock 







along pi lines often no more discoverable llian those of a real 
crystal. In colour it is purple, blue, green* yellowish^ or 
almost white, or niriped across tho plantij. In some slates 
(west of Scollandi Iiigleton* &oO crystals of cubipal iron 
pyrites are scattered. Much of the Cti in berland slate np- 
pears fwll of fragraents f Borrodale), and somee^intains chi* 
aatoUte (Skiditaw), 

SLAVE, SLAVERY. The woM slavery has various ac- 
ceptations, but its proper meaning seems to be the [•ondilion 
of an individual who is not master of his own actions, and 
who is also the property «>f anulher or others. Such was I he 
condition of the Vservi/ or slaves amon;j» the Romans and 
Greeks; such is still that of the slavey in Eastern cuuntiies, 
and that of the negro slave'* in tinmy parts of Africa anti 
America. A tnitigatcd form of lliJs cundrljon exists in the 
ra?e of the serfs in Rtissia and Puland, and of a similar class 
in India am! ^ome other parts of A sin. The Russian and 
Pulish serf is bound to ttie soil on which he is born ; he 
may be sold or lei with it, but cannot be sold away from it 
without his consent; he is obliged towoik three or four 
days in the week for his master, who aHows him a piece of 
loiid, which he cultivates. He can marry» and his wife and 
cinldren are under hij* authority till ihey are of age. He can 
bequeath his chattels and savings at his deatli, Hitilitb is 
protected by the iaw. The real slave» in the Greek an I 
Roman limes, had none of these advantages and securities^, 
any more than the negro sl^ve of our own times; lit? win 
bought and sold in the market, and was transferred at his 
owner*^ pleasure ; he could acquire no property ; all that he 
had was his master's ; all the produce of bin labour belonged 
to his master, who could intttel corporeal punislimenl upon 
him ; he had no right of marrying ; and if becuhahited with 
a woman, he could be separated froui her and his cliildren 
at any lime, and the woman and children sold; he was, in 
short, in the same condition as uny ilomeslicated animal. 
The distinct ion therefore between the slave and the serf is 
essential. The villeins of the middle ages were a kind of 
serfs, but their condition seems to have varied considerably 
according to times and local iues, and in many cases it ap* 
pears to have buen more advantageous. The villaniorcoloni 
were in a lens dependent condition than the adscript itii, or 
than the actual Russian and Polish serf^. This subject 
however is treated under Villeinage. Servitude of every ' 
kmd is now aboli-bed in the greater part of Europe. In 
the present arlirle we treat only of ihe real slave of antienl 
aod modern timesf^ 

Slavery, properly so called, appears to have been, from 
the earliest ages, the condition of alarge propoiMion of man- 
kind in almost every country, until limes cumparatively 
recent, when it has been f^radually abolished by all Chris- 
tian states, at least in Europe. The prevalence of domestic 
slavery constitutes one great difference between an lien I and 
tModijtrn society. Slavery ejiisled among the Jews : it existed 
before Moses, in the lime of the Patriarchs; and it exi-tcd, 
and still continues to exist, all over the East. The ' ser- 
vants^ mentioned in Scripture history were mostly nticondi- 
ttonal and perpetual staves : lliey ^vcre strange^^;, either 
taken prisoners in war or purchased fmm the neighbouring 
nations. They and their ofiisprinj were the property of their 
raaater*. who could sell them, and inliict upon ihum corpo- 
real punishment, and even in some ca^cs could put them to 
death. The three hundred and eighteen servants born in 
Abraham's own house ( Genexi$, xiv. 1 4) were of this descrip- 
tion. But Iho Hebrews had also slaves of their own naitun. 
These were men who sold theraselvts through poverty, or 
ihey were insolvent debtors, or men who had committed a 
theft, and had not the means of makmg reslituiion as re- 
quired by the laws, which was to double ihc amount, and in 
some rases much more. {Erodwf^ x\iij Not only the per sou 
of the debtor was liable to Ihe claims of the creditor, but his 
right extended aI«o to the debtor's wife and children. Mo^es 
regulated the condition of slavery. He drew a wide dislint- 
tion between the alien slave and the native servant. The lat- 
ter could not be a perpetual bondman, butmi*^hlbc redeemed; 
and if not redeemed, he became free on the completion of 
ihe seventh year of his servitude. Again, every tlfiy years 
the jubilee caused a general emancipation of all native 
servants. During the time of their servitude ihey were to 
be tfeated witii kindne*=s: * for the chddrpn of Israel are 
servants unto nie,' saith the Lord. * Both tliy bondmen a«d 
thy bondmaids which thou shall have shall be id" the hea 
then Umt are round about you, of them shall you buy 
bondnaen and bondmaidji. Moreover, of the children of the 

strangers ll>at dosojnurii among you, of them shall ye buy, 
and of their families that are with you which they begat m 
your land; and they shall be your possession. And ye ^liall 
take them as an inheritance for your children after )ou, to 
inherit them for a possession, they shall be your hondrnen 
forever; but over your 1 rcthren the children oi Is rat- 1 ye 
shall not rule one over another w*ilh rigour. And if a ^o- 
jouinor or simnger wax rich by thee, and thy brother thai 
dwellcth by him wax poor, and soil himself unto the stranger 
or sojourner by thee, or to the slock of the stranger's family, 
after that he is sold he may be ledeemed agiiin* one of his 

brethren may redeem him And if he be not redeemed 

in Ihiee years, then ho shall go out in (he 3 ear of the jubdee, 
both he and his children with him/ {Leviticus, %\\\ 4-4-51.) 

The sources of the supply of slaves have been the same 
both in antient and modern times. In antieni tiiops alt 
prisoners were reduced lo slaverj", being either distributed 
among the otfhers and men of the conquering army, or sold 
by auction for the benet^t of the troops. In very reriuile 
times, when the early jliolian and Ionian colonics ?etiled in 
the islandtj of the/Egean Sea, or on the coast of »^sia Minor, 
it was a frequent pru-^tice viLh I hem to kill all the ndult 
males of the aboriginLil population, and to keep the wives 
and children. As however dealinff in slaves became a profit- 
able trade, the vonqviished, instead of being killed, were sold, 
and this was so far an improvement* Another source of 
slavery was the practice of Uidnopping men and women, 
especially youn^ persons, who were seized on the coast, or 
enticed on board by the crews of pirate vessiila ; nnd most 
vessels were piratical in ihe earlier ages. The Ph<pnicians» 
and the Etruscans or Tjirhenians. had Iho character of 
being menstealers; nnd also the Cretans, Cilicians, Rho- 
dians, and other maritime states, Anotlier source was, sale 
of men, cisher by them^elve8 I h rough poverty and distress, 
or by their relatives and superiors, as is done now by th« 
pelly African chiefs, who sell not only their prisoners* hut 
often their own subjects, and ovon their children, to tbn 
«1nve dealers. Tlie sale of Joseph by his brtthreu to the 
Midianite or Arabian merchants, who sold him again in 
E^ypl, is a proof of the antiquity of the practice. 

The sequel aUo bbows, tliat in Egypt, nnl>ke most othcc 
countnes of antiquily, tho life of a slave was prolecied by 
law ; ftjr Joseph*s masler, when he had reason to believe 
him guilty of a heinous offence, did not put him to deaths 
but sent him to prison, there to await his trial, and ihis in- 
ference is confirmed by Diodorus, who, in speaking of iIjq 
laws of the Egyptians, say^, that whoever murdered a man, 
whether free or slave, wras punished with death. 

Among ihe Greeks slavery existed from the heroic tiroes, 
and the purchase and use of slaves are repeatedly mentioned 
by Homer. The hnnsehold of Ulysses was served by !-laves, 
ovtiT whom their master had fiower of life and deivth, The 
use of such domestics however was conllned, in those early 
ages, to the bouses of the gieat, ^^Ilt> alone could afloid the 
pvircliaso money, A» war snid piracy became riequcut, 
slaves taken or bought became more plentiful and cheaper, 
and they were chiefly employed in handicraft ^nd hou?ehold 
labouis. The labours of husbandry were performed income 
instances by poor freemen for hire, hut in ino-^t pliices. es* 
pecially in the Doric stales, by a class of bondmen, the de* 
srendant&of the elder inhabitants of the country, resem- 
bling the serfs of the middle age^, who lived upon and cul- 
tivated the lands which the dominant or conquering race 
had appropriated to themselves ; they paid a rent to the re* 
spective proprietors, whom they also attended in war. They 
could not be put to denth without trial, nor be sold out uf ihe 
counlry, nor separated from their families ; they could ac- 
quire property, ami were often richer than their masters. 
Such were the Clarota3 of Crete, the Pencsla* of Thessnly 
Proper, and the Helots of Sparta, who must not be confounded 
with the Perituci, ur counlry inhabitants of Lacomca in gene- 
ral, who were political subjects of the Doric ctimmuivuy of 
Sparta, without however being bondmen. [Spart,\J In the 
colonies of the Dorians beyond llie Hiuits of Greece, thecosidi- 
tion of the conquered natives was often mote dej^raded than 
that of the bondmen of the parent states* because the for- 
mer were not Greeks, but barbarians, and they were reduced 
to ihe condition of slaves. Such was the case of the Kulli- 
rioi or Kallikurioi of Syracuse, and of the native Bithynians 
at Byxantium. At Hevaclca in Pont us, the Mariimdyni 
submitted lo the Greeks on condition that they should not 
be soli beyond the bordersi and that ihey should pay a fixed 
tribute to Iho ruling w„c©, ^<-^ j 

Digitized by VaOOQ IC 


The Doric states of Greece bad few purdmscd slaves, but 
Aibens, Coiiiilb, and oilier com mercial slates had a large 
liuiober* who \vcr« moslly nalhes of barbnmuh countries, 
nccmding to tbc Greek pbroheolosfy. The slave po|iulain>n 
in AUica hos been variously cisUnialcd as to numbers, and 
it vuried of course cmisiderably at different periods, but it 
appears ibat iu Albums, at leaijl m tbe lime of its greatest 
power* I bey were much more numerous tban tbis ft-eemeti, 
fATHENS.] From a fragment of Hyper ides preserved by 
Sutdas {v. « ;ri^7^f aaro), tlie number of slaves appears to 
have beou at oue time I5U,UI)U, wbo VfeYe cmploved in ibe 
fieldi* and mmcii of Atlit-a alone. Even the poorer citizens 
bad a slave lur tbeir bousebol I allairs. Tlie weallbier 
citizens bad as many &s fifty slaves lu eacb family, and some 
bad more. Wuread of pliilusopherskecpinj; lonsbives. There 
wvrc private slaves beiougtng to faraiUes, and public slaves 
belonging to the community or stttlc. The latter were em- 
ployed on board ibo tleet, in the docks and arsenal, and in the 
eonslruclion of public buiUlings a ad roads, Fausanias says 
lb lit slaves were introduced lor the first time among the 
bind forces at the bailie of Marathon; but this was, it 
iieems, in ibe ranks of the Pkilajans, fur the Athenians did 
not introduce ihem nilo tbeir ariTiies till a later period. At 
the sea Qijht of Arginusro there were many slaves servitig I 
in the Athenian Hect, and they were emancipated a Tier the | 
battle. Again at Chcroncea the A then lana granted lihorty j 
to tbeir slaves wbo served iu the array, 

Slavea were dealt with like any other properly: they 
could bo E^iven as pledges; they worked either on their 
master's account or on tbeir own, in which latter ease they 

fmid a certain sum to their master; er they were let out on 
lire as eervanift or workmen, or sent to serve in the navy of 
the stale, the master receiving pnymenl for iheir services. 
Mines were ^vorked by slaves^ some of whom belonged lo 
the lessees of the mme, and the rest were hired from the 
great alave propriet'frs» to whom the latter paid a rent of so 
much B bead» besides providing for the maintenance of the 
slave, which wa.s no great matter. They worked in chains, 
and many of them died from the effect of I be unwholesome 
atmosphere. Nicias ihe elder bad 10t>0 slaves in the mines 
of Launum; others had several hundreds, whom ihey lei to 
the contractors for an o bolus a day each. At one lime the 
mining slaves of Attica murdered their guards, took pos- 
session of the fort ilieat ions of Suniura, and ravaged Ihe 
surrounding country. (Fragment of Posidonius's Continua* 
tion of Poly bin s ; see Boeckb's Pubiic Economy r^f Athens, 
b. i.) The thirty- two or thirty- three iron-workei-s or sword- 
cutlers of Demosthenes annually produced a net profit of 
thirty mime, iheir purchase value being 190 rainiD; whilst 
bia twenty chair*makers, whose value was estimated at 40 
minECf brou^hl in a net profit of 12 mince. (Demosthenes 
Against Aphrihns, i.) The Icalber- workers of Timarcbus 
brought in to ibeir master each two oholi a day, and their 
foreman three. The master furnished the raw materials. 
The price of slaves at Athens varied frem half a mina to 
five and ten minae a head: a common mining slave, in the 
age of Demoslhenes» coal from 1*25 to IdU drachmse* The 
profits derived from slave labour must bnve been very high, 
as the owner bad to replace bis capital and lo obtain the 
UMial rale of interest for bts money, which was a high rale, 
and llic slave was only valuable so long as he bad bcalth 
and was ahie to work. There was al-o the danger of his 
running away, especially in war time. An I Irenes of Rhodes 
was the first' to establish an insurance for slaves. For a 
yearly contribution for each slave serving in fbe army he 
undertook to make good Liis price lo the owner, in case of 
his running away. 

The anlients were so habituated to Ihe sight of slavery, 
that none of the antieut phdosophers make any ohjeciioti to 
its exis^tence. Plato, in his * Perfect Slate,* desires cmly 
that no Greeks should be made slaves. The only slates of 
Greece in which no slaves appear to have been introduced 
were Locris and Phocis, probably by reason of the poverty 
of ihe people and the simplicity of their manners. 

The £lruscans and other antient Italian nations had 
slaves, as is proved by those of Vul^inii revolting against 
(heir nmslers, and by the tradition that the Brutlti were run- 
away sluv^es of the Lueanians. The Campanians had both 
ftlavcA and gladiators previous to the Roman CDm|uest« But 
the R^iman* by their system of continual war caused an 
enormuus influx of s-lavcs into Italy, where the slave popu- 
htiion at last superseded almast entirely that of the firee 

Tbo Rotnati system of slavery had peculiarilfes wit id 
distinguished it from that vf Greece. One di*tinctian 
existed in principle. The Greeks considered slave ly lo be 
derived fr^iu the law of nature and trom permanent diver- 
silies in the races ofmen, (Aristotle, iV*/,, i) The Ro- 
mans admitted in prmciple that all men were originnUy 
free (Irfstii^^ i., lit. li.) by the law of nature (jure nalu* 
rain, and they ascribed the rights of maslersovei iheir sU%'es 
entirely to the will of society, to the * jus gentium,' if the 
slaves were captives laken in war, whom the ronquerof^, in- 
stead of kiUing ibem, as they might have done, spared fur 
the purpose of selling them* or to the Vjus civile; when a 
man of full age sold himseiC It was a rule of Rotnan 
law that the otfspriug ol a slave woman followed lh« 
condition of the moiher, ( fnst , I, \ti. 2.) Emancipafion 
was much more frequent at Rome than m Greece : the eman- 
cipated slave became a freedman (liberlus), but whether he 
became a Roman cili/,en, a Lai inns, or a Dediticvus, de- 
pended on circumstances. If Ihe man urn il ted slave wat 
above tbirly years of age, if he was the Quiritanan properly 
of his munumiiior, and if be was manuniitied in due form, 
he became a Roman citizen. At Alliens, on the conim» j, 
emancipation from the dominion of the master was selduio 
followed by the privileges of cittKenship even to a limited 
extent, and these privdeires could only be conferred by 
public suiihority. It is true, that at Rome, under the em- 
pire, from the enactment of the Lex Aelia Senliat paas^ed in 
the time of Augustus, there were restrictions, in point of 
number, upon tho master*s power of freeitig his bondcieti 
and raising them to the rank of Roman citizens; sliU iti 
every a>;e there was a prospect to the slave of being able lo^ 
obtain his freedom. 

The slaves of the Romans were called by the names of 
servi. servitia, mancipia, famuli, and, as being members of 
a familia, alr^o familiares. A slave was often called * puer/ 
which was sometimes contracted into ^por,' and added to 
the raasler*s name, as 'Marcipor,' the slave of MarctiSt 
Slaves were not considered members of the oomm unity: 
they had no rights, and wore not legally considered ii& per- 
sons, but as things or chattels. They could neither sue nor 
be sued, and I bey could not elaim the protection of the 
tribunes. When an alleged slave daimcd his freedom on the 
plea of unjust detention, he was obli.:ed lo have a tree pro- 
lector to sue for him, unid Justinian ( Cftde, vii„ lit. L 7. *Dc 
adserlione tollend.i') dispensed wiih that formality- Slavei 
had no connubium, that is, ibey could not contract a Raman 
marriage; their union with a person of their own rank was 
styU'd conltibernium, and cohabitation with a no i her petson 
wus nol adultery ; and even the Chrislinn church for ^evefal 
centuries did not deebre the validity and indisFoluhility of _ 
slave mar n ages. At last the emperor Basilius allowed sUi%TS M 
to marry and receive the blessing of the priest, and Ale\iui ■ 
Comnenus renewed the permission. As slaves had no <5an- 
nubium, tht?y had not the parenltil power (potria polo^las) 
over tbeir ofispring, no ties of blood were recognised among 
them, except with respect to incest and parricide, which 
were considered as crimes by the law of nature. Though 
slaves were incapable of holding property, tlicy were nol m^ 
capacitated from acquiring properly, but what they did uc* 
quire belonged to their niaster,s. They were often alio' 
to enjoy property as their own, * peeulium,' consisting some-i 
limes of other slavt^s, but ihey held it only by permission, and 
any le>^al proceedings connected with it could only be cutt-<J 
ducted in I lie name of the master, who was the only legal 
proprietor. No slave could hold a public office, and if a slave 
unknown to be such had obtained a responsible odice. it w«« 
a (question among the jurists wbotber bis acts would bo 
valid or null Unld the latter period of the republic, &lire$ 
and even freedmen were not admilled into the ranks of tluf 
army. In cases of urgent public danger, such as after ihe 
defeat of Canna?, slaves were purchased by the stale and 
sent to the army, and if ihey behaved well, ihey were eman 
cipated. (Livy, xxii, 57, and xxiv, 14-11),) 

Male slaves were not permitted by law to wear the loigm 
and bulla, nar females thestola, but otherwise there was n 
fixed distinctive rosiume for them, and they were mottl^ 
dressed like jwor freeman, wbo could not alTord to wear tlie 
to;ra. A distinct dress for slaves bad been proposed in th# 
decline of the republic, but the proposition was rejected 
upon some senator adverting lo ihe danger of sho^uug the 
slaves how much superior in numbers they were to th« 
freemen. Slaves were forbidden Jhe^tife-fi/yiio|ises, car* 
riages, or litters U^ciifettlJz^ttah^ilMW^ cilf 



They were not however denied the rights of buiial, and nu- 
merous inscriptions attest ttmi monuments were often 
erected to the memory ot deceased slaves by their masters, 
their fellows, or friends, some of wh*eh bear the letters D, 
M * Diis Manibua/ for according to the Roman priiidpb 
^ that slavery was not by nature, but was the effect of law, 
death was considered as putting an end to the legal dis- 
tinction between slaves and masters, and the manes of a 
departed slave might be an object of reverence even to a 
ft^man, Slaves wcreofkun buncd in the family burying- 
place of their master;*. The * sepulchretnm' or biinal- 
raults of the slaves and freedmen of Augustus and his 
Vife Li via, disjcovered in 1725 near the Via Appla* and 
which has been illustrated by Bianchini and Gori^ nnd 
ftnolher in the snme neighbourhood also belonging to tho 
household of the early Coesars, and containing at least 3OU0 
urns with numerous inscriptions, which have been ilUis- 
trarcd by Fabretti, throw much light upon the c^nidition 
and domestic habits of Roman slaves in the service of great 
fumiUes. [Biakchini, Fuancesco.] 

With regard to the classification and occupations of 
alaves, the first division was into public and private. Public 
slaves were those which belonged to the slate or to public 
Bmlies, such as provinces, muntcipia» collegia^ decurioD. Ste., 
6r to the emperor in hia sovereign capacity, and employed 
in public duties, antl not aHactiod to his household or pri- 
tote estate. Public slaves were eiiher derived from the 
tbare of captives taken in war, which vvjis reseived for the 
eommunity or slate, or were acqviired by purcliase and 
Other civil process. Public sliivcs of an inferior description 
were engaged as rowers on board the Heet, or in the con- 
itruction and repair of roads and national buildin^^i. Those 
of a superior deacriplion were employed as keepers of public 
"buildings, prisons, and other property of the state, or to 
Attend magistmtcs* priests, and other public oftlcers. as 
Tiriilchmeu, liclors, execulioners, watermen, scavengers, &c, 
Private slaves were geneially distributed mto urban and 
Ipnstie; the former served in the lown houses, and the 
Others in the country, Lon^ hsts of the diflerent duiiL-s per- 
formed by slaves of eatdi class are ^iven by Pignorius, ' De 
Servis et eorum apud Vctorcs Ministcrits,* Amslerilani, 
1674 ; Popma, * DeOperis Servorum/ ib(«l,» 1672; and Blair, 
*An Inquiry iutu the Stale of Slavery amonj^st the Ro- 
mans/ Etlinburi^h, 1933, which is a very usscful little book. 
It will be enough here to say* that for all the ncccssilies of 
meslic hfe, agriculture, and ImndicratY, and for all the 
aj^inable luxuries of a reHnedand licenlious people, ihert* 
a* a corrcapondmg denomriiation of slaves. Largo sums 
fcre occasionally paid fur slaves of certain peculiar kiuds, 
e of which we should consider the least usefuh Eu- 
ich^ were olwciys very dear; the practice of emasculaiing 
ys was "borrowed bv the Roraans iVom the Asiatics, among 
whom it was a trade as early as the lime of Heroilytus 
(viii, 105): it continued to the tune of Domiiiun, who forbade 
it; but eunuchs continued to be imported from the East. 
A * morio,' or fool, was sometimes sold for 2U,UU0 nunimi, or 
about 160 pounds, Dwarfs rind giants were alao in 
great request. Marc Antony paid for a pair of hand>*oine 
youths 200 seslerlia, or IGUO pouuds. Martial (£/?,, iii. 
6 2) tn<fntionti a single handsome youth who corit as much us 
those two* Aclon and aclresscs and dancers sold very dear, 
as well as females of great personal aliractious, who wcm 
likely to bringin great gains to iheir owners by prostiTution. 
A good cook was valuod at four talents, or 773 pounds. 
Medtcal men, grammarians, amanuenses, auaynostso or 
renders, and ahortbond-writcn*, were in cousidcrablo request. 
With regar^l to ordinary staves, the price varied from fifiy to 
twenty pounds, accordinji to their abdiiies and other eir- 
cum&taucea. The lovv*ist legal valuation of a man slave in 
the time of Justmian was twenty sohdi, or about sixteen 
pounds ; and the value seems to have been about the same 
in ibe time of Horace (So/., li, 7 ; v, 43). After a victorious 
campnigii. when thousands of c-aptiv€*s were sold at oncu on 
the spot fur tlte purpose of pnze*money, to the slave-dealers 
who followed the armies, the price sunk very low. Thus in 
th© camp of Lwcnllus in Pouius slaves were sold for four 
dmcbmst or two shdhngs and sevenpence, a head ; but 
the same slaves, if brought to tho Roman market, fetched 
a maoh higher price. Home-born slates, dis^tinguished t>y 
the name of *verna?,* in contradistinction to ' servi erapti,' 
iif * veaalea,' or imported slaves, w«i*o generally treated with 
greater ludulgence by iheir mailers in wiiosc families they had 
tH^an brought up; and for that very reason, wheu taken to 
F. C, No. 137 r. 


marketp bore an inferior value to ihe imported slaves, Veihg 
considered as spoilt and troublesome. The number of slaves 
barn in Roman families appears at all times to have been 
far inferior to that of the mi ported bhives. In general tho 
propagation of slaves was not mudi encouraged by masters, 
many of whom considoretl slave* born at home to cost 
more than those who were imported. Ordiuftry female slaves 
were inferior in numbers to the males, and were generally 
cheaper in the market, 

Tliere was a brisk trade in slaves carried on from the coasts 
of Africa, the Euxine, Syria, and Asia Minor, The island of 
Delos was at one time a great mart for slaves, who were im- 
ported thither by iheCilician pnatesjSsliabo, p. GG8,Casauh,> 
The lllyrians procured numeious skves for thy Ilahan mar- 
ket, whom they bought or stole from the hiirbarous tribes 
in their neighbouihuod. Thnire was I he parent country of 
nunjerous slaves, and the scltmg of children by iheir pa- 
rents was an antient praetice among the Thracian inbos. 
(Herod., V. f»j But tho chief supply of slaves v.ns der)vt>d 
from Asia and Africa. In most countries il was cuslonuiry 
for indigent parents to sell their children to Blave'dt.*aler», 
and even Roman citizens at times sold themselves or their 
children through disircsa. Criminals were also in certain 
cases condemned to slavery, Uke Ihe galley-slavcA of our 
own times. 

Bcjth law and custom forbade prisoners taken in civil 
wars, especially in Italy, to be dealt with as slaves; and 
this was }>erhaps one reason of the wholesale massacres of 
captives by Sulla and (he Tiiumviri» In ihc war between the 
parly of Qthound Vtltfllius, Anlonins, who commanded the 
army of the laltor, having la ken Ciemona, ordered that 
none of the captives should bo detamed, upon which tho 
soldiers began to kill those who were not privately ransomed 
by iheir friends. 

In the latter period of the empire free-born persons of 
low condition were ghid lo ^ocum u subsistence by labour on 
the estates of tho great huidowners, to which, after a con- 
tinued reside nee for thirly )earti, they and their families be- 
came bound by a tacit agreeuient under tlic uame of ad* 
HcriDtiiii, or adticripti gleboo, and this was one of ihe source* 
of the servitude of the middle ages. 

The customary allowance of f<.oit for a slave appears to liare 
been four Romau liushels, * moihi,' of corn, moi»ily ' far/ per 
luuiuh for couiiiry slascs, and one Ruman lihra or pound 
daily for tliui^o iu town. Salt anrl oil were occasionally at* 
lowed, as well as weak wine. NeiLher meat mtv vegel^ibles 
formed part of their regular allowance, but they got, at> 
cording to seasons, fruit, .*iuch as Ogs olives, apples, pears, 
£co. (Cato, Columella, and Varro.) Labourers and at ustans 
in the country were shut up at ui^ht hi a house ('cigaj>lu- 
lum*), in wliich each slave appears to have had a separate cell. 
Mules were kept apart from female*, excepting thoso whom 
ihe master allowed to form * coutnberma' ur ttrnporary cun- 
ueciious. Columella adverts* to some distinct ion beiween the 
ergaslulum for ordinary lubourois and that thr ill behaved 
slaves, which latler was iu fad a prison, ofttm under ground, 
but generally speaking the ergsisiula iu tlie lalei limes of 
ihe republic and under ihc empire appear to have been 
no belter than prisons in \*hich hienien were stnnetime* 
conTmed after heiug kidnapped. The men ofien worked m,, 
flu ins. The overseers of farms and herdsmen bad tseparala 
cabins allotted to them. Slaves enjoyed relaxation from 
toil on certain lebtivities, such as the Saturnalia. [Satur*^ 

Every individual master had the power of nranumitln»|| / 
his slave, and this he could tflei^t hi several furiufe, h\ Vm- 
dictn, Ci^nsus, or by Teslamenlum. All filaves iniiuiiuiiifed 
by a Roman ciliyen (subject to the conditions above men- 
tioned) became Ronutn citiiens and members of his gens, , 
of whirls they toijk the name. Tbey laboured however 
under severaldisabi lilies. They were enrolled in tire lowest . 
of the city tribes; they were ineligible to the eon&ulhhip and 
other high otlices; and they were not generally admitted 
into Ihe best society. [Liuertinus ] 

The number of slaves ]3osifiessed by the wealthy Romana 
was enormous. Some iivdvvidiials are said to have positessed 
10,000 slaves. Scaunis possessed above 4O00 domestic and , 
as many rustic slaves. In the reign of Augustus, a freed- 
man who had sustumed great los^vCa during the civil wars left 
4116 slaves, besides other pvopevtv 

The Lex Aelia Seutiji^ a^ aVready mcnllonod. laid various 
restrieUons on manuiu\^^ion. Among other things it pr^ 

vented persons undct t«;cw^^ ^*^^^* ^^ ^^f'^v*^^'*^'^^^ tua^n*- 

^^ ^ Vol. KXljt.--0 , , I /^ 

Dignizea uy ■■^^j V^^ v^^^ tv^ 


S i- A 

miilmg a slave except by ih^j ViiKlicta, and wuTi tbo ap 
probation of the Consilium^ which at Rome tonsisUnl of fivv 
senators an<l five Roman t-quitus of le^al age (pubure-H), and 
in liie proviucea consUteil of twenty recuperatoi«js, who were 
Roraan nitizens. (Gains, i, 20, 38,) Tb« Lex MAia. Sentm 
also made all mauuraiasions void which were titfecled Ui rhv^i 
CTfcditora or defratid patrons of their rights. The Lex I' lu la 
Caniiiia, whid» was passed about k.u. 7, liraitcd the whole 
number of slavei* who could be manorniUed by lestameut to 
100, and when a man bad fewer than iyiii) slaves* tt do- 
tei mined by a scale the nuraher that be coiM TOamtmiL 
This Lex only applied to manutniiision by teslameuU (Gams, 

i. 42»&cJ „ ,, T 

In the earlier ages of the Repubhc» slaves were not ven 
numerous, and were cbielly emnWyed in household officer or 
m operatives in the towns ; and they were gejierally treated 
hkc members of the famdy. and joined their masters m 
offering pravers and sacnRces to the gods. (Horace, tpi^t., 
n I 142*) * But after the conquests of Rome spread be- 
yond Ihe limits of llalv. the intlux of captives was so great, 
and their price fell so low, that they were looked upon as a 
cheap and eft^^iiy renewed commodity, and treated as such. 
The condition of the Roman slave, generally speaking he- 
came wor^e rn ihe later ages of the republic than that of the 
slave at Athens. Il is worthy of remark that many of the cm- 
perors, even some of th« worst of them, interfered on behalf of 
the slave. Augustus eslablished courts for the trial of slaves 
who were charged with serious offences, intending thus to 
supersede arbitrary punishment by the mailers, but llvu 
law was not made obligatory upon the latter to bring their 
slaves before Ihc courts] and was often evaded. The same 
emperor sironglv reprobated Vedius PolUo, a Roman knight, 
for sentencin.^' a slave to be thrown alive into a fish-pond 
to be devoured by lampreys, and he took the slave into 
his own househohh By a law passed in the time of Clau- 
dius a master who exposed his sick or mfima slaves for- 
feited all right over them in the event of their recovery. 
The Lex Petronia, probablv passed in the lime of Augus- 
tus, or in the reign of Nero, prohibited masters from com- 
pelbng their slaves to fisrht with wild beasts, except witn 
the consent of the judicial authorities, and on a sufli- 
cieni cnj^i being made out against the slave. Domitian 
foibade the mutdation of slaves, Hadrian suppressed the 
ergastula or private prisons for the confinement of slaves; 
he also restrained proprietors from selling their slaves to 
keepers of gladiators, or to brothel- keepers, except as a pun- 
isbraenl, m which ca^e the sanction of a judj^e (judex) was 
required. The same emperor banished a lady of rank for 
Eve years on account of her cruelty to her slaves. Anto- 
ninus FiuH adopted an old law of the Athenmns, by which 
the judge who should bt? satisfied of a slave being cruelly 
treated by his owner, had power to oblii^e the owner to 
seil him to some other person. The judge however was 
left entirely to bis own discretion in deierraming what mea* 
iure of harshness on the part of the owner should be 
11 proper pround for judicial interposition. Septiraius bo- 
veruB forbude the forcible subjection of slaves to prosUtu- 
lion. The Christian empeiois went further in proleetinj; 
ihe persons of slaves. Constantine placed ihe wilful mur- 
der of a slivvo on a level with that of a freeman ; and Justi- 
nian confirmed this law, including within its provisions cases 
of slaves who died under excessive punishment. Constan- 
tine made also two laws, both nearly in the same words, to 
prevent the forcible separation of the members of servile 
lauulies by sale or partition of properly. One of ihe luxvs, 
dated ad. 334, was retained by Justinian iti his code. The 
Church also powerfully interfered for ibo protection of 
slaves, by threatening excommunication against owners who 
T.ul to death their slaves without the con^^ent of the judge; 
and by affording asylum within sacred precincts to slaves 
from the an^^er of unmerciful masters. A law of Theo- 
dosiu^ \. ftuiborixcd a slave who had taken refuge m a 
church to call for the protection of the judge, that he might 
proceed unmolested to his tribunal in order that bis case 
rait^ht be inveatigate'L Af>er Christianity became Ihe^pre- 
doininant religion in the Roman world, ii exercised in 
various ways a beneficial influence upon the condition of the 
slaves, without however interfering, at least for centuries, 
with the institution of slavery itself. Even the laws of the 
Clnislian emperors abolishing the master's power of lite and 
death over his slave were lorfg evaded. Salvianus {De Gu- 
bernatione Dei, tv.) informs us that in the urovmces of Gaul, 
iu the fifth century, masters Bti*d fancied that they had a 

1 right to pttt their slaves to death. 
1 I) makes one of his interlocutor 

Mncrobius {Sa , , 
I M iiiuttwt^s </ii^ "« *M, interlocutors, though a htathea, ex- 
patiate with great eloquence on the cruel and unjust treat- 
ment of slaves. In Spain, in the early period of the Vim- 
i'othic kmgs, the practice of putting slaves to death *till 
exiiled, for \n the *Foro Judicum' tb. vi, tit. 5) it is said 
ihat as somo cruel masters in the impetuosity of their prido 
put to death their slaves without reason, it is enacted tbal m 
public and regular trial shall take place previous to their 
condemnation. Several laws and ecclesiastical canons for- 
bade tlie sale of Christians as slaves to Jews or Saracent 
and other unbelievers. 

Tlie northern tribes which invaded the VVestem empire 
had their own slaves, who were cbiedy Slavonian captive^ 
dialincl from the slaves of the Romans or conquered tnhabi- 
lauts. In course of time however the various ctan«s of 
slaves merged into one class, that of the ^adacripti gleba>/ 
or serfs of the middle ages, and the institution ofRonittO 
slavery in its unmitigated form bocatne oblileralcd. The pre- 
cise period of this change cannot be fixed; U took place at 
various limes in dilleient countries. Slaves were exported 
from Britain to the Continent in the Saxon period, and ni» 
young English slaves whom pope Gregory 1. saw m the mar- 
ket at Rome were probably brought thither by slave-deaUrr*. 
Giraldus Cambrensis, William of Mnlmshury, and other* 
accuse the Anglo Saxons of selling their female servants 
and even their chddren lo strangers, and especially to the 
Irish, and the practice continued even after the Norniau 
conquest. In the canons of a council held at London, a,i>. 
1102, it is said. 'Let no one from henceforth presume in 
rarry on that wicked trafiic by which men in England Imye 
been hitherto sold like brute animals.* (Wilkin's ConaM, 

* But although the traffic in slaves ceased among, ibe 
Christian nations of Europe, il continued lo bo earned on by 
the Venetians across the Mediterranean m the age of Ibe 
Crusades. The Venetians supplied the markets of the Sa- 
racens with slaves purchased from the Slavonian tribes 
which bordered on the Adriatic, Besides, as personal 
slavery and the traffic m slaves continued m all Moham- 
medan countries, Christian captives taken by Mussulmans 
were sold in the markets of Asia and Northern Afric^s and 
have continued to be sold till within our own times, when 
Christian slavery has been abolibhed in Bai bary, Kgyp^ and 
the Ottoman empire, by the interference of the Christian 
powers, the emancipation of Greece, and the conquest of 
Algiers by the French. 

With the discovery of America, a new description of 
slavery and slave-trade arose. Christian nations purchased 
heathen negroes for the purpose of employing them »» the 
mines and plantations of the New World. It was found 
experience that the natives of America were too wt»lt 

too indolent to under t^o the hard work which their l>pai 

task^masteis exacted of them, and that they died m great 
numbers. Las Casas, a Dominican, advocated with a per- 
severing energy before the court of Spain the cause of the 
American aboVigines, and reprobated the system of th« 

* repavtimientos,' by which they were distributed m loU 
like cattle among their new masters, [Casas, BARTHouoitm 
Ds LAsI But it was necessary for the settleraents to Nj 
made profitable in order to satisfy the conquerors, and it 
was su|Tgesled that negroes from Africa, a more rob--^ -- ' 
active race than the American Indians, mipht be »\v 
for them It was^ stated than an able-bodied net;j 
do as much work as four Indians. Tlie Poriu^ue^e were at 
that time possessed of a ^'leal part of tfie coast of Afriei* 
where they easily obtained bv force or barter a considerable 
number of slaves. The trade in slaves among the nationi 
of Africa had existed from time inunemormb It had been 
carried on in aniieni times: the Garamantes used to supply 
the slave-dealers of Carthage, Cyrene. and E^rypt with black 
slaves which thev brought from the inienor. The dennsnd 
for slaves by the' Portuguese in the Atlantic I. 
the trade a fresh direction. The petty chiefs 
made predatory incurtsions into each other's It 
sold their captives, and sometimes their own subjects, t 
European traders. The first negroes were imported h 
Portuguese from Africa to the West Indies in 1503, at 
lijll Ferdinand the Catholic allowed a larger imporiation. 
These however were private and partial speculations; it il 
said that Cardmal Ximenes was opposed lo the trade bccauia 
he considered it unjust. Charles V, ho we vet being preaieA. 
on one «de by th« <i^vA^% |;^(5^tt2*'«««- 

and iti 1 







Mttlementa, and on the other by I-aa Caaas and others who 
pleaded Ibe cause of the ItHltRn natives, granted to one of 
hi» FleniisU courtiers thtj exclu«ive privilege of imparling 
«100U blacks to Iho Wu!sl Indies. 

Thu Fleming sold hia privilege for 25,000 ducats to some 
Genoese merchntils, who organised a regular slave-trade 
bet\i'een Africa and America. As the European seltlements 
in America increased and extended, the demand for slaves 
aliO increased; and all Kuropean nations who had coloniea 
in America shared in the Hlave-uude. The details of tlmi 
IradCf the sufferinus of the slaves in their journey from the 
interior to the eoast, and afterwards in their passage across 
iho Allantic — their Irealraent in America, which varied 
not only according to the dispoaitwu of I heir individual 
masters, but aUo according to ditTereut culonios. are mat- 
ters of nolorieiy which have buen amply discussed in every 
country of Europe during the last and present centuries. 
It is generally understood that the slaves of the Spaniurds, 
especially in Cuntinerital America, were the best treated of 
alL But the negro slaves in general worn exarlly in the 
sauio condition as the Roman slaves of old, being sale- 
able, transferable, pawaable, and puniahahle at the will of 
their owners. Rcslriciiuns however were gradually intro- 
duced by the law of the respeclivc states, in order to protect 
tbu life of the ne^ro slave against the caprice or brutality of 
his owner. In the British colonies, especially in the latter 
pari of the la^t century and the begmning of the present, 
much was done by ihe ler^islature ; couris were established 
to hear the complaints uf the slaves, flogging of females was 
forbidden, the punishment of males was also limited within 
certam bounds* and the condition of the slave population 
was greatly ameliorated. Still the advocates of emancipa- 
tion objected to the principle of slavery a» being unjust and 
unchrij^iian ; and they also appealed to experience to shaw 
that a human beintr cannot be safely Irnsted solely to the 
mercy of another. 

But long before ihey altera pled to emancipate the slaves, 
tlie efforts of phitauthropists were directed to abolish the 
slave traffic, which desolated Africa, wholly prevented the 
advance in civilisation, and encouraged the maltreatment 
af the negroe!>!i in the colonies, by alfordin^ an unlimited 
ftupply, and making it not the planter*^* interest to keep up 
bis stock in the natural way* Ihe attention of mankind 
was Hrst efteciually awakened to the horrors of this trade by 
Xhomas Clarkson. His labours, with the nid of the zealous 
men, chiefly Quakers, who early joined him,, prepared the 
way for Mr. W d be r force, who brooghl the subject before 
parliament in 1788, and although, after his notice, the 
niulioni owing t*i his accidental illness, was firbt broUf^hl 
forward by Mr. Pitt, Mr. Wdberforce was throughout the 
^CAi parliamentary leader in the cause, powerfully sup 
ported in itie country by Tliomas Clarkson and others, as 
Kichard Phillips* George Harrison, William Allen, nil of llie 
8o43iety of Friends, Mr. Stephen, who liad been in the West 
Itidies'as a barrister, and Mr. Z. Macaulay, who had been 
guvem or of Sierra Leone, and had al<o resided in Jamaica. 
A bdl wds first carried (brouj»hl in by Sir W. Dolben) to 
regulate the trade until it could be abolished, and this in 
some degree diminished the horrors of the middle passage. 
But the question of ah dition was repeatedly defeated, 
unld 1S04, when Mr, Wilberforce first carried tho bill 
ihiough the Commons; it was thrown out in the Lords, and 
next year it was again lost even in tl.e Common;*. Mean- 
ndule' the capture of the foreign ctdonies, especially the 
Dutch, during the war, frightfully increased the amount of 
the trade, by opening these settlements to British capital ; 
and al on© iitne the whole importation of slaves by British 
vessels amounted to nearly 6u,ijuo yearly, of which about a 
third was for the supply of our old colonies. At length, in 
1805 an oi^er in council prolnbiied the slave-trade in the 
contiuered colonies. Next year the administration of Lord 
Orenville and Mr. Fox carried a bill through, prohibiting 
British subjects from engaj^ing in the trade for supplying 
either foreign setilemenia or the conquered colonies. A 
resolution moved by Mr. Fox, the last time he took any 
part in public debate, was also carried in 1806, pledging the 
Commons to a total abolition of the trade early next bession, 
and this was, on Lord Grenville's motion, adopted by th« 
Lords. Accordingly next year the General Abolition Bill 
was brougbi in by Lt^rd Howick (afterwards Earl Giey),ond 
being passed hv buib bouseSj received the royal assent on 
tho 'liilU ot^ March. Ib07. This act prohibited ^lave- 
tr«fcding from and after line Ist of January, 1808; but as 


it only subjected offend era to pecuniary nenalties, it was 
found that something more was required to put down a 
Iralhc the gains of which were so great as to cover all losses 
by capture. In 1810 the House ofComraons, on the motion 
of Mr. BroughfliTi, passed unanimously a resolution, pledg- 
ing itself early next session effectually to prevent * such 
daring vjolfttions of the law;* and he next year carried a 
bill making slave-lrading felony, punishable with fourteen 
years* traii»portation, or imprisonment with hard labour. 
In \&24 the laws relating to the slave-trade were con- 
solidated, and it was further declared to be piracy, and 
punish Eible capitally, if committed within the Admiralty 
juiisdiction- In IB37 this weib changed to transportation for 
life, by the acts diminisbinc the number of capital punish* 
raents. Since the Felony Act of ltd I, the British colonies 
have entirely ceased to have any concern in this traffic. If 
any British subjects haveengog^ in it, or any British capital 
has been embarkeii in it, the offence has been committed in 
the foreign trade. 

The inlluence of Great Britain was strenuously exerted 
at the peace in 18 1 4 and IB Id, and afterwards al the con- 
gress of Aix-laChapello, to obtain the concurrence of foreign 
powers in the abolition ; and with success thus far, that all 
of them have passed laws prohibiting the traffic, and all, 
except the United States of North America, have agreed to 
the exercise of a mutual right of search, the only effectual 
means of putting ir down. As the United States were the 
first to abolish the foreign trade by law, having passed their 
abolition act before ours, and as early as the constitution 
gave congress the power to do so, it is the more to be 
lamented that they should still refuse a right of .search, 
which France herself has given, and should thus eiuible 
j»lave- traders to use their flag to a dreadful extent. The 
Duke of Wellington, while ambaf^sador al Paris in 1814, 
used every effort to obtain from the restored government a 
prohibition of thetiaftic; but the West Indian interest, 
and commercial jealousy of England, frustrated all his 
attempts, and Napaleoii, during the hundred days on his 
return from Elba, flrst aholished tlie trade by law. The 
right of search has been most honourably granted by Ihe 
revolutionary government of 1^30. Tbe liiatory ot the 
Abolition is to bo fuund in the work under that, title, by T. 
Clarkson (edition 1834), and the state of the law, as %vell as 
the treatment of slaves praciically in the colonies, is most 
fully treated of in a work on that subject by Mr. Siepfien. 
T. (Jlarkson*s other works on the nature of the tratlie, which 
first exposed it to the people of ibis country, were pub- 
lished in 1787. 

Tho islave-trade was suppressed, but slavery continued to 
exist in the colonies. In 1834 the British parliument passed 
an act by which slavery was abolished in all British colonies, 
and twenty millions sterling were voted as compensation 
Qiuney to the owners. This act stands prominent in the 
history of our age. No other nation has imitated the 
example. Slavery exists in the French, Dutch, b^panish, 
and Portuguese colonics, and in the southern stales of (he 
North American Union. The new republics t>f Spanish 
America, generally speaking, emancipated their sluves at 
the time of the revolution. As ihe slave poimtation in 
geneml does not maintain its numbers by natural increase, 
and as plantations in Araeriea are extended, there is a de- 
mand for a fresh annual importation of tihives from Africa, 
which are taken to Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Monte Video, 
and, it is said, clandestinely and circuitously, also to Texas. 
In a recent work, ' The Afiiran Slave-Trade and its Re- 
medy,' by Sir T. Fowdl Buxton twho, after Mr. Wilber 
force fi retirement, took a most active part in parliament on 
the subject of slavery J, it is calculated, apparently on suffi- 
cient data that not less than l6U,tJU0 ue«;ro slaves arc 
annually imported from Africa into the ubove-mentiuned 
countries, in contravention to the laws and the treaties 
existing between Great Britain and Spain and Portugal, the 
local authorities either winking at the practice or being 
unable to prevent it. But another appalling fact: is, that 
^ince the slave-trade has been declared to be illegal, the 
sufferings of the slaves on their passage across the Atlantic 
have been greatly increased, owing to Us being necetisary for 
masters of sbve-lraders to conceal their cargoes by cooping 
up the negroes in a amall compass, and avoiding the British 
nuizers; they are ofte^^ thrown ovetbotird m a chase. There 
is a considerable loss of \vfe vucwlenl to the seizing of slaves by 
force in the hunting ^cur*vot\s afti^r urs-nn > nud ,u tho 
wai-s between the cUvfc^^.A\tv*o^ ^^^ "■ 

UlUlllZt^U ! 





making captives. There ii a loss on tbeir raarcU to the &ea- 
const : the loss in the middle passage is reckoned on an 
averuge at one-fourth of the cargo; afid, besides ibis, ibere 
ii a further loss^ after lunding, in whul ia called the * season- 
ing * of iho blavc$. At pieaent tbe Furtuguese and Brazdian 
llagB are openly used, wub the connivance of the auihorilies, 
for ca trying on tlie alftve-iradc. The Spanish ting ia also 
Uied, though less openly, and with grcBler c^uiian. owing 
to the treaty between England and Spain which formally 
abolishes the slave- trade on (he part uf Spain. A mixed 
comtnission court of Spaniards and Bntiah exists at Havana 
to iry slaver;*; hut prcicxls are never wanting; to elude the 
provisions of the Ireaty, There seems indetjd lo be a great 
dilMculty \n obtaining the smcorc cu opeiaUmi of all the 
Chnstiaii powers to put down tlie slave- trade clfectuaUy, al- 
though it is certain ihai m till but the Poringuese and Spanish 
eeltlonients the tralUc has now almost entirely ceased. 

BcskIcs the slave-trade on the Atlantic, there is another 
periodical e\poi taiion of slaves by caravans from Sonilan 
to ih^ llarbury states and E^ypii the annual number of 
which is variously estiniaied ai between twenty aud ibtriy 
ibousand* There is also a irade carried on by the subjects 
of the Itnani of Muscat, who export slaves in Arab vessels 
from Znnzeb^r and uiher port,s of the eastern coast of 
Africa, lo Arabia, Persia, India» Java, and other places* In 
a despatch^ dated Zanzebar, May, 1839, Captain Cogan esti- 
Tuatea the slaves annually sold in that market to be no less 
than 50,000. The Portuguese also export slaves from their 
^lllement on the Mozatnbtque coast^ to Gijo, Diu, and their 
other Indian posi>es<siun«. 

By a law of the Koran, which however is not always ob- 
served in all Mohammedan countries, no Mussulman is 
allowed to enslave one of his own faith. The Moslem 
negro kingdoms of Soudun supply the slave- trade at the 
expense of (heir pagan subjecis or neif*hhours, whtim they 
sell lo the Moort-ib traders. There is no likelihood that 
Mohammedttti powers will ever suppress this trade of their 
own accordr 

There is qUo a contifl citable iiilernal slave-trade in ihe 
United Slates of North America, Ncj^rocs are purchased 
ill Maryland and Virginia, and some other of the aluve- 
holdmf' slates, and carried lo the more fertile lands of Ala- 
bama, l^julsiaiia, and olher southern states. 

It IS maintmned by some that ihe African slave-trade 
cannot be eflcctually put down by force, aud that the only 
chance of its uUnnaie su|)pression is by civilizing central 
AfViea, by encouraging DgncuUuial industry and legitiinate 
branches of commerce, and at tlie same time spreading 
education and Chrisiianity; and also by giving the pru- 
tecUon of the British Hag to those negroes who wonkl avail 
Ihemselves of it. It is tjertam that if uther countries will 
not exert themselves to enforce these laws^ ihe iibolition 
must be postponed to this remolc period. The Africans 
soil men because they have no other means of procuring 
European commodnies^ and there seems no doubt (hut one 
result of the sluvo-tnidc is to keep central Afrtca in a state of 
barbarism. We refer for evidence of (his, and of the na- 
ture of the t nil he generally, to the numemus auiharitiLS 
quoted in iSjr T* Buxion^s book, and lo the works of T. 
Ciarki^on, and Messrs. WUberforce, J. Stephen^ BrougbatUi 
and Maciiulay. 

The auiouut of the slave population now existing in 
America ts nat easily ascertained. By the census of 183^ 
Bta/il contained '2,lt}0,U uu skives. The slaves in Cuba, in 
] 82ti, wero^ uecordin*^ to Humboldt, about 2ti0,(J0U. In the 
United Slates, lu 1830, the number of slaves wiis a htlle 
more than two millions. For more precise details we refer 
to the separate heads of each state, CAROLir^fAi Geokgia, 

VlUOINlA, &c, 

Societies lor the uUimalo and universal abolition of 
alaveiy exist in England, France, and the United Slates, 
and they publish the.rRepuris; and a cungiess was held in 
Londun^ June, 1U40, of delegates from many countries tfi 
confer upuu ibe means of efVeciiiig iL The American So- 
ciety bus formed a ciilony calletl Liberia^ near Cape Mesu- 
rado, on lUe vest coa^t of Africa, where negroes who liavc 
obtained the-r IVeedom in the Uniled Siales are sent, if thtiy 
are wdling to go. The Eugliah government has a colony 
for a eimilar purpose at Sierra Leone^ where negroes who 
have been seized on board slavers by English cruizers are 
settled. [SiEiutA Leonk] 

SLAVONIA IS a pioviuco of the Austrian domiriions, 
\kliiidi, tiiou^h incorporated with the kingdom of Hungary, 

is still styled in oilicial documents the kingdom of Stavo^l^ 
It is situated between 44*" oO' and 46* IT^. lah, and be- 
tween 17° and 20"" 40'' E. huig U is bounded on the we*l 
by Croatia, on the north and east by Hungary, and vn ihe 
south by Turkey. It is sepaiaied from lluti-ary by the Dr^^w 
and the Danube, from Turkey by the Save, and has the 11- 
lowa on i>art of the western frontier. It consists of two 
parts^ the province of Slavonia, and the Slavonian part of the 
Military Frontier. The area of ihe wlm)e m66U0 srp inil*is, 
and the pijpulalion ia 596.600. The province has an area of 
3370 square miles> divided into the three counties of Fo^«j|pi* 
Veruc/, and Sirmiura, with 348,000 inhabilanls. A chain 
of high mouniauis coming from Croatia travei>es I bo pro- 
vince. Where this chain enters the province the valley* are 
narrow, but they gradually become more open toward* tbo 
middle of the province, and form near Posega a wide plaiu 
bounded by lofly mountains, which is called the Posega 
Valley; but at the eastern frtuuier of this county, th« 
branclies of the mountains again join in one principal chmin, 
which covers all the northern part uf the county of Sir- 
mmtn. This chain is covered with vast forests. The high- 
est points are 2800 feet above the surface of th(? three 
principal rivers. The remaining part of Slavonia cousisl* 
partly of fertile eminences planted with vines and fruit- 
trees,' and partly of beautiful and extensive plains. But ib 
many tracts of land on the Save and Diave are very low, 
they are subject to be frequently overflowed, and ibere are 
several large aud small pieces of stagnant waler, and exten- 
sive mai-shes. Many of these are presumed to have been 
formed through neglect, and some have already been 
drained and cultivated. The country produces corn of all 
WnuU, hemp, llax, tobacco, and great quanlities of liquorice. 
There are whole forests of plum-trees; chesnut, almond, 
and fig-trecs are likewise founds and the white mulberry 
abounds. Stavonin is rich in useful domestic animals. The 
horses arc of a small race, and sheep are not numerous. 
Of wild animals, the bear, wolf, fox, pole-cat, and vulture 
are coraroon. Swarms of troublesome insects are bred in 
the marshes, and a lon^ uontinuauce of southerly windi 
sometimes brings locustii from Turkey, The only mmt^raU 
of which there are considerable quantities are sulphur, lime- 
stone, coal, salt, and iron. It may be said that there mm 
no manufactures in Slavonia. The peasant makes all hi* 
farming implements— his cart, his plough, Sic, and his wife 
and daughters weave the ctolh and knit the stockings for 
the family. Tho anonymous author of the 'Geographical 
and Statistical Description of Hungary, Croatia, and Sla- 
vonia,' says that wheat yields iO-fold and sometimes 3t>*fuld, 
and that on^^ grain of maize yields 2000. In so fertile a 
country agriculture and the bitscduig of cattle are the lootC 
profitable occupations of the inhabitants. The culture of 
silk is tlourishing. The quantity of wine produced is very 
large» especially in the county of Sirmium, where the vine was 

idanted in liie'tbird century by the soldiers of the emperor 
?robus: about 560,000 cimcr <lhe cimer is 10 gallons) aru 
produced in one year in that county. The wines, both rod 
and white, arc very fiery, but will not keep long, and ore 
therefore not fit for exportation. The export trade im 
confnied almost entirely to the natural productions of the 
suil, such as corn, swine, and oxen to Austria; tobacco to 
Italy, Fiance, and Belgium ; spirits, distilled from plums, 
to Hungary, Turkey, and Germany; silk toOfen; honey, 
wax, liquorice, gall-nuis, and raw hides to Austria and Italy ; 
pipe-staves and wooden lioopa are sent to Hungary ; some 
salt find oil arc also exported ; and Pcterwardein bos a coil- 
siderable trade in fruit. 

Rciif^ion and Education.— ^i^ inhabitants are Koman 
Catholics and Non-united Greeks ; Ihe latter are Ibe most 
numerous, in the proportion of about five to three. Till 1*27^ 
the law excluded Protestants from Slavonia, though it uoado 
an exception in favour of those who were settled in the coun- 
try ill 1791. There are now two llourisbing Protestant 
communities in Old and New Panza, consisting of about 
3500 persons; and a few Jews, mostly in Petcrwardcin, anil 
about 300 in Semi in. There are about 30 Roman Catholio 
schools in the province, and as imany in the Military Frontier j 
and two Roman Cuthohc g)'mnosia at Essek ami Posoga. 
The Non-united Greeks have an archbishop at Carlowtti, 
wbero there is a nourishing lyceum. There is likewise m. 
clerical school at Carlowitz, and another at Pakratx. la 
the archbishopric there are above *26o schools. 

The earlic»it known inhaoitants of Slavonia were the 
Scordisci; it was 9flervfi^);i^^i^|^i|iJ^tigd>li^UM£-P 


S I. A 


wIjo were subdued by Augustus. Tlie country was aflcr- 
warcls part of Pannonia Inferior, and was called Paunonia 
Savta. The etiipeior Probua, who was a native of Sir- 
roiuD), did much lo improve the cultivalion of the country, 
and caused the first vines to be planted in the year 27t). 
Subsequently, several portion!^ of Slavouia were detaclied 
from the Byxanline empire ; but Sirmium continued to bo- 
Jong lo it, even when the whole count i) was a prey to the 
Avari. When the Avari were ovcrpowef-*d» in 796« by Pepin, 
ihefatherofCharlemagno, ihcgreaterpartof PannoniaSavia 
was a desert, and Charlemagne afterwards allowed a Slavo- 
nian tribe living in Dalmatia lo settle in it. The first settlers 
were soon followed by olhers^ and the Slavi (or Slavonians) 
soon became a numerous people, who in the time of the 
emperor Louis the Pious had iheir own prince, named 
Lindewir, subject however to the Franks, In 827 iho 
Bulgarians invaded the country, hut were repuked by the 
Franks. The Slavonians had indeed been partially converled 
to Christianity on their first settlings but as I hey fell into 
s^ro*8 Jgnorance for want of instruction, two brothers, Cuillujj 
and Methodius, went in 864 to visit the Slavonkan tribes in 
the west, and to instruct them. In the tenth century* the 
Magyars, having conquered »U Paunonia, afterwards sub- 
dued Slavoniaalso ; Sirmium however still remained subject 
lo the Byzantine empire, but by degrees became inde- 
pendent, and had it& own princes. In 1019 it was a^aiu, 
for a short time, subject to Byzantium, and coniinued for 
many years the theatre of war between the Byzantines 
and the Hungarians; the latter ultimately got possession 
uf it, till it was finally ceded to Ihe Hungarians in 1165. In 
I47i the Turks invaded Slavonia for the first time. In 1524 
the whole country was conquered by the Turks, to whom 
the counties of Valpo, Pose^a, Ver<>ez, and Sirmium were 
ceded in 1562* and erected by them into a distinct pashulik. 

^It was recovered by the emperor I^opold L» and after 
huvingbeen for a long time the theatre of war, was ceded 
to Austria by the treaty of Carlo wit z in 16^9. The country 
liavin;^ bet^ome almost a desert while under the Turks, 
numbers uf Illyrians were settled in it. In 161^0 and the 
following years the country was placed under a military 
.^'laiMn>,tra'tijn ; the irdiabiianis were exempted from taxes, 
Diu were bound to arm themselves, and be always ready for 
the iJefence of Ihe country. This military administration 
was aboliiibed n\ 1745, but in later times it has been again 
intioducecl under a better form, which is ehielty coiiQned 
to the tract along the Turkish frontier. 

The Slit vonian Military Frimlter (including what is called 
thedisitiict of the Czaikiiit BaLtahon, between the Danube 
and tlie The is) has an area of 3U30 sfjuure miles and 
250,0U0 inhabitants, and is divided into the three regimen- 
tal districts of Peterwardetn. Brod, and Gradiska, and the 
Czaikist district. [Essek ; MiLirARv Frontier; PKrKR- 
wardein; Srmlin,] 

iOeftterreichische Nntional Encydopedie ; Siaiistisch* 

aden^ui . // * Slein ; Hassel ; Hiuschelmann.) 

SLA\ ' 1 V S. The Slavonian or Slavic race, which 
now extends from the Elbe to the Pacific, and from the 
northern ocean to the frontiers of China, Persia, and the 
Mediterranean, comprehends about 70,OtJU,0tiO inhabitants, 
divided into several nations, who speak various cognate dia- 
lects, aud live within the dominions of Russia, Austtia, 
Turkey, Prussia, and Saxony. The name * Slavonian* is 
deduced from the word shwa, *g\<tvy,' or s/ovo, * word.* The 
advocates of the first etymolo^^y support it by referring to 
the usual terra inatioa of Slavonian names in shw, such as 
S/amx/at\ * establ isher of glory ;* Flndiisiai\ * ruler of glory ;' 
and lu/*o#/<u'. * furious for ^bry/ Others maintain that 
the name of Slavonians, which ts often written Shvenie 
instead of Sluvenie^ is derived from ff/oi»o, * word,* and that 
the Slavonians being unable to understand the language of 
the nations with whom they came into contact, called ihem 
Nismetz, that is, * mute,* an appellation wbicli is given to 
the Germans in all the Slavonian dialects, whilst they 
called themselves Slovenie, that is, * men endowed with tlie 
gift of the word.* The Bysaniine writers changed the ap- 
nellalion of Slavonians into Sclaben or Sclav (2i:\a/?^/voi, 
Prooopius); and bonce the appellation of Sclavonians, 
adopted by the western authors. 

Aocorditig to Jornandes, tlie first writer who mentions the 
Slavonians, they were formerly called Venedi ; and Phny 
(iv* 13) say s that they hved about the hanks of the Visiula. 
Ptolomy pi accii ihem ou the eat^lern bhuie of the Bailie, whick 



he calla tho Venedian Gulf. This is the oldest account llmt 
we have about the country inhabited by Ihe Slavonians; but 
whence and when they came to these parts is unknown. Jor- 
nandes gives the foilowinj^ nccounl of them : — * Dacia is se- 
cured by Alps (I.e. Carpathian), on whose left side, which from 
the source of the Vistula runs to the north tlarough an im- 
mense extent, the nation of the Winidi have theu* seltle- 
ments. Although their names vary in various tribes and 
places, they call themselves Slavonians and Antie; Jor- 
naudes also says that this nation was conquered, a,d.376, by 
Hermanarik, king of the Goths; and ho says in another 
place, * These, as we have said, proceed from the samo 
blood, and havo three names, Venedi, Aula?, and Sla- 
vontans, who for our sins are now ravaging everywhere* 
(f.e. in the Roman empire). 

The evidence of Jornandes proves that the Venedi, 
AnlED, and Seiavini or Slavonians were the same race, al- 
liiough they may have formed separate tribes or nations, as 
the Bohemians, Poles, and Russians of our days; and w« 
may add that the Slavonians of Lusatia and Saxony are 
even now called Vcndes by the Germans. 

The Slavonians appeared on the borders of the empire 
about A.D. 527, and having invaded the Greek provinces 
committed terrible ravages. The Imperial legions were de- 
feated by them, and iho wall erected by the emperor 
Anastasius lo arrest Ihe savage tribes of the north waa 
forced by the Slavonians, who devastated all tbo country 
from tlie lonitin Sea to the walls of Constantinople. They 
besieged the capital itself, and nobody dared lo encounler 
tUem. Belisarius at last succeeded, more by presents than 
force, in removing this dangerous enemy from Constan- 
tinople, After that lime they settled on the banks of The 
Danube, alternately ravaging the provinces of the empire 
or serving in its armies. The Slavonians were conquered 
in the sixth century by the Avari, with (he exception of 
those who were settled on the Danube, and who, in the year 
31^1, invaded the empire. The emperor Tiberius, who wa* 
occupied at that time witli tho Persian wor, was unable to 
repel the Slavonians, and he induced the Khan of the Avari 
to attack them. The power of the Slavonians was destroyed, 
and they were obliged to submit to the Khan. After that 
time they served in the wars of their new master, and the 
Greeks expeiienced their desperate valour when the Avari 
besiei^ed Conslanlinople in G29, on which occasion the 
Slavonians nearly carried the town. 

The Slavonians who inhabited tho victnity of the Baltic 
remained free, while their brethren of the south were under 
the yoke of the Avari. This yoke was at last broken by the 
Slavonians of Bohemia, who rose against their oppressors, 
and defeated ihora under the command of a chieftain called 
Samo, who was chosen king by his grateful countrymen. 
Tlie emancipation of the pSIavonians from the dominion 
of the .\vari was followed by an extension of their posses- 
sions, lu ihe seventh century, having cunchided an alli- 
ance with the emperors of Constantinople, they entered 
lllyria, and after having expelled the Avari, they founded 
new colonics under the name of Slavonia, Croatia, Servia» 
Bosnia, and Diilmatia. The Greek emperors favoured their 
settling in the Imprial provinces. In the seventh cenlury 
there were Slavonian settlements on the river Strymon ui 
Thrace, in tho viciuily of Thessalonica, and in Moesia. or 
the modern Buli^aria. Many of them sctlled in the Pelo- 
ponnesus, aud a considerable number passed into Asia and 
settled in Bilhynia and other provinces.* 

From this time the Slavonians are no longer historically 
known under that general appellation, but they continued to 
lake a prominent port in political afi'airs under the various 
denominations by which the nations belonging to that 
race are distinguished, as Poles, Russians, Bohemians, 8&c 

The customs, relig'ion, and language of the Slavonian 
race are still characterised by a family likeness, which is 
preserved in the numerous nations which have sprung from 
the same stock, nol^ithstandinglhe modifications produced 
in the respective nations hy local ckcumslanceB and his- 
torical events, 

Piocopius (De Bella Goth.^ iii.) gives Ihe following 
account of the Slavonians : * The nations uf the Slavonians 
and AntsB do not obey a single master, but live under a de- 
mocratical governmeiit, * lUeret'ure the gains and losses are 
common amongst th^xn ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ibings go in the same 

• Ai Ilk« BAtno tim<? Chvi uv^ft^^ ^*^ kVM** MOOlillWia, TUo «xil» 
*yiio<\ of CoBstintiDople Y*V\w^\m^ cuftTO^tftl*! thi Jls»qai*n* «UUOi||t lh» 
UbrifeViAb ii«Uoii«, V-^tt* , ~ 

^ uigiiize 






way. They acknowledge as god and afi tbe lord of all their 
nation the maker of ihe ihunrler. to whom they offer oxen 
and other sacrifices of every feind. Tliey do not acknow- 
ledge fate, and do not even admit its intlueiico on mortal 
men; and when tliey apprehend, in sickness or trouble, si 
speedy death, they vow to God some btuotly sacrifice for fbeir 
health or jjafety ; and beheve, when they come out of dan jrer, 
that they did «> in consequence of their vow. They worship 
also river-nymphs and some other divinities, to whom they 
offer sacrifices, tnaking at the same lime divinationiji. They 
live in niiserable huts, standing isolated, and tiiey change 
their aettlements. In a battle many of Ihem R^ht on foot, 
armed only with a tsraall target and a lance. They do not 
wear any armour* and iliey have not even a shirt or a cloak ; 
but they encounter the enemy only in breeches covering 
the secret parts. They ail speak the same very barbarous 
language, and do not differ much in their exterior. Their 
complexion is not very white, and their hair is neither fair 
nur black, hut dark. They lend, like the Massage tao, a 
rude and wandering life, and they are always dirty. Their 
mind is neither malicious nor fraudulent, and they preserve, 
with the simplickiy, the mannersof the Huns in many things. 
Formerly the Slavonians and Antaj had the samt* name ; 
both were called Spori, probably because Ihey live in a scat- 
tered manner (sjKU'aden) in isolated hnts, and they occupy 
for that reason a large extent of country. They ptj^seas 
the greatest part of the farther banks uf the Danube. Ac- 
cording to some they feed their flocks wandering about/ 

This description shows thai the Slavonians then lived in 
a slate of barbarism. They wore invircd to every ksnd of 
fatigue and privation, and aecnstomod to all the expedients 
of a savage warfai-e. These <|Ualities made them formidable 
enemies anrl invaluable allies to the Greeks. They were 
rapncions, like all savage tribes, but the cruelty wiih which 
they were taxed may be partly ascribed to the provucat ton 
of the Greeks, who fiefjuently treated tbeir vanquished ene- 
mies with great barbarity. But the Slavonians exhibited, 
no! withstanding their stato of barbarism, virtues of the 
noblest kind, and a mildness of character nnparalleled even 
among the civilised nationsi of that time. According to 
the emperor Mauritius, they treated their prisoners with 
^'eat humanity, and instead of keeping them in servitude 
like other nations, tbey always fixed a limit lo it, and cave 
them the choice of payinj^ a ransom and returning lo their 
country, or remaining with them as freemen and friends. 
A stranger was welcome among Ihem, and hospitably en- 
tertained. The houseowner was answerable to all his nation 
for the safety of the stranger whom he bad received ; and 
he who had not preserved his guest from injurj drew upon 
himself the vengeance of his neighbours. 

The matrimonial fidelity of the Slavonian wives and hus- 
bands is extolled by foreign authors. The wives were 
complete slaves, as is generally the case amongst uncivilised 
tiations: tho widow was burnt on the same pile with her 
deceased husband, as it was disi^raceful to survive him. It 
is also said iliat a Slavonian father might destroy a female 
child, when he was nl re ady overch urged with a large family, 
but he might not put a male child to death; and ibat (be 
children might put their parents to death, when from old 
age and infirmity they were a burthen to them. Their chief 
occupation was agriculture. They Foem to have possessed 
some knowledge of the arts, and they were exceedingly fond 
of music. The most anlieni musical instrument oi" the Sla- 
vonians is a kind of lyre called guslOf which is still preserved 
among some nations of their race. 

Although the Slavonians who appeared on the borders of 
the Greek empire were rude and uncivilised* those who lived 
on tlie sonrhern shores of the Baltic bad towns and enjoyed 
the advantages of a considerable commerce. Their chief 
cities were Arcona, on the island of Riigen, which eon- 
tained the most eelebrated fane of their worship, and Vineta, 
at the mouth of the river Oder, Adam of IJreraen, who 
wrote ill 1067, and Helmold, state that all tho Slavonians 
were idolaters, but that no nation was more hospitable and 
honest than they ; that the original form of government was 
democratical, that the fathers of families had great authority 
over their wives atid children, and that they met togelher 
oecasionaUy to consult on the affairs of their, community. 
Wilb the progress of time, and probably also IVom the neces- 
sities created by their coming into contact with more civilised 
tialions, the Slavonians introduced permanent authorities 
and chiefj*. Aristocracies were formed, either by mihlary 
leaden^ or by the more wealthy and cunning persona^ who 

luceeeded in eitiibliihing an hereditary influenoe. Many 
Slavonian communHiea came under the rule of hereililary 
chiufji or sovereigns; others elected their chiefs for life; 
wbiUt many retained their primitive democratic form, some- 
what modified by circumstances. The Slavonian chieft 
were called Krai or Krol, which sigTiifies king. Kniai or 
Knt'Z, is now employed for prince; Boyar, a warrior« from 
Boy, fight; Lekh, or nol>le; Voyevoda, i,e. leader of war, 
perhaps a more mudern translation from the Saxon heretfDkg. 
or German herxog; Pan, in Polish, lord; Zupan, the chwt 
of a district, Znpa. All these dignilies» whether hereditmty 
or el ec live, by no means implied absolute authority, and the 
persons holding ihem were always subject to the popular 
wiil, which decided on public affairs in ttie assembliea, which 
weve held in the open air, and called l^echa or Vit^che^ pro- 
bably frum the Slavonian word vieshchat^ *to proclaim/ 

The religion of the anlieni Slavonians seems to have been 
different from that of the Teuionic nations. The lateal bo- 
count of the Slavonian idols and pagan ritca is given by fbe 
German mii^aionaries, who had an opportunity of observing 
the Slavonians of the Baltic coast, or at least derived IB- 
fgrmation on that suhjeiH from eye- witneiises, aa well aa bf 
some Scandinavian authors. 

Acconhng to the above-mentioned authors, the Slavo- 
nians of the Baltic aeknowlodged two principles, one of 
good, and the other of evil. They called the former Biel 
Bog, or the * white god,* from whom all that wa« good pro- 
ceeded ; and Ihe second Cherni Bog, or * black go<f»^ who was 
the cause of all evil This latler w,is represented in ihe 
form of a lion. The most celebrated Slavonian idol, ^lioi« 
temple was at Arcona, was Sviatovid, that is, * holy sight.* Ue 
waa held in great veneration by the Slavonians, and even 
the kinjia of Denmark, who then professed Chri^tianitT, 
frequently sent him oflferings. This idol represented a man 
larger than life, diessird in a short garment made of tn&DV* 
coloured wotid. He liatl two cliests and four heads, lie 
sloud with his feel on the ground, held in one hand a bow. 
jind in the other ft horn, which was filled once every yeMt 
on a solemn occaiiion with mead. I*<ear the idol were 
placed, as belonging to him, a bridle and saddle, anil a 
sword richly ornamented with silver. His festival waa oel«- 
biated on a certain day after harvest, when the priest brought 
out lo the assembled multitude the horn whicli tbe ulol 
iield in his hand, and froiB the decrea«e of the liquid 
poured into it the year before Ihe result of the next Itarv^t 
was pritgnosticatefl. The mead of the last year was pgujied 
at the idol's feet, and his horn was replenished, with appn>> 
priate ceremonies and prayers* Tho remainder of ihe <ti^ 
was spent in feasting; abstemiousness on that day wu 
considered sinful, and the greatest excesa in drinking aJid 
eating was accounted an act of devotion. 

The Slavonians paid a tax to tbe temple of the idol, and 
cave him the third part of their booty. There weru aha 
three hundred horsemen belonghig tu the idol, who deposited 
in his temple all the spoils that they made. Tli^se dif- 
ferent donations were employed to ornament the teiQpIo, 
or deposited in the treasury, which contained a great num* 
her of chests filled wnth coin, rich stuffs, and other precious 
thin(*;s. There was a white horse consecrated to the same ido), 
which was led and mounter] only by ihe priest. The Sla- 
vonians heheved that Sviatovid occasionally rode upon tbi^ 
horse, in order lo combat the enemies of their failh ; and ita 
moving with the right or left foot over lances placed on Ibc 
ground, decided Ihe most important undertakings. Tb« 
temple of Sviatovid was deslioyed in the twelfth century by 
Waldemar, king of Denmark. Some German chrouiolMi 
believe that Sviatovid was the same as St. Vitus, whoBi 
Slavonians had adopted afier Imving heard of his ^^^ 
miracloij ; but this is evidently an error founded on thtf' 
milarity of names.* 

There were also several other divinities worshipped by tb« 
Slavonian idolaters, such as Porcnut, whose idol had four 
faces, and a fifth on bis breast, ^iippo^^ed to have l>een Ihe 
god of seasons, from the word pora^ * season ;* Porevil, 
represented with five hands ; Rughevlt, supposed to be tbe 
gud of war, whose idol had seven faces, seven swords &ii^ 
pended at his side, and an eighth in his hand. All these 
lliree were in the island of Riigen, the last asylum of 8U^ 
vonian idolatry- 

This account of the Slavonian deities is founded, a^ already 
observed, on the report of writers yh^ had eiUipr seen Um 

GnunnaUeoi. ^~ ' 



idols or derived their information from bearaay. The only 
genutne monumeiils of Slavonion idolatry which Imve 
reached oiir times are the idols dug up about the end of ihe 
seveiiteenlli cenlury m the village of Prillwitz, on the banks 
of ihe lake TollenK^ in ihe tcrrilory of Mecklcnbuig. This 
villnge is suppotied to occupy Ihe site of the Slavontuii town 
of Retra, which wasdt*slroyed by the Saxons in the middle of 
llie tweU'ih century, and was ceklirt^ied m its lime for its 
temples and idols. These arch eeologi cat treasures remained 
unknown lo thti learned world lill 1771, when Mr. Masch, 
cliapUin of the duke of Mecklenburg, publiabed a desertp- 
tiott of ihem wilh engravmgs. These antiquiUes were found 
ID two metal vessels, supposed to have served for sacrifices, 
and which were so placed that one formed a cover to the 
Oliver: they had eni^ravetl on them several mscriptions. 
but unfortunately ihey were both melied for the casting of 
a bell before they were examined by any person competent 
to judge of the inacripiinus. The eontenta of these vessels 
were not only idols, but also seveijil objects employed in 
the performance of sacrifices. They are all of brass, with 
more or less admixture of silver. The greatest part of 
them have inscnplions in Runic chavacters: one of them 
however^ exhibiting the attributes of autumn, has the Greek 
inscription OnOPA. The greater pavt of these idols have 
Slavonian names, such as Radegastt Cherni Bog, Zibag, &c. 
(Bog in Slavonian sit;nifies God); several of them however 
have Lithuanian names, and must heloni? to the Lithuanian 
and Prussian idolaters, who probably sought refuge among 
the Slavonians from their cnmmon enemies the Christians. 
Both Slavonian and Lithuanian idols correspond to tlic de- 
scriptions given of them by the old chroniclers. The Sla- 
vonian divmifies usually have more than one head: many 
of them ha^c on some part of their body either a human 
face, signifyini^ llie good principle, ox a lion's head, denoim^^ 
the evil principle. Many have also the figure of a beetle on 
them, which might denote an Egyptian origin* They are 
in general only a few inches long. 

The chief Slavonian divinities represented by these idols 
arc Radc'iast. having the head of a lion, surmounted by a 
bird; Woda, represented as a warrior, perhaps the Scandi- 
ija%-tan Odin, &-c. 

These monuments of Slavonion idolatry present a wide 
i5etd for investigation, and they |irQVo that the nation with 
whose religious worship they are connected was not a 
stranger to the arts. It is ditticult to ascertain whether the 
divinities of Lithuanian and Scandinavian orif^in, which were 
forcicrn to the Slavonians, were adopted by them, or only 
found an asylum with their wnrshippers when expelled from 
their couniries by the progress of Christianity. 

The eastern Slavonians worshijiped Perun. or the god of 
thunder ; Volos, the god of the (locks ; Koleda, the god of fes- 
livats, whose festival was celebraled on the 24th of December, 
and it is remarkable that tbecominun people in many parisof 
Poland and Russia on that account even now call Christ- 
mas, Koleda; Knpalajbe god of fhe fruits of the earth, re- 
ceived Racriflce^ on the 23rd of June, and m many parts 
of Russia and Pohmd, St, John, whose festival falls on the 
same day, is called John Kupala. Dittrour, a German 
writer, pretends that the pagan Slavonians did not believe 
iti the immortality of the soul; but this slatcment is suf- 
ficiently refuted by several ciisloxns and ceremonies which 
they observed for the repose of the dead. 

Ill the ulnth century the Slavonians occupied a large 
part of Eastern Europe, They extended from the Black 
Sea along the Danube and to the westward of that river on 
the shore of the Adriatic, occupying the antient Roman 
provinces of Pannonia, Dacia, lUyricum. and Dalmalia, 
The Slavonian settlements reached from the northern 
part of the Adriatic bordering on the Tyrol and Bavaria to 
the upper part of the Elbe, iknil they occupied the country 
between that river and the Saal, as wuH as all the dyht 
bank of the Elbe, extending over the southern shore of the 
Baltic from Jutland to the mouths of the Vistula. From 
the Vistula (with the exception of Ihe coast of the Baltic 
inhabited by another race) the Slavonians spread over all 
t]\e counlry between thai river and the Danube. Thus 
they possessed the countries which now constitute the 
greater part of the Austrian dominions, Hungary, the pro- 
vinces bordering on lialy and the Tyrol, Bohemia and 
Moravlti, a great part of Saxony, the Maich of Brandenburg, 
Silesia, Poineiania, and the island of Rtigen, to which must 
be added the territory which constitnted anlienl Poland, and 
a great part of the present Russian empire. 

The Slavonian population of Pomerania, Mecklenburg, 
the island of Rvigen, the March of Brandenburg, and of 
Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, was either extermi- 
nated or 30 completely Germaniseil, tlial the lani^juage of 
their counlry is completely superseded by the German : but 
there are traces of this language being used in otficial docu- 
ments^ in the country about Leipzig as tale a« tlie beginning 
of the fourteenth ceutiiry. The names of many towns and 
villages situated in those parts of Germany are evidently of 
Slavonian origin. 

The following are ihe Slavonian nations now in ex- 
istence: — 

1. The Bohemians and Moravians, who inhabit Bohemia 
and Moravia, and are scattered in some parts of Hungary 
and Silesia. 

2. The Poles, who inhabit the territory of antient Poland, 
Silesia, and Prussia. 

3. The Muscovites or Great Russians, who have a con- 
siderable admixture of Finnish l>lood, and have become 
somewhat orientalised by the dominion of the Tartars in 
Russia. They inhabit Ihe north-eastern provinces of 
Russia in Europe. 

4. The Russians, who are quite distinct from the Great 
Russians or Muscovites, are divided into Little Russians, 
who inhabit the antient Polish provinces of the Ukraine, 
Poitulia, and Volhynia, now incorporated with Ruiisia, a part 
of the kingdom of Poland, Gallicia or Austrian Poland, and 
some parts of Noiihern Hungary: and White Russians, 
who inhabit a part of Lithuania, and chiefly the provinces 
of Mohilofand Witepsk, which were acquired by Rusiiia at 
tlic first dismemberment of Poland, in 1772, as well us a 
part of the governmeTil of Smolensk, 

5. The Slovacks, wlio inhabit the north of Hunsar}*. 

6. The C I oats, who inhabit the south-west of Hungary. 

7. The lUyrians, who inhabit the Austrian pi^vinces of 
Carinthia, Carniola, and Dalmatia. 

8. The Servians, who inhabit Servift, to whom may be 
added the Montenegrins. 

9. The Bulgartans and Bosnians in Turkey, of whom a 
part have embraced Mohamniedanisra, while others profow 
the Christian religion according lo the Eastern cliurch. 

10. The Syrbes or Wends, who inhabit Lusatia, and 
whoso settlements are about 25 miles from Dresden, 

Slavonian Tongue. — It has been observed that ProcopiUB, 
who dciiciibed the Slavonians in the fifth century, says that 
ihey and the Antse used the same language, and a similar 
opinion is expressed about the Slavonians of the cigblb 
century, by Eginhard, the historian of Charlemagne. It is 
however impossible to admit the perfect universality of the 
same language among a race composed of so many tribes, 
and occupying such a vast extent of country. '1 he evidence 
of the writers above men tionetl, who have not transmitted 
to us any monument of ihe Slavonian language, and pro- 
bably did not understand it, cannot be admjiled as conclu- 
sive, except to prove that all the Slavonians, who were di- 
vided into various tribes or nations, could easily understand 
each other. The truth of this fact cannot be doubted ; for not- 
withstanding the lapse of ages, during which many Slavonian 
nations have remained completely isolated from several of 
their kindre<l populations, and have lived in constant inter- 
course wilh nations of an entirely foreign race, itieir re- 
spective dialects preserve a strong similarity, so that a 
Slavonian inhabiting the shores of the Frozen Sea may fre* 
«^uently understand the language of those who live on the 
coasts of the Adriatic. This fact is moreover corroborated 
by ihe circumstance that the monuments of the different 
Slavonian languages, though writtet^ Heveral centuries ago, 
exhibit a much greater similarity among themselves than 
is the case with those languages in our lime. We may there- 
fore conclude that at some unrecorded period all the Slavo- 
nian race had the same tongue, which began to split into dif- 
feienl dialects at the same time when ihe nice, increasing in 
numbers, began to divide into various tribes; and that the 
differences among those dialects grew in the same proportion 
as the surrounding liibes who spoke them became moi'e 
estranged from each other by physical, poliiical, and religi- 
ous causes. The Slavonian tongue is generally ponaidered 
to have an Indian otwvnt and this supposition is founded on 
the great number of fewfts^^^^^ roots which it contains, as well 
its on some traces ot cl\u"*^^^^ ^^^^^" exhibUed in the religion 
of Ihe an tient Sla Vcv ^ \s o^ ^\i\^ the most striking circum- 
stances are the bv%^^* ^ o^ inAo^ft on the fuueriil pile ^ 

Digiiizeo by '^^^<j<^^^l\^ 




their deceased Imsban^b, tlte idul of Sviatavifl, repfesentecl 
unii faur lieiifls, aii*l uiher rciiOLiibliinccfi of a like kind The 
niost iuihent wnttLMi SSavoiiiun tan^jyuui* iia ill;) I iiilo whkch 
(J}iillus rmd Weihudius Ltiiii»lLiicd I lit; Scnpfines in I he 
iiimU i-eiilury* and which iiiubt Jiavc beeti ilie diaLettt of the 
Slavonians whu i nimbi led llio hanks of Ihc Dntmht*^ for 
whom \\n^ Iran^blion was ratLdc from the Se^iuagiiit. niid 
for which un alphabei, formed on the model of ibe Greek 
one, vvus uiiruduced by Ihe haiislalors. 

AUhijiis^h (be above mentioned alfdmbct was adapted for 
ibe tninslaiiou of ttie StTiptures, il is impoasihle to admit 
tbiil ihtj SUivonians were, previounly lo tlieir eonveision lo 
Ch» is! mil it y, totally iinai!tiuiiinicil w(tb the use of letlcrs*, and 
indeed ibe Bohemian duoriiele> speak of k'gislalive tables 
(desski pisuoiktne) in the seventh century. (Palatzky, 
G(*Jii*hicitfe vntt Hohntfin, \ol. i., p. iS2.) The anliciUSla- 
%'oniflii nume for a wizard irzurno/inijfirk), signifying one 
occupied wish black hooksi» leads to ihc supposilion that the 
aulienl Slavonian conjurars raade use of certain writings 
iti performing their incantations. Martinus GalUjs ispeaki 
of Polish chronicles previous to the introduction of Chritsli- 
auity\ which wcic destroyed by Christian missionaries. 
Dilhniar of Merseburg, who wioJg in the elevculh century, 
positively slates that IhcSiiivoHian idol^ had insertptions un 
tbera, a slaleraent fully confirmed by llie discovery of'lhe 
monumetita of the aiititint Slavonian wor.sbip found at 
Pnllwiiz. It Is true ihat the abuve-mcivlioned inscriptions 
were Runics borrowed from the Scandinavians, and one of 
Ihem was Greek, which may lead to the conclusion that the 
Slavoniiins em^dayeil foreign cliaracters, but ihey tend to 
show that they were not strangers to the art of writing. 

The eon version of the south-eastein Slavonians by Greek 
rnissionaries was a circumstance highly favourable to their 
national language, as the Eastern church left to the newly 
con veiled nations the use of the vernacular tongue in the 
performance of divine service, instead of introducing the 
Latin* as was the case with the Western church. The 
conversion of the majority of tlio Slavoniani was etfectud 
principally by the exertions of Cynllus and Methodius. As 
early a^ the seventh century a great number of Slavunians 
Jias been converted to Christian ity\ and were fullowers 
of the Eastern church. This seems to have been par- 
ticularly the case with those who had settled within tlie 
confines of the Greek empire, whilst those who hved beyond 
its borders remained cither in a complete state of idolairy 
i>r exhibited only some individuul conversions- Among 
the Slavonian states of that lime» the most important was 
that of Grand Moravia, which must however not be con- 
foimdud with (be province that now bears lliis name: it 
extended over part of Hungary nnd some adjacent countries, 
nnd it was converted, though it appears lather nominally 
111 an really, about the hcginnjnR of the ninth century, by 
the Tni&sionaries of the Weat ; for the Papal records prove 
thai Moravia about 820-ii3t) was under I he spiritual au- 
thority of the archbishop nf Pas»au. Neslor, a monk of 
Kief, €nu of the oldest Slavonian chroniclers, says that 
the princes of Moravia sent, about 8G3, a messat^o to the 
Greek om|jeror Michael stating that their country was bap- 
tiiied^ but that I hey had no teachers to instruct the people 
and to tiandlate for thfin the sacied books, and according; ly 
tliey requested him to send them men capable of performing 
such a task. The emperor complied with their request, 
nnd sent them the two brothers numed Cyrillus and Metbo- 
dius, natives of Thessalonica, who were distinguished by their 
learning as well as piety, and possessed a thorough knovv> 
ledge of the Slavonian tonj^uc. 

Tlic missionaries, having arrived in Moravia, translated 
the Scri]viure.s, or at least a part of them, into the Slavonian 
U^ngue of the country ; they also invented the letters, which, 
being called the Cyrillic alphabet, arc still used, with some 
Itjw variations, by the Slavonians who follow Ihe tenets of 
the Eastern churrh, who also employ in the performance of 
divine service Ihe same Slavonian idiom into which the 
Scriptures were trauBlated, and which is now become the 
&a*'red tongue of those nations. Cyrillus and Methodius, 
having completed the translation, estah I itched the worship in 
the vernacular language, founded schools, and organised 
everything necessary for the promotion of the Cliristian 
religion. They extended their labours bcyeiid the frontiers 
of Moraviti, and converted Bohemia, a.d. 873. It is even 
supposed that they visited Poland, and there can scarcely 
bi o doubt that their disciples were active in that country. 

The auostolical labours of Cyrillus and Melliodiui took 

place during the time of those disputes between the patn- 
arf:h of Consianljnople and the pope of Rome which le«l to 
the final separation of the Eastern from the Wctjteru church. 
Among many causes of dispute, the domiujou over th« 
newly converted Slavonian nations formed an important 
subject of contention between Rome and Constantinople, 
Cyrillus and Mediodius, although they introduced amang 
their new converts the rites of the Eastern church, and tUe 
worship in the vernacular' tongue, acknowledged tlie supre- 
macy of die pupe« and not that of the Greek patriarch, as ti 
evident from the approbation of their proceediiijrs, which 
they soui^ht and obtained from pope John VllL, b&fan^ 
whom they were accused of deviating from the line of con- 
duct followed by Uotnau misaionariei in the conversion of 
pagan nations. 

The confirmation granted by pope John VIII. to the na* 
tional mode of worship introduced by Cyrillus and Metlio- 
dins, was rather a concession extorted by circumstances, and 
particularly by apprehension lest the missionaries, in case of 
refusal, should transfer their obedience from Rome to CoQ« 
stantinople, than a real appiobation of the use of the verna- 
cular language in the divine service, a principle considered 
by the Western church as prejudicial to its polity, the object 
of ivhich is not only unity of dogma, hut also uniforraiiy ol 
ritual; and indeed although some successors of John VIIL 
assented to the Slavonian mode of worship, they conalat^tly 
endeavouiL'd tt> abolish it, or at least to limit its use. This 
tendency became much stronger when the final separation 
between tlvo Eastern and the Western churches remored 
the reasons which the latter had for conciliating the nations 
tiiat were wavering between the two churches. Rome 
declared an unrelenting hostility against every ritual which 
deviated from that which it had established, and the couii- 
cil cf Salona, held in lOGO, proclaimed Cyrillus a lierelic* 
and hiii alphabet a diabolical invention. The kingdom of 
Grand Moravia was destroyed by the pagan Hungarian* 
about the middle of the tenth century, and the Sluvoiuaa 
population either Hed lo other countries inhabited by thcit 
own race, or jemained under the yoke of their couquerorK 
who, having embraced Christianity from the We^lem 
church, promoted the papa! views as to the Slavonian wtir- 
ship» In Bohemia the same worshit) struggled for some 
time against the Roman ntuul, till in last stronghold, tliu 
convent of Sazava, was abohshed in 10'J4, and the Sla- 
vonian books were destroyed by the zealous promoters ot 
the Roman rituah In Poland, where Christianity was esta- 
blished in tJ66 bv Bohemian priests, when ihe natii^nal 
mode of worship was still prevailing in that country, and 
where Chrislianily had partly penetrated, even before its 
final triumidi, from Moravia and Greece, the same mofle ot 
worship struggled for some time against the Roman ritual, 
and seems to have been continued m some parts as lato u 
the fourteenth century. 

The Slavonian service and the use of the Cyrillic letters, 
which were completely superseded by the Latin worship n»d 
letters among the Slavonians who followed the Weitern 
church, remained in full vigour among those who beUmged 
(0 the Eastern church. This was the ease with the Servians 
and other Slavonians of the Danube, the pojiulation of Aliit* 
CO vy, and of many provinces of Lithuania and Poland. And 
it is moreover used by the Wullachians, who inhabit Moldavii, 
Wallachia, and several parts of Hungary, ollhough their 
language is derived from the Latin atid has only a slight ad- 
mixture of the Slavonic. Several Slavonian nations, ^-hicb 
had originally followed the Eastern church, but submiltod 
to the supremacy of Rome after the union of Florence, were 
allowed to retain the Slavonian liturgy and the use of the 
Cyrillic letters. Tlie most nnlient manuscriptis written in 
the Cyrillic alphabet are the gospel of Ostromir, writteo 
in 1056, which is preserved at St. Petersburg, and a Sbor- 
nik, or collection of religious tracts, of the year 1073, now at 
Moscow. An inscription in the same letters, presened iii a 
church ut Kief, is supposed to date from the reign of Vladi- 
mir the Great. The first printed works with the same cha- 
racters arc a book of prayers, entitled * Oktoikh.' &c , primed 
at Cracow in 1191, and another work of a similar descrip- 
tion, at Venice in 1-193, 

Beside* the Cyrillic letters, there is another alphabet used 
by some Slavonian populations of Dalmaija and lllyria, 
which is called the Glagohte character, and the use ol 
which, as well as of the liturgy in the Slavonian ianguaee. 
has been allowed by the Roman see to these natigiia. Th« 
inveutioci vf that alphabet hm ^f^n.^^5f^#4<9»^ Uknn 




nymni, t Dative of Dalmatia, bat this origin of tlie 61a- 
goHte letters, probably inrented by their advocates in order 
to gain the approbation of Rome, cannot stand the test of 
historical criticism, as 8t. Hieronymus lived in the fourth 
century, being born ajx 831, in Dalmatia, while the Slavo- 
nians settled in that province only in the seventh cen- 
tuiy. Many Slavonian scholars supposed that the Glagolite 
alphabet was comparatively a modern invention, and that it 
was nothing more than the QrriUic, disguised by some altera- 
tions and the addition of superfluous ornaments. This opinion 
was supported by the circumstance that the oldest monument 
of the above-mentioned characters was a Psalter written in 
the thirteenth century, and their invention was considered on 
that account to be of no earlier date. The same opinion 
seemed to be corroborated by the &ct that it was only in 1248 
that Pope Innocent IV. permitted the use of the Slavonian 
liturgy, and of those letters which they had from St. Hierony- 
mus, to those nations that had still retained them. This 
theory about the Glagolite alphabet, which was combated by 
many Slavonian scholars, has been recently overturned by the 
learned Kopitar, librarian of the Imperial Library at Vienna, 
one of the first Slavonian scholars of our time. He has 
proved, from a manuscript written in the Glagolite characters, 
that the GlagoUte character was coeval with the Cyrillic, 
if it was not more antient This manuscript, which was 
long considered to be an autograph of Sl Hieronymus, is of 
a very antient date, and belongs to Count Cloz, in the 
vicinity of Trento. The lovers of Slavonian antiquity may 
consult Kopitar, Giagolita CloizianM^ ^.» Vienna, 1836. 

It haa^foen said that the liturgy in Slavonian with the 
use of the Glagolite letters was approved by Pope Innocent 
IV. in 1248. A Slavonian missal was printed in these 
charaetera, at Venice, in 1483. In the tenth century, when 
a revision of the Roman missal and breviary was made by 
the order of the popes, the same measure was extended to 
the Slavonian missal, and the congregation De Propaganda 
Fide intrusted that task to a Franciscan monk, Raphael 
Levakovich, a native of Croatia; but as he was not com- 
pletely master of the sacred Slavonian tongue, he called to 
his assistance Terletzki, a Greek bishop of Lutskn in Poland, 
wbo^ having subscribed the union with Rome at Brest in 
Lithuania, in 1 576, came to Rome. Terletzki replaced many 
words which he could not understand, by others employed 
in the Slavonian liturgy of the Greek churches in Poland 
and Russia, by which the original text was spoiled. The 
Slavonian missal thus revised was printed at Rome, 1631- 
1648. Another revision was made by Rastrioius, a Dalma- 
tian clergyman, who spoiled it still more by substituting 
modem words for those which he could not understand. 
It was printed in 1688-1706. The third and last revi- 
sion of the Slavonian missal, published in 1741-1748, was 
made by Mathias Caruman. a clergyman of Dalmatia, who, 
having remained for some time at St. Petersburg, and 
acquired a tliorough knowledge of the Russian language, 
disDgured the missal still more by introducing into it manpr 
Russian idioms, so that the missal became less intelligi- 
ble to the inhabitants of Illyria and Dalmatia, for whom it 
was designed, than it had been before. 

Except the populations of Dalmatia and Illyria, who, as 
we have just said, have retained the Slavonian liturgy and 
the use of the Glagolite characters, all the other Slavonian 
nations which were converted by the Western church 
adopted the Latin alphabet 

Ine sacred Slavonian tongue, having been originally the 
dialect of the Slavonians who inhabited the banks of the 
Danube, cannot be justly regarded as the mother tongue of 
all the Slavonian dialects now extant; we shall therefore 
give its characteristics in speaking of the Slavonian languages 
in generaL It continued to be employed for some time 
in the composition of sacred books, as well as chronicles 
amone the Slavonian nations who adhered to the Greek 
church, and particularly the Russians, but we shall have 
an opportunity of mentioning it hereafter in speaking of 
the literature of those nations. 

General Ckaracterisiies qf the Sl<wonian Languages. — 
The SlavoBiftB languages are distinguished by the richness 
of their vocabulary, which consists not only in the great 
number of words, that is, a great quantity of synonymes, 
but also in the number of inflexions, both at the beginning 
and the and of words, which gives a facility of creating from 
one radical word an extraordinary number of derivatives. 
By the simple prefixing of the letters Sf x, v, w, the verb 
P. C No. I375t. 

acquires a different signification. The great facility with 
which the Slavonian languages receive new forms and addi 
tions is chiefly owing to their manifold declensions and their 
numerous tenses and participles, and they excel in that 
respect all the modern languages of Burope. The declen- 
sions, of which there is a great variety, are formed by the 
inflexion of the termination, and without any articles. The 
participles possess a great pliability by uniting in them- 
selves the advantage of verbs and adjectives, and denoting 
as verbal adjectives at once the quality of the thing 
and the determination of the time, thus saving the use 
of relatives, as who, which, and prepositions, as after, 
since. This circumstance gives them a great conciseness, 
which is increased bv the absence of auxiliary verbs. An- 
other advantage of tne Slavonian languages is their great 
facility of compounding words: it is possible to form from 
native roots all the scientific words which the languages of 
Western Europe have derived from the Greek and Latin. 
These languages contain not only diminutives to express 
small objects, and which are also used as terms of endear- 
ment, but likewise augmentatives, to express a thing of a 
larger size than usual. They have the patronymic which is 
formed by the addition of tncA, answering to the Greek ides. 
There are also frequentative and inceptive verbs. The verbs 
are conjugated without the use of pronouns, which adds 
considerably to the conciseness of these languages, and the 
preterits of the third person singular and plural designate 
the sex by a variation in the last syllable. Many prepo- 
sitions and much circumlocution of difierent kinds are saved 
by the use of the instrumental case corresponding to the 
ablative. The Slavonian languages have the dual number. 
They have several preterit tenses and many future ones, 
&c. It may be easily concluded from what we have said of 
the Slavonian languages that they must possess great ex- 
pressiveness and energy, and that they are able to represent 
every object of imagination and of passion, as well as all the 
higher emotions of the poet and the orator, in a manner not 
inferior to any modern language, and superior to many ; and 
that they are eminently fit for the translation of the classics. 
We must also add, that the Slavonian languages possess 
every sound contained in other languages, except the Eng- 
lish M. 

Russian Language and Literature.'-The Russian lan- 
guage may be divided into three dialects. 1. The dialect of 
Great Russia, or Muscovy, which, since the time of Peter the 
Great, has been formed into the present literary language of 
Russia, and is subdivided into the minor dialects of Novgorod, 
Suzdal, and Rezan. The dialect of Great Russia is distin- 
guished from other Slavonian languages by the admixture 
of some words and sounds of a Finnish origin, as the popu- 
lation which speak this dialect partly came from some Finnish 
tribes that were absorbed by the Slavonians. It also contains 
many Oriental words, which were introduced under the Tar- 
tar dominion, but these words have generally their Slavonian 
synonymes. 2. The dialect of Little or Southern Russia is 
spoken by the population of the Ukraine, the antient Polish 

f provinces of Volbynia and Podolia, as well as that of Gral- 
icia, or Austrian Poland. It differs from the dialect of 
Great Russia not only in many expressions, but also in 
many turns and grammatical forms, which often rather 
resemble those of the Polish language than the above-men- 
tioned dialect. It is perhaps the softest of all the Slavo- 
nian dialects ; it is full of picturesque expressions, and its 
diminutives, used as terms of endearment, have a peculiar 
sweetness. The national songs and ballads of the popula- 
tion who speak this dialect, are distinguished by great 
depth of feeling, and their music, although composed by 
simple peasants, is generally very beautiful. It was cul- 
tivated under the dominion of Poland, which continued for 
many centuries, and it may be regarded as a provincial dia- 
lect of that country. 3. The dialect of White Russia is 
now spoken bv the population of the governments of Mohileff, 
Witepsk, and Smolensk, as well as some adjacent districts. 
It is less harmonious than the dialect of Little Russia. It 
is considered by philologists as being of high antiquity, and it 
was the official language of Lithuania till the latter part of 
the seventeenth century; the code of that country was 
originally composed in it 

The present literary language of Russia participates in all 
the merits of the other Slavonian languages ; and it has 
been enriched by its aul^^^*» ^^^ ^*^® introduced maij^ 
new words, either tv^^xa ihe Slavonian sacred tonguoM 
^^^ Vol. XXU.-P 




formed ftom its own roots. It is more harmonious fban 
TOtiny other Slavonian languages, being richer in vowels, a 

{jeculiariiy which is ascribed lt> the influence of the Fmnish 
aiiguage, which is characterised by an extraordinary sofl- 

The history of the Russian language antl literature may be 
divided into two greal periods, one coin prising the time before 
the reign of Peter the Great, and the other the period sinct? 
his retgn. The dt^i period may be subdivided mlo three: 
the titne from the introftuction of the Christiao religion in 
the tenth century, to the establishment of the dominion oJ 
the Tartars in ihe ihirteenih j 2, the time from the domi* 
nion oftheTartarSp or from the middle of the thirtctinth to 
the middle of the fifleenth century ; and ihe 3rd, from that 
time to the reign of Peter the Great, or the end of the 
■eventeenih century. The written language of the first 
period is the Slavonian Bacred tongue, into which the Scrip- 
tures were translated by CvriUus and Methodius. Tne 
motit remarkable auihor of that period is Nestor, a monk of 
the cavern convent at KielT,* wlio was born in 1056^ and who 
is Ibe first chronicler of Russia and the father of Russian 
history. He was evidently a learned man. He knew 
Greek, and was acquainted with the Byzantine writers, from 
[■whom he Iran slated and inserted into his chronicles several 
passages. He collected his information from tradition, and 
ossihly from some now unknown records. H« was much 
tidehled to the narrative of his fellow monk Ian, who died 
1 1 06, at the age of ninety one, and was consequently born 
lone year after the death of Vladimir the Great, who died 
UB 1015, and must have known many persons who were wit- 
k1i«sses of the great event of the estabhshment of the Chris- 
Hian relis^ion in Rusijia by Vladimir in 988- 1>. Nestor also 
idescribL'd many tvetUs which liappenod in his own time, 
lis style is an imitation of that of Lht3 Bible, and he ofuni 
nakes the itidividuals who are the i^uhjecls of his hiiilory 
k in the first person, us is the case in the histuriral 
boks of lh(^ Old Teslamenl. His Chronicle was conlinut d 
r-fcfter his death in 1116, by Abbot 8ylv«ster, till 1123. 
■Two other monks continued it till 1-03, It has gunu 
Ithrough many editions, and it has bt^en often trans- 
llated. Tlie best translation is the German, with a va- 
[lunblc Commentary, by Ihe learned historian Sehlo?-cr. 
tGoltingen, 1802-4, in five volunies. After Nestor^s Chio- 
fnicle, the most remaikable literary monument of that 
period ia the last will, or mstructions to his children, of the 
grand-duke Vladimir, who was surnamed Moiiomachus, 
.ifter his maternal grandfather the emperor Consiantme 
LMonomachos, and died in Ilia. It contains precepts of 
[Christian moralily and of goveinmenl ; and it gives us an 
hnsight into thu state of learning of that period,which seems 
to have been more advanced among the higher classes in 
Russia ihati in Western Europe. He says, when recom- 
mending his children to seek for information, * My father 
remaining at home, that is, not having travelled, spoke four 
languages, for which we are praised by foreigners/ Tiiese 
I last words imply that the knowledge of foreign languages 
LiFiras common at that lime in Russia, but it is impossible to 
lltnow what those languages wei«. We may however sup- 
[pose thai Greek was studied by the clergy, who were con- 
[linually coming from Conslanlinople to Russia, and that 
Hhe Scandinavian was cultivated by the higher classes, as the 
I Russian princes, being sprung from a Norman stock, had at 
I thai time considerable intercourse with Sweden and Nor- 
I *Fay. Vladhnir married, about 1070, Gida, dauf^hler of 
I Harohi the last Saxon king of England, who had retired to 
Bwcilen after the death of her rather. 

Several ibeological works of this period stdl exist* The 

mo^i remarkable are two Epistles of Nirephorus, metropo- 

»]itan of Kietr. There is also a description of a Journey to 

I Jerusalem a fiw years after its contjuest by the first cru- 

landers, by a Russian abbot named Daniel The only extant 

^•poetical production of that period is the poem of the * Expe- 

diuoa of Igor.* It is written in poetical prose, apd describes 

an unfortunate expedition atrainstthe nomadic nation of the 

Potovtzi, or Co manes, by Igijr, a petty prince of Novgorod 

^Severrski, in 1182. ll contains much fine poetical imagery, 

hud though written at a tune when Christianity was c'om- 

Lf>letely estublistied, the author introduces into his paem the 

jods of the Slavonian mythology, which leads to the suppa- 

|sition chat the traditions of that mythology stdl lived in the 

* Ttir^n (ir« m KiefTciEtwuiireea^ei Atltfd wlih bodin of Balut«,aQ() kuowa 
mAar the unrne of * pBchei*/ ui e&veru>, U* ^hicb. n ootiveut u mtuclti'tl, 
I 'kiiM aliet ibe D«ia« of Uie caT«f a, 

national poetry. It appears, from the apostrophe to the dif^ 
ferent princes of Russia, to have been written imroerdiatelf 
after the event had iaken place which forms the suhjcct j 
the poem. This precious monument of anti«ni Russia^ 
literature was discovered, in 1796, l)y Count Moossin Puabi 
km. There have been several translations of it into ibl 
present Russian, as well as into Bohemian, Polish, and 
German. The code of law^s given by the grarid-duki 
Yaroslaf to Novgorod belongs to the same penoch durin^^^^ 
which Russia enjoyed comparatively a high dtgiee of civi- 
hzaiion, owing to the influence of B)zanlme literature^ 
science, and art. Besidus Vladimir Monomachos, msLnf 
other princes and princesses are mentioned as having cu& 
tivated and encouraged learning, and libraries are spokett 
of as containing Greek and Latui manusciipts. 

The progress of this civilisation was stopped by the la* 
vasion of the Tartars, who estaldished a reign of ignoranl 
barbarism in the north-eastern prmopalilies of Russia, and 
separated ihem completely from the rest of Europe, Tli« 
clergy still continued to maintain some intercourse witk 
Constantinople, but the Greek empire was rapidly T 
and the few learned men whom it produced were 
v-isit a country which was under the yoke of b. 
The customs of the countrj' ^^ere orientalised, as the inlui^ 
biiants adopted many things from their Tartar mastery 
The clergy, who were much favoured by the Tartars, di^ 
not take advantage of their position in order to culriv;it€ 
learning or estAbliish schools. They composed howcvcf 
several spiritual works, and some chronicles in Uie sarre* 
Slavonian tongue. There are also extant soA »lori«< 
translated from the Greek durint^ that period; a**, for 
stance, of Alexander the Great from Arrian, on i' 
of aniitjuity, the rich Indies, Sec, The popular 
historical subjects, particularly on the tiroes of Vladtuiir 
Great, are supposed to have been composed duri 
same period by the ^leople, who solaced themselves 
their oppression by the traditions of better times. Tliei 
were however several authors in tliis period, r'vtvr 
metropolitan of Russia, who died in 1406, was 
Servia, and brought with him to Moscow a great u 
f^lavonian manuscripts. He composed and transla 
veral spiritual works, and made a collection of Russia 
Demetrius, probably a monk, translated, towards the 
of the fi>urteenth century, from the Greek, the poem 
George Pisides, metropolitan of Nice media (who lived 
the seventh century), entitled the * Creation of the Worl 
This tnin slat ion was such an uncommon event, that tl 
ehroniclus of the time mention it as suck The Diacon 
Ignatius, who accompanied the metropolitan Pimi ' " ' 
journey to Constantinople in 1 38^, lei^ a detailed <; 
of Ibat journey. Sophronius, a clergyman oi .U.. 
towards the end of the fourteenth century, wrote a poeitc^; 
description of the invasion and defeat of the Tartars, undh 
Mam ay, in 1380, A merchant of Tver, called Nil 
went, about 1^70, to the East Indies, and left a diary * : 
travels- It neither displays parlieular talent for oh^*^. 
lion, nor does it contain much information, hut it is uii- 
esting, UK it shows tlie route which was then foUowied h) 
the commerce from Europe to India, 

Third Period ' from the Termination of the Tartar domi* 
nation to Peter the Great.— Styon after Muscovy bad hecn 
liberated from the yoke of the Khans, it begun *- ^- - 
some nitercourso with the west of Europe, The 
of the grand-duke Ivan IIL with the Greek prin( v 
Pal£eolot;us, who had resided at Rome, canlrihut' 
to the increase of that intercourse and the progrts- .: 
liziition in Muscovy. Many Greeks who accompanied ihi- 
princess Sophia brought valuable Greek manuscripts. The 
Venetian architect Fioravanti Aristotelcs built several 
churches, the Kremlin, and some other pala<es at Mo^e^v. 
Foreign artists cast cannon and bells, and coined toooej. 
Under Ivan's son Vassili the intercourse with Europe in- 
creased, and embassies were sent and received from 6e%«rd 
states. Under Ivan Vassilevich the Terrible (1534-84) i 
eivd and an ecclesiastical code were composed, cr>i — ! 
intercourse was opened with England, and a pnu 
was established al Moscow, Boris Godoonoff [G* 
was a great promoter of learning: ho designed i» 
ut Moscow a university with foreign profes«)rs, bu: 
jeet was defeated by the opposition of the pain 
feared that such an institjij:^ ^ight^ji^^ 
orthodoxy of his chiir^'l!ir^lio4*is p^U&^Osarned 
reignersk and paid an immense sum to the tutor of his 

&L A 



to wbora he was giving a European education. A general 
map of the Muscovite dominions was also made oy his 
orders. The events which agitated Muscovy after the death 
of Godoonoff, put a stop for some time to all improvement, 
but when tranquillity was restored, after the accession of 
Michael Federovich (1613-45), the course of improvement 
was resumed. Many foreigners were taken into the service 
of the Czar, and Greek and Latin schools were established in 
the house of the Patriarch in 1643. Under Alexey Michae- 
lovich several manufactures were introduced, and a regular 
communication with western Europe was opened by the 
establishment of the Grerman post, which carried letters 
twice a week from Moscow to Riga and Vilna, but there 
was no such accommodation for the interior. Several 
foreign books were translated ; of which the most remarkable 
is one on military science, printed at Moscow, in 1644. 
A Grerman newspaper was regularly translated for the 
Czar, but his foreign office seems not to have profited much 
by the information, for the credentials of the embassy which 
vrafr sentby the Czar, in 1662, to Madrid, were directed to 
Philip IV., who had died two years before. The number of 
foreign officers was increased, and some regular troops were 
formed after the European fashion ; but the most remark- 
able event of that reign is the Ulojenie, or code of laws, 
which was formed by order of the Czar, and printed at 
Moscow in 1649. The acquisition of Kieff, which possessed 
an ecclesiastical academy, founded under the Polish do- 
minion [Russian Church], favoured the progress of learn- 
ing among the Russian clergy. Under Fedor Alexeyvieh 
(1676-88) a Grseco-Latino Slavonian academy was founded 
at Moso%w on the model of that of Kiefif. The great map 
of Russia made under Godoonoff was revised and improved. 
During the regency of the princess Sophia (1682-89), Prince 
Galitzm, who was her principal minister, introduced many 
European refinements and luxuries into his house, and his 
example was imitated by other grandees. 

The Slavonian language continued to be used in all eccle- 
siastical compositions, as well as by the chroniclers, but the 
common dialect of Moscow began to be adopted in all 
official acts of the government. At the same time the dia- 
lect of White Russia, which was the official language of 
Lithuania, was penetrating to Moscow, and there are several 
diplomatic notes addressed by the grand-dukes to foreign 
princes, which contain an admixture of that dialect, and 
even many PoUsh words. In the sixteenth century, and at 
the beginning of the seventeenth, the works of St. Ambro- 
sius, Augustinus, Hieronymus, and Gregory, as well as the 
• History of the Twelve Csosars,' by Suetonius, were trans- 
lated into Slavonian. Some tales written in a mixture of the 
Slavonian and the common dialect of Moscow belong to that 
period. Joseph, Hegumenos or abbot of a convent at Voloko- 
lamsk (died in 1516), became celebrated by his writings and 
personal exertions against the Jewish sect of Raskoluichi. 
[Russian Dissenters.] Part of his works were printed 
in the collection of materials for Russian history, entitled 
' Antieut Russian Bibliotheca.* His contemporary Genua- 
dius, archbishop of Novgorod, an equally zealous perse- 
cutor of the above-mentioned sect, wrote several pastoral 
exhortations on the same subject Macarius, metropolitan 
of Moscow (died in 1564), is the author of the lives of several 
saints. The annals known under the name of ' Stepennaya 
Kniha,' that is, the graduated book, were composed under 
his superintendence, aud indeed the authorship has been 
ascribed to him. They are so called because they are 
divided into chapters, each of which contains the reign of 
one sovereign, and is called a gmde. Maxim, a Greek monk 
of the convent of Mount Athos, and a man of great learn- 
ing, who had studied at Paris, Florence, and other places in 
Western Europe, came to Moscow by the desire of the 
Czar Vassili Ivanovich, in order to revise the corrupted text 
of the sacred books used in Muscovy [Russian (jhurch], 
and to arrange the Greek manuscripts which were in the 
possession of the Czar. It is said that he was astonished at 
the value and rarity of some of those manuscripts. He 
made a complete catalogue of them, and presented to 
the Czar a list of those sacred works which had not yet 
been translated into the Slavonian tongue. The Czar com- 
missioned him to translate the commentaries on the Psalter, 
and gave him two translators and two copyists to assist him. 
After a labour of seven teen months, Maxim presented to the 
Ciar his translation, which was received with much appro- 
bation by the metropoliun and all the clergy. He wished 
to return to his convent on Mount Athos, but he was per- 

suaded to remain at Moscow, in order to revise the text of 
the sacred books, which had been corrupted by ignorant 
copyists. He devoted nine years to that important labour, 
but the favour of the Czar and the reputation which he had 
acquired excited great jealousy, and created enemies, who 
accused him of falsely expounding the Scriptures. He was 
confined in a convent in 1525, where he died in 1536, and 
his pupils shared his fate. He was engaged till his death 
in the composition of theological, philosophical, and ethieal 
works ; among others, he wrote in Slavonian a dissertation 
on the utility of grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy, which 
was an extraordinary performance at that time. 

A monk called Greorge composed a Russian chronicle, 
which reaches to the year 1533. Two merchants, called 
Korobeinikoff and Grekoff^ were sent in 1583 by the Czar 
Ivan Vassilevich to distribute alms in different holy places 
of the East for the soul of his son, whom the Czar bad mur- 
dered in a fit of passion. They visited Constantinople, 
Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Mount Sinai, and some 
other places, and kept a diary of their journey, which has 
been printed. Prince Kurbski, descended from a branch 
of the Ruric, or reigning house of Muscovy, and related to 
the Czar Ivan Vassilevich the Terrible, was born in 1 529, 
and was one of his boyars and principal generals. He distin- 
guished himself at the capture of Kasan in 1553, and in 
several other campaigns; but in 1564 he was obliged to 
seek refuge from the tyranny of his monarch in Poland, 
where he was kindly received by king Sigismund Augus- 
tus, who granted him estates. In his exile he devoted him- 
self to literature and learnt Latin. He wrote the reign of 
the Czar Ivan Vassilevich, and the campaigns in which he 
himself had taken a part This work is one of the most 
valuable contributions to the history of that period. He 
also wrote several letters to the Muscovite prince, upbraid- 
ing him for his tyranny, and proving by the Scriptures and 
the works of the antients that his conduct was very bad. 
Ivan Vassilevich answered all these letters, endeavouring to 
convince Kurbski, particularly by passages of Scripture, 
that it was he who was in the wrong, and that he had no 
right in any case to rebel against his sovereign. 

In the seventeenth century the following authors deserve 
notice : Abraham Palitzin, abbot of the celebrated convent 
of Troy tza or Trinity, distinguished himself by his patriotism 
in the^ear 16-12, and left a description of tne siege which 
the convent sustained against the Poles. Kubassov wrote 
a chronological universal history, beginning with the crea- 
tion of the world. Epiphanius Slavinetski, a native of 
Poland, after having studied at Kieff and other academies, 
adopted the monastic life in Kieff. He was called to Mos- 
cow in 1649, by a boyar of the name of Rtishchef, in order to 
translate theological works from Greek into Slavonian, and 
he translated several of the works of St. John Chrvsostomus, 
Gregory of Nazianzus, Basilius the Great, and other fathers 
of the church, which were printed at Moscow in 1664-65. 
He also made a complete Ureek-Slavono-Latin Dictionary 
in two volumes, and a Philological Lexicon, or a comparison 
of passages of the Greek fathers. He was commissioned 
in 1664 by the Patriarch and the Czar to make a new ver- 
sion of the Scriptures from the Greek into Slavonian, but 
he was prevented by death from accomplishing that im- 

f>ortant work. Simeon of Polotsk, a native of that city in Po- 
and, studied in his native country and in some foreign uni- 
versities, and having become a monk, he went to Moscow in 
1667, where he was appointed by the Czar Alexey Michaelo- 
vich tutor to his son Fedor. He wrote many poems, which 
were much praised at the time, although they are no longer 
readable. He was also the first who introduced the practice 
of writing sermons for his congregation, which was already 
usual with the Greek clergy of Poland. It had hitherto 
been the custom in Muscovy only to read sermons selected 
firom ecclesiastical authors and approved by the patriarch. 
Sylvester Medveyeff, a pupil of Simeon of Polotsk, and abbot 
of a convent at Moscow, wrote many polemical works; but 
being suspected of a tendency to Romish doctrines, he was 
deprived of his clerical dignity, and confined in a convent; 
in 1691, being accused of participation in the revolt of the 
Strelitz, he was executed. He left several poems. Prince 
Shakhovski lived in the first part of the seventeenth century. 
Having fSallen into disgrace with the Czar Michael Federo- 
vich, he was confined ^^ * convent, where he composed 
epistles on religious aubjccts, of which the most remarkable 
is an Epistle on the ott^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^® highest Shah Ab- 
bas, king of Persia ^^A^HeOaa, addressed \n the name of th« 

uiLjiiiz,t;u uy 



L A 

lijpit nrrliblsliop nnd servant of Crocl, the most iolf Patn 
arch PlulaTijl Nikitch. lo lhi& opisile he expresses bis 
thanks fur a relic, a supposed fragment of tlic gaiment of 
Jesus ChrUlf ^mt hy Ihe Shah to iheCzaTf and exhorts lum 
Xq erobrace ihe Chn>^tian rehgion* 

This conquest of Siberia brought the court of Moscow in 
conlact Willi Chiiiu. und some states of central Asia. An 
amba*.sador named BaykolT was sent to P«kin in 1654| and 
reinrned in Ifi^S*; he left a veiy curious dcscnplion of his 
ombasBy, which has been translated into several foreign 
languages, A Cossack of Siberia named Pellin expluied 
in 1620 the oourBcof the river Oby, and wrote a description 
of his journey. 

Tb«i first at temp la nt drama lie representations appeared 
in Russia abont ibo middle of the hcventcenth century. 
They were iiUrDdycod froiii Poland by the students of the 
eceleiiiaalieal u cadi; in y of Kieff^ who were used to perform 

Slays on Seripiunil suhjecis in Polish* Slavonian, and the 
ialuct of Lit tie Russia. They perlbrnied these plays dur- 
ing t!ie vacation time in several towns of Russia^ and they 
were finally inlrodiictid at Moscow by Simeon ef Polotsk, 
whom we have mentioned. In 1576 German actors per- 
formed before the Czar Alexey plavs laken fram Scriptural 
history accompanied with ballets. The Princess Sophia, the 
eldest sister of Peter the Great, was very (bnd of theatrical 
amusements, and wrote several dramas, which she performed 
wilh her court. 

Tht> Second Period qf Biissian Literature .* from Peter 
ihe Great to the present time, — It is unnecessary to expa- 
tiate on the civilisEiilion which Pelor tlie Great inlroduced 
into Russia. Me CsTablished many primary schools in 
difft^rcfit parts of his dommion;^^ and a military and naval 
scho«d at St. Petersburg. He s^ent young Russians abroad 
lo study the various sciences and arU \ he look inio his 
aervice many foreigners of talenl» collected books, cabinets 
of imtural history, and got together phitosophical instru- 
ments. A new alphabet, simplified from the old Slavonian, 
fhrrned* as it is said, hy himself, was introduced; but the 
language made no grciit progress from the state in which it 
had been duriiyi? the precedinj' reign, and it was inundated 
with many fore Igu words introduced under Peter's reign, who 
showed perhaps loo much predilection to everything fore ig-n. 
Among the most remarkable aniliors of his time is Theo- 
phan Prokopovich, archbishop of Novgorod, a native of 
KiefT, but educated in Poland. He wrote many works on 
divinity, politics, and history, as well as sermons, orations, and 
seme poetry. His works display cousiderable talent, not- 
withstanding their barbarous style. He also wrote in Latin, 
and his stylo in that language is much belter than his Rus- 
fiinn. Stephen jEivorski. metrtjpolnaii of Rezan, a native of 
Leopol in Poland* and Demetrius, metropolitan of Rostov, a 
native of the environs of Kicff, who was canonized after his 
death, wrote many works on theological subjects. Gabriel 
BiJshinski, bishop of Rezati, translated some of the works 
of Puffendorf and other authors, relating to history and 
poliiios. Koptevich, a native of Lithuania, studied in 
Holland, and passed from iha Greek persuasion to Pro- 
testantism. He became jiastor at Anioterdaiiu Peter tbo 
Great, during his visit to that city having been acquainted 
with Kopicvicb, gave him a commission to comiJose school 
books and ottier useful works in the Russian language. 
Accordingly he wrote and translated many books on several 
literary and scientific subjects, which were printed at Am* 
fitordam. Prince Ch ilk off" (died in 1718} wrote an abridged 
history of Russia, wliich was used in schools, but has since 
been superseded by other works. Great service was ren- 
dered to primary instruction by Ernest Gliick, a Lutheran 
clergyman of Livonia, who, being laken by the Russians, was 
employed by Pcler the Great in establishing a school at 
Moscow for ihe chddren of burghers. He j>ublished many 
school - iMJoks, and among others, the *Urbis Picius' of 

Peter'* sucoeasor, Catherine L, founded the A'^ademy of 
Sciences at St. Petersburg, which was projected hy her pre- 
decessor. Its object was fo prepare teachers for public 
schools, to publish useful works, and to collect all kinds of 
in formation about Russia. The imperial physician Bl li- 
me ntrost was appointed president; and many learned 
foreigners, as De Lille de la Croyere, Bernoulli, Bayer, and 
others, were nominated members. The academy established 
a high school for the formation of teachers, caused many 
ftcientifle treatises to bewriltent aud promoted geographical 
discoveuoi. De Lille do la Croyere accompaniod Behiing on 

his expedition in the Pacific Ocean, and died from the hara^ 
ships of the ifoyage, A great number of classical authorip 
Greek and Latin, were tranelated and published under tbo 
superintendence of the academy ; but these translations, 
being made in a language which was not yet formed, and 
pubhsbed at a time when they could scarcely find any 
readers, did not contribute to the progress of literature, and 
they found few purchasers. The reign of the emprea 
Anna was not favourable to the national literature. The 
court, which was governed by Biren, imitated everthing that 
was foreign, and showed the greatest contempt for all that 
was national. These circumstances had a very unfavour- 
able elfect on ihe national languaj^e and literature, although 
Lomonossoff was preparing a salutary revolution towardt 
the end of that reign. A favourable change took place 
under the empress Elizabeth, who was a great patroness of 
science and literature. The Academy of Sciences was en* 
larged by the addition of a section of arts, and its income 
increased in 1747, and in 1752 the University of Moscow 
was established on the proposition of Count Shoovaloff,* a 
distinguished patron of learning; and it was by the exer- 
tions of the same nobleman that the Academy of Art» for 
painting, sculpture, and architecture was foundech Geo- 
graphical knowledge was also advanced by the discoveriei 
which some Russian adventurers made in the Paciflc. 

Among the principal authors of lliis period was Priooe 
Antiochus Kantemir, son of the hosjjodar, or reigning 
prince of Moldavia, who removed to Russia with all hin 
family during the expedition of Peter the Great into that 
principality. He was born at Constantinople in 1708, and 
was eciucated at KharkofT and Moscow*, under the^uperin- 
lendenc« of a Greek clergyman, and also of his father^ who 
was himself a learned man. Antiochus made such progreit, 
that when he was only ten years old he wrote a Greek pano* 
gyric on St. Demetrins, which was read in a church. Ow- 
ing to his extraordinary talents and high rank he obtained 
rapid preferment. In 1731 he waa nominated Rua&ian 
minister at London, where he remained till 1738, in which 
year be was transferred in the same capacity to Paria, 
where he remained till his death in 1744, He wrote eight 
satires, which were published at St. Peterishurg in 1762; 
but translated into French during the author's lifetime. Hia 
lauguajge and versification belong to the old school ; but m 
his satires he disiplays great power of observation, and auch 
genuine wit, that they are still read with pleasure. He also left 
a translation of Horace's * Epistles,* FontencUe's dialoguea 
on the * Plurality of Worlds/ and a great many other irana- 
lations from the classics, as well as from French and Italian 
writers. Living in constant intercourse from 1731 to 1744 
with Iho flrst wits of London and Paris, Prince Kantemir** 
works contain ideas and opinions which belong mcire t4i 
those seats of European refinement than lo Russia, and 
consequently he cannot be constdered as truly nalionaL 
Lomonossoff Trediakowski (Basil), horn at Astrakhan in 
!7i}3, studied at the university uf Pariij under Roll in, and 
travelled in many parts of Europe, In 1733 he was nomi- 
nated secretary of the academy of St. Petersburg ; and kn 
1745 appointed by a ukase professor of eloiiuenee: he died 
in 1769. Trediakowski possessed considerable learning, hut 
more industry than talent. He wrole several works on the 
principles of literary composition, and a great many poeina; 
but his versification is cumbrous, and his language so little 
pleasing, that the empress Cathenuo IL enacted, in ihe 
humorous code which she made fa her own immediate 
society, that the transgressora of certain regulations should 
he condemned to read several pages of Trediakowski*s puem 
*Telemaehida/ which was a versified translation of Fcnelon'a 
*Telemachus.* He translated many foreign works, chieiljr 
on history : as an instance of his indefatigable industry we 
may mention, that after having completed the trana- 
lation of Rollings 'Autient History' in 26 volumes, the 
manuscript wm destroyed hy fire, upon which he again 
translated the 25 volumes, which were published at St. 
Petersburg (1741-67). Tat ishcheff (Basil), born of an antienl 
Jamily in 16B6, was one of those young men who were ^nt 
in 17U9 for their education by Peter the Great to d)0erent 
parts of Europe. He acquired a good deal of scieniilic in- 
formation, and hecame thoroughly conversant with the 
German aud Polish languages. On his return home he wa« 
employed in many offices of great importance. In 1 724 be 
wa!J sent on a secret mission to Sweden ; in 1734 be waa in* 

' Vv^mX StiuovAluffb known ia FDench 1i(er«|ura l^y^ Jijt«f £^i4ll||^'» 




▼•sted with the supreme direction of the mines of Siberia ; 
and in 1740 he was appointed governor of Astrakhan. It 
was there that our countryman Jonas Hanway, who speaks 
much of him, made his acquaintance. He died in 1 750» 
holding the rank of a privy councillor. During his travels in 
Russia he diligently collected all kinds of information 
relating to that country, and acquired a rich store of mate- 
rials for its history and geography. His principal work is a 
history of Russia, from the most antient times to the year 
1462. He spent thirty years on this work, which was writ- 
ten amidst his multiforious official avocations : it is» in fact, 
a comparative chronicle ; the author having procured seveml 
copies of different chronicles, compared them, and made a 
comment on them by extracts Arom various foreign authors 
which related to the same subject. The manuscnpt of this 
work was kept for some time in the archives.